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J Clin Immunol ; 39(5): 494-504, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172380


PURPOSE: Colitis is a common and serious complication of chronic granulomatous disorder (CGD) and requires assessment. Colonoscopy is invasive and carries risks of serious complication. We therefore assessed non-invasive monitoring via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also evaluated fecal calprotectin (FCP), the Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) clinical score, and serum cytokines. METHODS: We recruited 10 patients with CGD (8 males, mean age 29.6 years), scored a modified HBI, and obtained stool for FCP. The following day we took blood for cytokine measurement via Luminex, performed MR enterography (scored by two independent radiologists using three systems: London score, CDMI, and MaRIA) followed by colonoscopy with disease activity measurement via ulcerative colitis endoscopic index of severity (UCEIS). We assessed patient experience after each investigation and overall preference with follow-up questionnaires. RESULTS: MRI scores correlated well with colonoscopic gold standard (for London score R2 0.91, p < 0.0001; for CDMI R2 0.83, p = 0.0006; for MaRIA R2 0.89, p = 0.0002). MRI was better tolerated and generally preferred, quicker, and visualized the entire large bowel whereas colonoscopy did not reach the terminal ileum in 3 participants. Elevated FCP accurately differentiated patients with colitis from those without, and log(calprotectin) correlated well with disease activity (R2 0.71, p = 0.009). Serum interleukin (IL)-12 concentration correlated with colitis activity but IL-1ß and TNF did not. Harvey-Bradshaw index did not correlate with colitis activity. CONCLUSIONS: MRI and fecal calprotectin are useful methods for monitoring CGD colitis and should reduce the need for colonoscopy in these patients. IL-12 may represent an appropriate target for treatment.

J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 195-199, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868346


X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (XL-CGD), a rare primary immunodeficiency due to a defect in the gp91phox NADPH oxidase subunit, results in recurrent, severe infection, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Patients have an absent, or significantly reduced, neutrophil oxidative burst. Due to lyonization, XL-CGD carriers have a dual population of functional and non-functional phagocytes and experience a range of symptoms including increased risk of autoimmunity, fatigue, and infection. Patients with CGD have poorer quality of life (QoL) than normal controls. We evaluated QoL and psychological health in UK XL-CGD carriers. Recruited participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36 V2), providing an overall score for mental and physical health. Psychological health was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. Seventy-five XL-CGD carriers were recruited from 62 families, median age 43 years (range 3-77). Fifty-six were mothers, 6 grandmothers, and 13 siblings. Sixty-two completed the SF36v2 and had reduced QoL scores compared with adult CGD patients and a UK age-matched female control cohort, indicating a reduced QoL. Sixty-one completed a HADS questionnaire. Over 40% experienced moderate or greater levels of anxiety with only one third being classified as normal. Higher anxiety scores significantly correlated with higher depression scores, lower self-esteem, presence of joint or bowel symptoms, and higher levels of fatigue (p < 0.05). This is the first study to evaluate QoL of XL-CGD carriers, and demonstrates high rates of anxiety and significantly reduced QoL scores. XL-CGD carriers should be considered as potential patients and pro-actively assessed and managed.