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1.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155795

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extracranial pediatric tumor. Despite the current available multiple therapeutic options, the prognosis for high-risk NB patients remains unsatisfactory and makes the disease a clear unmet medical need. Thus, more tailored therapeutic approaches are warranted to improve both the quality of life and the survival of the patients. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a key role in several diseases, including cancer. Preclinical and clinical studies in NB patients convergently indicate that MIF exerts pro-tumorigenic properties in NB. MIF is upregulated in NB tumor tissues and cell lines and it contributes to NB aggressiveness and immune-escape. To date, there are only a few data about the role of the second member of the MIF family, the MIF homolog d-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), in NB. Here, we review the preclinical and clinical studies on the role of the MIF family of cytokines in NB and suggest that MIF and possibly DDT inhibitors may be promising novel prognostic and therapeutic targets in NB management.

2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(3)2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204311

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury represents physical damage to the brain tissue that induces transitory or permanent neurological disabilities. The traumatic injury activates an important inflammatory response, followed by a cascade of events that lead to neuronal loss and further brain damage. Maintaining proper ventilation, a normal level of oxygenation, and adequate blood pressure are the main therapeutic strategies performed after injury. Surgery is often necessary for patients with more serious injuries. However, to date, there are no therapies that completely resolve the brain damage suffered following the trauma. Stem cells, due to their capacity to differentiate into neuronal cells and through releasing neurotrophic factors, seem to be a valid strategy to use in the treatment of traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of clinical trials, aimed to evaluate the use of stem cell-based therapy in traumatic brain injury. These studies aim to assess the safety and efficacy of stem cells in this disease. The results available so far are few; therefore, future studies need in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of stem cell transplantation in traumatic brain injury.

3.
Fitoterapia ; 143: 104553, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184097

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway with loss of substantia nigra pars compacta neurons and dopamine depletion. Various natural compounds showed protective actions against PD. In this work, the protective effects of cannabidiol (CBD), obtained from Cannabis sativa, were evaluated in retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an in vitro PD model. In order to evaluate which receptor is involved in CBD actions CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptor antagonists were used. CBD counteracted the loss of cell viability caused by MPP+, reducing apoptosis as demonstrated by the reduction of Bax and caspase 3. Moreover, CBD reduced the nuclear levels of PARP-1. The protective effects of CBD seem to be mediated by the activation of ERK and AKT/mTOR pathways. The treatment with AKT1/2 inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin abolished CBD protective effects. The CBD-induced ERK activation may be mediated by CBD interaction with CB2 and TRPV1. We also investigated the protein levels of the autophagic proteins LC3 and beclin 1. CBD reduced the MPP+-induced increase of LC3 by CB2 and TRPV1 receptors. These data suggested the involvement of ERK in the modulation of autophagy. However, beclin 1 levels were not modified neither by MPP+ nor by CBD. These results indicated that CBD may exert preventive and protective actions in PD.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19517, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150113

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Radiotherapy is a valid treatment option for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, complications can occur following irradiation of the closest anatomical structures, including brainstem radionecrosis (BRN). The rehabilitation is poorly described in patients with BRN, despite its usefulness in improving functional independence in patients with brain tumors. We aimed at testing the usefulness of intensive, robot-assisted neurorehabilitation program to improve functional independence in a 57-year-old male with BRN. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male diagnosed with a nasopharyngeal carcinoma, received a radiation total dose of 72 Gy. Owing to the appearance of a severe symptomatology characterized by dysphagia, hearing loss, and left sided hemiparesis, the patient was hospitalized to be provided with intensive pharmacological and neurorehabilitation treatment. DIAGNOSIS: Follow-up brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed no residual cancer, but some brainstem lesions compatible with BRN areas were appreciable. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent a 2-month conventional, respiratory, and speech therapy. Given that the patient only mildly improved, he was provided with intensive robot-aided upper limb and gait training and virtual reality-based cognitive rehabilitation for other 2 months. OUTCOMES: The patient reported a significant improvement in functional independence, spasticity, cognitive impairment degree, and balance. CONCLUSION: Our case suggests the usefulness of neurorobotic intensive rehabilitation in BRN to reduce functional disability. Future studies should investigate whether an earlier, even multidisciplinary rehabilitative treatment could lead to better functional outcome in patients with BRN.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico/lesões , Terapia por Exercício , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/reabilitação , Robótica , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/reabilitação , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1712, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015445

RESUMO

The assessment of awareness in patients with chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC), including Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS), is challenging. The level of awareness impairment may depend on the degree of deterioration of the large-scale cortical-thalamo-cortical networks induced by brain injury. Electrophysiological approaches may shed light on awareness presence in patients with DoC by estimating cortical functions related to the cortical-thalamo-cortical networks including, for example, the cortico-subcortical processes generating motor responses to the perturbation of the peri-personal space (PPS). We measured the amplitude, latency, and duration of the hand-blink reflex (HBR) responses by recording electromyography (EMG) signals from both the orbicularis oculi muscles while electrically stimulating the median nerve at the wrist. Such a BR is thought to be mediated by a neural circuit at the brainstem level. Despite its defensive-response nature, HBR can be modulated by the distance between the stimulated hand and the face. This suggests a functional top-down control of HBR as reflected by HBR features changes (latency, amplitude, and magnitude). We therefore estimated HBR responses in a sample of patients with DoC (8 MCS and 12 UWS, compared to 15 healthy controls -HC) while performing a motor task targeting the PPS. This consisted of passive movements in which the hand of the subject was positioned at different distances from the participant's face. We aimed at demonstrating a residual top-down modulation of HBR properties, which could be useful to differentiate patients with DoC and, potentially, demonstrate awareness preservation. We found a decrease in latency, and an increase in duration and magnitude of HBR responses, which were all inversely related to the hand-to-face distance in HC and patients with MCS, but not in individuals with UWS. Our data suggest that only patients with MCS have preserved, residual, top-down modulation of the processes related to the PPS from higher-order cortical areas to sensory-motor integration network. Although the sample size was relatively small, being thus our data preliminary, HBR assessment seems a rapid, easy, and first-level tool to differentiate patients with MCS from those with UWS. We may also hypothesize that such a HBR modulation suggests awareness preservation.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18633, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011443

RESUMO

Pain has a major impact on anxiety and depression levels. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how these symptoms (depression and anxiety) could positively influence the perception of pain after neurostimulation system implantation.We enrolled 100 patients and divided in 2 different groups, by using tests screening such as Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Nursing Rating Scale (NRS): the group with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and the group with pulsed spinal cord radiofrequency (RFP).We highlighted a significant decrease of scores (BDI, HAM-A, NRS) in each group between T0 (baseline) and T1. Moreover, the intra-group analysis showed a positive significant correlation between NRS and depressive and anxiety symptoms.We assert that the use of alternative methods (SCS and RFP) to the traditional pharmaceutical-surgical treatments, provide the reduction of the algic and anxiety-depressant symptoms, restoring also the perception of psychological well-being.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Depressão/psicologia , Tratamento por Radiofrequência Pulsada/psicologia , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Tratamento por Radiofrequência Pulsada/métodos , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/métodos
7.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the Italian National Health Service, hospital planning has been influenced by two aspects: patients' freedom to choose their healthcare provider and the equal distribution of centers spread throughout country. Unfortunately, while every Italian region should be able to meet the health needs of its own inhabitants, consistent migration among regions exists, especially from the southern areas of the country, including Sicily. As it has been demonstrated that a hub-and-spoke model (HSM) can provide medical care to even the most rural areas, the aim of this study is to propose a new Sicilian model to avoid patients' migration. DESIGN, METHODOLOGY, APPROACH: The IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo" of Messina, together with the Ministry of Health and the Sicilian government, has incorporated an HSM into a Sicilian healthcare program that provides neurological rehabilitation by means of innovative technologies such as robotics. FINDINGS: The authors expected, thanks to this novel HSM, that patients may benefit from advanced robotic neurorehabilitation even in rural areas, and therefore be properly treated in their own cities, avoiding unnecessary and expensive migrations to other regions and/or countries. Indeed, since the introduction of this model, there has been a reduction in patient migration, especially in the province of Messina, with a reduction of costs for admission outside the region of about 260.000 euros. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The use of innovative technology in the context of the promising HSM will help clinicians increase the intensity of therapies and improve working cost/efficacy, with better functional outcomes in patients.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963888

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic lesion that causes disability with temporary or permanent sensory and/or motor deficits. The pharmacological approach still in use for the treatment of SCI involves the employment of corticosteroid drugs. However, SCI remains a very complex disorder that needs future studies to find effective pharmacological treatments. SCI actives a strong inflammatory response that induces a loss of neurons followed by a cascade of events that lead to further spinal cord damage. Many experimental studies demonstrate the therapeutic effect of stem cells in SCI due to their capacity to differentiate into neuronal cells and by releasing neurotrophic factors. Therefore, they appear to be a valid strategy to use in the field of regenerative medicine. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of clinical trials, recorded in clinical trial.gov during 2005-2019, aimed to evaluate the use of stem cell-based therapy in SCI. The results available thus far show the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy in patients with SCI. However, future trials are needed to investigate the safety and efficacy of stem cell transplantation.

9.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920097

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of autoimmune originate. A large proportion of patient present with cognitive deficits that negatively affect their quality of life, thus, a proper cognitive rehabilitation is mandatory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of semi-immersive virtual reality training (sVRT) on neuropsychological and motor recovery individuals suffering from MS. We enrolled 60 MS patients, randomized into either the control group (CG: 30) undergoing a conventional cognitive training, or the experimental group (EG: 30), which performed sVRT. Cognitive and motor outcomes were investigated through clinical and neuropsychological scales before (T0) and at the end (T1) of each different training. Only in the EG, we observed a significant improvement in cognitive parameters and motor scores. Our data demonstrate that VR cognitive training could potentiate MS patients' rehabilitation outcome, with positive results on both motor and cognitive performance.

10.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973135

RESUMO

Human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) have outstanding characteristics of proliferation and are able to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic cell lineages. The extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by hGMSCs contain proteins, lipids, mRNA and microRNA have emerged as important mediators of cell-to-cell communication. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of hGMSCs-derived EVs using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The functional evaluation of the transcriptome highlighted 26 structural protein classes and the presence of "non-coding RNAs". Our results showed that EVs contain several growth factors such as Transforming Growth Factor-ß (TGF-ß), Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGF) implicated in osteoblast differentiation and in angiogenetic process. Furthermore, the transcriptomic analysis showed the presence of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands and neurotrophins involved in neuronal development. The NGS analysis also identified the presence of several interleukins among which some with anti-inflammatory action. Moreover, the transcriptome profile of EVs contained members of the Wnt family, involved in several biological processes, such as cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration. In conclusion, the huge amount of growth factors included in the hGMSCs-derived EVs could make them a big resource in regenerative medicine.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18866, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease, affecting both the sensorimotor and cognitive systems. The typical pattern of cognitive impairment includes reduced speed of information processing, decreased phonological and semantic speech fluency, deficits in verbal and visual episodic memory, as well as attention and executive dysfunctions. We aimed to investigate the influence of the neurologic music therapy (NMT) on mood, motivation, emotion status, and cognitive functions in patients with MS. METHODS: Thirty patients with MS were randomly divided in 2 groups: the control group (CG) undergoing conventional cognitive rehabilitation (CCR), 6 times a week for 8 weeks, and the experimental group (EG) undergoing CCR 3 times a week for 8 weeks plus NMT techniques, performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. All the participants were submitted to the same amount of treatment. Each patient was evaluated before (baseline: T0) and immediately after the end of each training (T1). MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: We used as main outcome measure: the brief repeatable battery of neuropsychological test to assess various cognitive abilities; and the multiple sclerosis quality of life-54 (MSQoL-54). RESULTS: Both the groups benefit from 8 weeks of CR. In particular, the EG got better results in cognitive function, with regard to selective reminding test long term storage (P < .000), long term retrieval (P = .007), and delayed recall of the 10/36 spatial recall test (P = .001), as compared with the CG. Moreover, the improvement in emotional status, motivation, mood and quality of life (with regard to the mental component; P < .000) was more evident in the EG. CONCLUSIONS: NMT could be considered a complementary approach to enhance CCR in patients affected by MS.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Musicoterapia/métodos , Afeto , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Neurosci ; 130(3): 243-250, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549530

RESUMO

Object: Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disorder associated with brain alterations. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has contributed to identify degeneration in white matter cortical microstructural that can be considered an early and specific biomarker for Alzheimer's disease. This review aimed to provide a summary of DTI studies on white matter damage in Alzheimer's disease.Methods: On PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases, we reviewed the studies that used DTI for assessing fractional anisotropy in neurofiber tracts involved in Alzheimer's Disease progression: fornix, the cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus and corpus callosum. We included nine studies that met search criteria.Results: The results showed decreased fractional anisotropy value in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. White matter diffusivity changes were associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease.Conclusion: Microstructural alterations of the limbic and cortico-cortical tracts could be potential biomarkers for early diagnosis in preclinical disease phase.

13.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(1): 95-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of rehabilitation (physical and cognitive) treatments on the diagnosis severity and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) scores, adjusted for a number of potential confounders measured at baseline, in a large cohort of patients with disorders of consciousness across time. DESIGN AND SETTING: An observational, longitudinal (2 evaluations), multicenter project was made in 90 Italian centers. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=364) with a diagnosis of disorders of consciousness. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the severity of diagnosis, expressed on an ordinal scale (Other

14.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 43(1): 90-94, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851022

RESUMO

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a neuromuscular disease, characterized by a progressive loss of strength, muscle stiffness, and difficulty in relaxation. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 patients can present several neuropsychological deficits, as well as anxiety and mood disorders. Aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and the effect of virtual reality in the cognitive and behavioral recovery of myotonic dystrophy type 1 patients. Eleven patients (8 female and 3 male) underwent a specific cognitive rehabilitation program including a conventional neuropsychological treatment followed by a virtual reality neurorehabilitation training using the Virtual Reality Rehabilitation System (Khymeia, Italy). Virtual reality improved many cognitive domains, including executive function, attention, verbal and visuo-spatial abilities, as well as mood and coping strategies. Due to the high prevalence of neuropsychological symptoms in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1, cognitive rehabilitation should enter into the framework of these patients to potentially boost cognitive and behavioral function and improve quality of life.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801206

RESUMO

Inflammation is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. The treatment of stem cells as a therapeutic approach to repair damage in the central nervous system represents a valid alternative. In this study, using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSCs) treated with Moringin [4-(α-l-ramanosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate] (hGMSCs-MOR) or with Cannabidiol (hGMSCs-CBD) at dose of 0.5 or 5 µM, respectively. Moreover, we compared their transcriptomic profiles in order to evaluate analogies and differences in pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. The hGMSCs-MOR selectively downregulate TNF-α signaling from the beginning, reducing the expression of TNF-α receptor while hGMSCs-CBD limit its activity after the process started. The treatment with CBD downregulates the pro-inflammatory pathway mediated by the IL-1 family, including its receptor while MOR is less efficient. Furthermore, both the treatments are efficient in the IL-6 signaling. In particular, CBD reduces the effect of the pro-inflammatory JAK/STAT pathway while MOR enhances the pro-survival PI3K/AKT/mTOR. In addition, both hGMSCs-MOR and hGMSCs-CBD improve the anti-inflammatory activity enhancing the TGF-ß pathway.

16.
Neurol Sci ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by various motor symptoms including balance and gait impairment. Several studies have shown that physiotherapy, cueing techniques, treadmill training, and cognitive movement strategies are useful in improving balance and gait in patients with PD. Devices employing virtual reality (VR) have been shown to be promising in neurorehabilitation as they can provide the patients with multisensory stimulation creating a realistic environment and improve the motivation and the adhesion of patients to the rehabilitation program. This preliminary study is aimed at testing the efficacy and feasibility of gait training based on the computer-assisted virtual reality environment (CAREN) in a sample of PD. METHODS: In this preliminary study, 22 outpatients affected by PD who attended the Behavioral and Robotic Neurorehab Laboratory of the IRCCS Neurolesi between August 2017 and October 2018 were enrolled. All PD patients underwent 20 conventional physiotherapy sessions followed by 3-month of rest. Then, the patients were provided with 20 sessions of CAREN training. Gait and balance performances were rated before, after each training protocol, and 3 months later. Gait analysis was also performed before and after CAREN training. RESULTS: All patients completed both of the rehabilitation trainings without any adverse event. All considered scales improved significantly at the end of both rehabilitation treatments. However, patients presented with a greater clinical improvement after the CAREN training, compared with conventional physiotherapy. In particular, patients walked faster and with more stability, with wider, longer steps. CONCLUSIONS: Even though further neurophysiological details are required to identify the patients who may benefit from CAREN training, our findings suggest that this innovative device is an effective and feasible tool to train balance and gait in patients with PD.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18270, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860973

RESUMO

RATIONAL: Infective endocarditis (IE) is defined as an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart, which may include one or more heart valves, the mural endocardium. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 53-years-old man with a history of alcohol abuse was admitted in hospital for fever, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation cardioverted by Amiodarone and pulmonary infection. DIAGNOSIS: A case of recurrent severe endocarditis, with neurological complications both ischemic and hemorrhagic and heart failure caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in healthy man we reported. INTERVENTIONS: Surgery was performed 2 weeks after admission. OUTCOMES: The onset of intracranial hemorrhage delayed second cardiac surgery and the patient died because of end-stage heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: Infective endocarditis caused by S. agalactiae is very rare, particularly in patients without underlying structural heart disease. This study showed that IE due to S. Agalactiae is a disease with high mortality when associated with neurological complication, heart failure but especially when it is recurrent and hits valve prosthesis.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/etiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae , Alcoolismo/microbiologia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
18.
Int J Med Sci ; 16(11): 1447-1452, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673235

RESUMO

Background: Drooling is an involuntary loss of saliva from the mouth, and it is a common problem for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The treatment may be pharmacological, surgical, or speech-related. Repeated Muscle Vibration (rMV) is a proprioceptive impulse that activates fibers Ia reaching the somatosensory and motor cortex. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of rMV in the treatment of drooling in CP. Design, setting and population: This was a rater blinded prospective feasibility study, performed at the "Gli Angeli di Padre Pio" Foundation, Rehabilitation Centers (Foggia, Italy), involving twenty-two CP patients affected by drooling (aged 5-15, mean 9,28 ± 3,62). Children were evaluated at baseline (T0), 10 days (T1), 1 month (T2) and 3 months (T3) after the treatment. Methods: The degree and impact of drooling was assessed by using the Drooling Impact Scale (DIS), the Drooling Frequency and Severity Scale (DFSS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Drooling Quotient (DQ). An rMV stimulus under the chin symphysis was applied with a 30 min protocol for 3 consecutive days. Results: The statistical analysis shows that DIS, DFSS, VAS, DQ improved with significant differences in the multiple comparisons between T1 vs T2, T1 vs T3 and T1 vs T4 (p≤0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that rMV might be a safe and effective tool in reducing drooling in patients with CP. The vibrations can improve the swallowing mechanisms and favor the acquisition of the maturity of the oral motor control in children with CP.

19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(11)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752240

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Neuroinflammation is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties of two non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids, cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidiol (CBD). Materials and Methods: The motoneuron-like cell line NSC-34 differentiated by serum deprivation and with the additional treatment of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) is a valid model to investigate molecular events linked to neurodegeneration in ALS. Results: Pre-treatment with CBG (at 2.5 and 5 µM doses) alone and in combination with CBD (at 2.5 and 5 µM doses) was able to reduce neuroinflammation induced by a culture medium of LPS-stimulated macrophages. In particular, the pre-treatment with CBD at a 5 µM dose decreased TNF-α levels and increased IL10 and IL-37 expression. CBG-CBD association at a 5 µM dose also reduced NF-kB nuclear factor activation with low degradation of the inhibitor of kappaB alpha (IkBα). CBG and CBD co-administered at a 5 µM dose decreased iNOS expression and increased Nrf2 levels. Furthermore, the pre-treatment with the association of two non-psychoactive cannabinoids downregulated Bax protein expression and upregulated Bcl-2 expression. Our data show the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects PPARγ-mediated. Conclusions: Our results provide preliminary support on the potential therapeutic application of a CBG-CBD combination for further preclinical studies.

20.
Brain Sci ; 9(10)2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635049

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) represents one of the most frequent pediatric solid tumors. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine exerting multiple biological functions. More recently, a second member of the MIF family of cytokine has been identified, the D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), that exerts several overlapping functions with MIF. Growing evidence suggests a key role for MIF and DDT in the development of cancer. The aim of this study is to characterize the prognostic value of MIF and DDT in NB. We show that higher expression levels of MIF and DDT in Stage 4 NB samples are associated with a poorer prognosis, independently of the presence of MYCN amplification. Moreover, higher levels of MIF are mostly enriched by Th1 cells, while lower levels of MIF are associated with an increased proportion of B cells, Cytotoxic T cells, Dendritic cells and Natural Killer T cells. We also show that treatment with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, vorinostat, of the NB cell line, SH-SY5Y, determines a significant reduction in the expression of both MIF and DDT. Finally, MIF and DDT inhibition by short interfering RNA is able to revert vincristine sensitivity in vitro. Overall, our data suggest that MIF exert pro-tumorigenic properties in NB, likely by dampening antigen presentation and cytotoxic immune responses, and we propose the HDAC inhibitors as a potential therapeutic strategy for NB patients.

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