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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 502, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599145

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to compare brain structure between individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and healthy controls. Previous studies have generated inconsistent findings, possibly due to small sample sizes, or clinical/analytic heterogeneity. To address these concerns, we combined data from 28 research sites worldwide through the ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group, using a single, pre-registered mega-analysis. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data from children and adults (5-90 years) were processed using FreeSurfer. The main analysis included the regional and vertex-wise cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume as dependent variables, and GAD, age, age-squared, sex, and their interactions as independent variables. Nuisance variables included IQ, years of education, medication use, comorbidities, and global brain measures. The main analysis (1020 individuals with GAD and 2999 healthy controls) included random slopes per site and random intercepts per scanner. A secondary analysis (1112 individuals with GAD and 3282 healthy controls) included fixed slopes and random intercepts per scanner with the same variables. The main analysis showed no effect of GAD on brain structure, nor interactions involving GAD, age, or sex. The secondary analysis showed increased volume in the right ventral diencephalon in male individuals with GAD compared to male healthy controls, whereas female individuals with GAD did not differ from female healthy controls. This mega-analysis combining worldwide data showed that differences in brain structure related to GAD are small, possibly reflecting heterogeneity or those structural alterations are not a major component of its pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Encéfalo , Adulto , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
2.
Adv Nutr ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634109

RESUMO

The outbreak of the pandemic associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led researchers to find new potential treatments, including nonpharmacological molecules such as zinc (Zn2+). Specifically, the use of Zn2+ as a therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection is based on several findings: 1) the possible role of the anti-inflammatory activity of Zn2+ on the aberrant inflammatory response triggered by COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19), 2) properties of Zn2+ in modulating the competitive balance between the host and the invading pathogens, and 3) the antiviral activity of Zn2+ on a number of pathogens, including coronaviruses. Furthermore, Zn2+ has been found to play a central role in regulating brain functioning and many disorders have been associated with Zn2+ deficiency, including neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric disorders, and brain injuries. Within this context, we carried out a narrative review to provide an overview of the evidence relating to the effects of Zn2+ on the immune and nervous systems, and the therapeutic use of such micronutrients in both neurological and infective disorders, with the final goal of elucidating the possible use of Zn2+ as a preventive or therapeutic intervention in COVID-19. Overall, the results from the available evidence showed that, owing to its neuroprotective properties, Zn2+ supplementation could be effective not only on COVID-19-related symptoms but also on virus replication, as well as on COVID-19-related inflammation and neurological damage. However, further clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of Zn2+ as a nonpharmacological treatment of COVID-19 are required to achieve an overall improvement in outcome and prognosis.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 454-464, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by mood dysregulation, impulsivity, identity disturbances, and a higher risk for suicide. Currently, the diagnosis is solely based on clinical observation of overt symptoms, and this can delay the detection of the disease and the timely start of appropriate treatment. Several candidate clinical tools have been studied to better characterize BPD, including event-related potentials (ERP). This review aimed at summarizing the results of the available ERP studies on BPD to clarify the possible application of this technique in the early diagnosis of BPD. METHODS: A bibliographic search on PubMed and PsycInfo was performed in order to identify studies comprising individuals with BPD diagnosis and a control group that evaluated the ERP elicited by auditory stimuli. RESULTS: Ten studies that explored various ERP components associated with auditory stimuli in BPD were included. Overall, the results showed that positive ERP (P50, P100, and P300) amplitude and latencies as well as loudness dependance were altered in BPD patients compared to controls, possibly reflecting deficits involving attention, mainly at its early stage, and executive functions. LIMITATIONS: The reviewed studies used different ERP approaches and non-homogeneous BPD diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Auditory ERP appear to be a promising tool for the assessment of BPD patients, especially for early diagnosis and evaluation of cognitive symptoms.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 712552, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552517

RESUMO

The Sensitive Delusion of Reference is a clinical entity described by Ernst Kretschmer and never integrated into mainstream nosographic systems. It represents the possibility of developing psychosis starting from a personality characterized by sensitivity, scrupulousness, and fear of judgment of others. The presentation of the following clinical case highlights how the overlap between this clinical entity and mood disorders leads to characteristic psychopathology, which has not been sufficiently detailed. In particular, the delusions, which always starts from the idea of reference and the shame in the face of the judgment of others, takes on characteristics of guilt during the depressive phases and persecutory themes during the activation phases. This clinical observation, which obviously needs to be confirmed on a larger scale, encourages a renewed interest in the concept of Kretschmer's Sensitive Delusion of Reference and creates the possibility of intersecting multiple psychopathological levels, for a more complete perspective on the individual case.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Formal thought disorder (FTD) has been associated with more severe illness courses and functional deficits in patients with psychotic disorders. However, it remains unclear whether the presence of FTD characterises a specific subgroup of patients showing more prominent illness severity, neurocognitive and functional impairments. This study aimed to identify stable and generalizable FTD-subgroups of patients with recent-onset psychosis (ROP) by applying a comprehensive data-driven clustering approach and to test the validity of these subgroups by assessing associations between this FTD-related stratification, social and occupational functioning, and neurocognition. METHODS: 279 patients with ROP were recruited as part of the multi-site European PRONIA study (Personalised Prognostic Tools for Early Psychosis Management; www.pronia.eu). Five FTD-related symptoms (conceptual disorganization, poverty of content of speech, difficulty in abstract thinking, increased latency of response and poverty of speech) were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). RESULTS: The results with two patient subgroups showing different levels of FTD were the most stable and generalizable clustering solution (predicted clustering strength value = 0.86). FTD-High subgroup had lower scores in social (pfdr < 0.001) and role (pfdr < 0.001) functioning, as well as worse neurocognitive performance in semantic (pfdr < 0.001) and phonological verbal fluency (pfdr < 0.001), short-term verbal memory (pfdr = 0.002) and abstract thinking (pfdr = 0.010), in comparison to FTD-Low group. CONCLUSIONS: Clustering techniques allowed us to identify patients with more pronounced FTD showing more severe deficits in functioning and neurocognition, thus suggesting that FTD may be a relevant marker of illness severity in the early psychosis pathway.

7.
Biol Psychiatry ; 90(9): 632-642, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transition to psychosis is among the most adverse outcomes of clinical high-risk (CHR) syndromes encompassing ultra-high risk (UHR) and basic symptom states. Clinical risk calculators may facilitate an early and individualized interception of psychosis, but their real-world implementation requires thorough validation across diverse risk populations, including young patients with depressive syndromes. METHODS: We validated the previously described NAPLS-2 (North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study 2) calculator in 334 patients (26 with transition to psychosis) with CHR or recent-onset depression (ROD) drawn from the multisite European PRONIA (Personalised Prognostic Tools for Early Psychosis Management) study. Patients were categorized into three risk enrichment levels, ranging from UHR, over CHR, to a broad-risk population comprising patients with CHR or ROD (CHR|ROD). We assessed how risk enrichment and different predictive algorithms influenced prognostic performance using reciprocal external validation. RESULTS: After calibration, the NAPLS-2 model predicted psychosis with a balanced accuracy (BAC) (sensitivity, specificity) of 68% (73%, 63%) in the PRONIA-UHR cohort, 67% (74%, 60%) in the CHR cohort, and 70% (73%, 66%) in patients with CHR|ROD. Multiple model derivation in PRONIA-CHR|ROD and validation in NAPLS-2-UHR patients confirmed that broader risk definitions produced more accurate risk calculators (CHR|ROD-based vs. UHR-based performance: 67% [68%, 66%] vs. 58% [61%, 56%]). Support vector machines were superior in CHR|ROD (BAC = 71%), while ridge logistic regression and support vector machines performed similarly in CHR (BAC = 67%) and UHR cohorts (BAC = 65%). Attenuated psychotic symptoms predicted psychosis across risk levels, while younger age and reduced processing speed became increasingly relevant for broader risk cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical-neurocognitive machine learning models operating in young patients with affective and CHR syndromes facilitate a more precise and generalizable prediction of psychosis. Future studies should investigate their therapeutic utility in large-scale clinical trials.

8.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 207640211042919, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work functioning impairment is a key diagnostic and transnosographic criterion for psychiatric disorders in both DSM-5 and ICD-11. Occupational inclusion is a fundamental aspect of the care path for patients attending the territorial services provided by the Italian Mental Health and Addiction Departments (DSMDs). Since 2009, the Regional Innovative Programme (PIR) TR106, promoted by the Fatebenefratelli-Sacco hospital of Milan, Italy, in collaboration with six other metropolitan DSMDs, was created to promote integration for people suffering from mental health problems in the city of Milan. METHOD: Here we present the results of a retrospective epidemiologic analysis on 2,142 interventions on 1,066 patients, conducted between 2012 and 2019. RESULTS: Most of the interventions were conducted with people with psychotic disorders (39%), followed by personality disorders (25.2%) and affective disorders (22.2%). The age range of 25 to 54 years represented 91.5% of the whole sample, mainly in the 35 to 44 years range (36.4%). Significant age group-related changes in interventions were observed in the observation period, with a reduction in the interventions provided to subjects of the 35 to 44 age group, and an increase in the 25 to 34 age group. CONCLUSIONS: PIR TR106 provided the most accurate assessment and data collection so far for the city of Milan. Our data characterised psychiatric groups in order to develop specific treatment plans and work inclusion interventions.

9.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519351

RESUMO

Adult gyrification provides a window into coordinated early neurodevelopment when disruptions predispose individuals to psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that the echoes of such disruptions should be observed within structural gyrification networks in early psychiatric illness that would demonstrate associations with developmentally relevant variables rather than specific psychiatric symptoms. We employed a new data-driven method (Orthogonal Projective Non-Negative Matrix Factorization) to delineate novel gyrification-based networks of structural covariance in 308 healthy controls. Gyrification within the networks was then compared to 713 patients with recent onset psychosis or depression, and at clinical high-risk. Associations with diagnosis, symptoms, cognition, and functioning were investigated using linear models. Results demonstrated 18 novel gyrification networks in controls as verified by internal and external validation. Gyrification was reduced in patients in temporal-insular, lateral occipital, and lateral fronto-parietal networks (pFDR < 0.01) and was not moderated by illness group. Higher gyrification was associated with better cognitive performance and lifetime role functioning, but not with symptoms. The findings demonstrated that gyrification can be parsed into novel brain networks that highlight generalized illness effects linked to developmental vulnerability. When combined, our study widens the window into the etiology of psychiatric risk and its expression in adulthood.

10.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440367

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the genetic and neural determinants of attention and hyperactivity problems. Using a proof-of-concept imaging genetics mediation design, we explore the relationship between the glutamatergic GRIN2B gene variants and inattention/hyperactivity with neuroanatomical measures as intermediates. Fifty-eight children and adolescents were evaluated for behavioral problems at three time points over approximately 7 years. The final assessment included blood drawing for genetic analyses and 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Attention/hyperactivity problems based on the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18, six GRIN2B polymorphisms and regional cortical thickness, and surface area and volume were estimated. Using general linear model (GLM) and mediation analyses, we tested whether GRIN2B exerted an influence on stable inattention/hyperactivity over development, and to what extent this effect was mediated by brain morphology. GLM results enlightened the relation between GRIN2B rs5796555-/A, volume in the left cingulate isthmus and inferior parietal cortices and inattention/hyperactivity. The mediation results showed that rs5796555-/A effect on inattention/hyperactivity was partially mediated by volume in the left isthmus of the cingulate cortex, suggesting a key role of this region in translating glutamatergic GRIN2B variations to attention/hyperactivity problems. This evidence can have important implications in the management of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders.

11.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e2238, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition with a heterogeneous phenotype. The role of biomarkers in ASD diagnosis has been highlighted; cortical thickness has proved to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of ASD core symptoms. We apply support vector machine, a supervised machine learning method, in order to identify specific cortical thickness alterations in ASD subjects. METHODS: A sample of 76 subjects (9.5 ± 3.4 years old) has been selected, 40 diagnosed with ASD and 36 typically developed subjects. All children underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination; T1-MPRAGE sequences were analyzed to extract features for the characterization and parcellation of regions of interests (ROI); average cortical thickness (CT) has been measured for each ROI. For the classification process, the extracted features were used as input for a classifier to identify ASD subjects through a "learning by example" procedure; the features with best performance was then selected by "greedy forward-feature selection." Finally, this model underwent a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. RESULTS: From the training set of 68 ROIs, five ROIs reached accuracies of over 70%. After this phase, we used a recursive feature selection process in order to identify the eight features with the best accuracy (84.2%). CT resulted higher in ASD compared to controls in all the ROIs identified at the end of the process. CONCLUSION: We found increased CT in various brain regions in ASD subjects, confirming their role in the pathogenesis of this condition. Considering the brain development curve during ages, these changes in CT may normalize during development. Further validation on a larger sample is required.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
12.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 521-526, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lithium is one of the most effective medications for bipolar disorder episode prevention, but its mechanism of action is still largely unknown. The hippocampus is a subcortical cerebral structure involved in the formation of emotional responses, cognition and various primitive functions, altered during affective episodes. Deviations in the anatomy or physiology of the hippocampus would partially explain the symptomatology of bipolar subjects, and restoration may reflect treatment response. METHODS: In this mini review, we summarize the studies which have investigated the effect of lithium intake on the volume of hippocampus, measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We performed a bibliographic search on PubMed, using the terms terms "hippocampus", "lithium", "bipolar disorder", "volume" and "MRI". Only original studies were considered. RESULTS: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies demonstrated increased total hippocampal volume or hippocampal subfield volumes in BD patients on lithium treatment (Li BD) compared to those not taking lithium (non-Li BD), while four failed to show significant differences between groups. When healthy controls were compared to either the Li subjects or the non-Li ones, the findings were more heterogeneous. LIMITATIONS: Heterogeneity in the methodology and definition of groups limits the comparison of study results. CONCLUSIONS: Lithium may be associated with increased hippocampal volume in BD, potentially due to its putative neurotrophic action, but further research is needed better define the morphological alterations of hippocampus in BD and the longitudinal effects of lithium in the short and long-term.

13.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 688147, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262493

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Phenibut (4-amino-3-phenyl-butyric acid), acting as a GABA-B receptor agonist, has a beneficial effect on anxiety. Although its medical use is not approved in western countries, it can be easily obtained worldwide via the Internet, so it spread as a substance of abuse. In recent years, some case reports have, therefore, highlighted episodes of acute toxicity or withdrawal, but it is still a largely unknown phenomenon. Methods: In this case report, a 50-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room with psychomotor agitation, psychotic symptoms, and insomnia, and was non-responsive to treatment. She was hospitalized at the psychiatry ward for 25 days and gave her consent for the publication of the present case report. Results: The suspicion of phenibut withdrawal allowed to establish the appropriate management, leading to the restitutio ad integrum of the psychopathological case. Conclusions: In the face of an incoercible psychomotor agitation case, the knowledge of the so-called novel psychoactive substances allows for more appropriate clinical management of intoxication and withdrawal syndromes. This is a scientifically significant report as it provides therapeutic and outcome data concerning a syndrome that is still quite unfamiliar.

14.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with an increased risk of mental health disorders; however, it is unknown whether this represents a diagnosis-specific risk factor for specific psychopathology mediated by structural brain changes. Our aim was to explore whether (i) a predictive CT pattern for transdiagnostic psychopathology exists, and whether (ii) CT can differentiate between distinct diagnosis-dependent psychopathology. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the association between CT, psychopathology and brain structure. METHODS: We used multivariate pattern analysis in data from 643 participants of the Personalised Prognostic Tools for Early Psychosis Management study (PRONIA), including healthy controls (HC), recent onset psychosis (ROP), recent onset depression (ROD), and patients clinically at high-risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants completed structured interviews and self-report measures including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, SCID diagnostic interview, BDI-II, PANSS, Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms and structural MRI, analyzed by voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: (i) Patients and HC could be distinguished by their CT pattern with a reasonable precision [balanced accuracy of 71.2% (sensitivity = 72.1%, specificity = 70.4%, p ≤ 0.001]. (ii) Subdomains 'emotional neglect' and 'emotional abuse' were most predictive for CHR and ROP, while in ROD 'physical abuse' and 'sexual abuse' were most important. The CT pattern was significantly associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in ROD, ROP, and CHR, as well as with the PANSS total and negative domain scores in the CHR patients. No associations between group-separating CT patterns and brain structure were found. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that CT poses a transdiagnostic risk factor for mental health disorders, possibly related to depressive symptoms. While differences in the quality of CT exposure exist, diagnostic differentiation was not possible suggesting a multi-factorial pathogenesis.

15.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201122

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of short whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI) protocols for the overall assessment of bone marrow involvement in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), in comparison with standard whole-body MRI protocol. Patients with biopsy-proven MM, who underwent a WBMRI with full-body coverage (from vertex to feet) were retrospectively enrolled. WBMRI images were independently evaluated by two expert radiologists, in terms of infiltration patterns (normal, focal, diffuse, and combined), according to location (the whole skeleton was divided into six anatomic districts: skull, spine, sternum and ribs, upper limbs, pelvis and proximal two-thirds of the femur, remaining parts of lower limbs) and lytic lesions number (<5, 5-20, and >20). The majority of patients showed focal and combined infiltration patterns with bone lesions predominantly distributed in the spine and pelvis. As skull and lower limbs are less frequently involved by focal bone lesions, excluding them from the standard MRI protocol allows to obtain a shorter protocol, maintaining a good diagnostic value.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 642-651, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a severe psychiatric disorder whose pathological mechanisms are largely unknown. In the field of immuno-psychiatry, several evidences suggested a prominent role of inflammation in MDD not only in peripheral immune system but also in the brain. To date, brain inflammation is traceable in vivo with Positron Emission Tomography (PET), through the quantification of the expression of 18-kda Translocator Protein (TSPO) by active microglia. In this context, this review aimed to summarize the results of all in vivo PET imaging studies that evaluated microglia activation in MDD. METHODS: A bibliographic search in PubMed up to June 2020 was performed. A total of 9 studies that used first and second generation TSPO radiotracers met our inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Overall the results suggested the presence of TSPO upregulation in MDD, especially in anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, hippocampal formation and insula. Notably, from a therapeutic point of view, results suggested that the symptoms amelioration, caused by both antidepressant medication and cognitive behavioural therapy, may be accompanied by reduced inflammatory status in the brain. Finally, a positive effect of the anti-inflammatory treatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor has also been observed. LIMITATIONS: The heterogeneity across the studies in experimental designs, sample selection and methods limited the studies comparison. CONCLUSIONS: These findings supported the presence of neuroinflammation in MDD, suggesting that microgliosis may be an important pathophysiological mechanism that merits further investigation as a potential target for novel treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Microglia/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo
17.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 689359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168584

RESUMO

Although several studies have shown the correlation between chromosomal rearrangements and the risk of developing psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, little attention has been given to identifying the genetic basis of pre-disposing personality so far. In this regard, a limited but significant number of studies seem to indicate an association between chromosomal anomalies and cluster A personality disorders (CAPD). Starting from the clinical description of two brothers affected by familial 16p11 deletion syndrome (OMIM #611913), both sharing cluster A and C personality traits, the aim of the present study is to critically review the literature regarding the correlation between chromosomal rearrangements and CAPD. A bibliographic search on PubMed has been conducted, and eight studies were finally included in our review. Most of the studies highlight the presence of schizotypal personality disorder in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, whose evolutionary course toward psychotic pictures is well-known. One study also identified a paranoid personality disorder in a patient with a deletion on chromosome 7q21.3. No studies have so far identified the presence of paranoid personality disorder in 16p11 deletion, as in the case of the two siblings we report, while its association with psychosis and autism is already known. Although further epidemiologic studies on broader populations are indicated, our observations might pave the way for the definition of new diagnostic subgroups of CAPD and psychotic disorders, in order to implement the clinical management of such complex conditions.

19.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 131(2): 464-473, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138647

RESUMO

Patients with sepsis have typically reduced concentrations of hemoglobin and albumin, the major components of noncarbonic buffer power (ß). This could expose patients to high pH variations during acid-base disorders. The objective of this study is to compare, in vitro, noncarbonic ß of patients with sepsis with that of healthy volunteers, and evaluate its distinct components. Whole blood and isolated plasma of 18 patients with sepsis and 18 controls were equilibrated with different CO2 mixtures. Blood gases, pH, and electrolytes were measured. Noncarbonic ß and noncarbonic ß due to variations in strong ion difference (ßSID) were calculated for whole blood. Noncarbonic ß and noncarbonic ß normalized for albumin concentrations (ßNORM) were calculated for isolated plasma. Representative values at pH = 7.40 were compared. Albumin proteoforms were evaluated via two-dimensional electrophoresis. Hemoglobin and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with sepsis. Patients with sepsis had lower noncarbonic ß both of whole blood (22.0 ± 1.9 vs. 31.6 ± 2.1 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and plasma (0.5 ± 1.0 vs. 3.7 ± 0.8 mmol/L, P < 0.01). Noncarbonic ßSID was lower in patients (16.8 ± 1.9 vs. 24.4 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and strongly correlated with hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Noncarbonic ßNORM was lower in patients [0.01 (-0.01 to 0.04) vs. 0.08 (0.06-0.09) mmol/g, P < 0.01]. Patients with sepsis and controls showed different amounts of albumin proteoforms. Patients with sepsis are exposed to higher pH variations for any given change in CO2 due to lower concentrations of noncarbonic buffers and, possibly, an altered buffering function of albumin. In both patients with sepsis and healthy controls, electrolyte shifts are the major buffering mechanism during respiratory acid-base disorders.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Patients with sepsis are poorly protected against acute respiratory acid-base derangements due to a lower noncarbonic buffer power, which is caused both by a reduction in the major noncarbonic buffers, i.e. hemoglobin and albumin, and by a reduced buffering capacity of albumin. Electrolyte shifts from and to the red blood cells determining acute variations in strong ion difference are the major buffering mechanism during acute respiratory acid-base disorders.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base , Sepse , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Ácidos , Gasometria , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
20.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 128: 90-101, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119524

RESUMO

Although emerging evidence suggests that altered functional connectivity (FC) of large-scale neural networks is associated with disturbances in individuals at high-risk for psychosis, the findings are still far to be conclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of seed-based resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that compared individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR), first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, or subjects who reported psychotic-like experiences with healthy controls. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. The MetaNSUE method was used to analyze connectivity comparisons and symptom correlations. Our results showed a significant hypo-connectivity within the salience network (p = 0.012, uncorrected) in the sample of CHR individuals (n = 810). Additionally, we found a positive correlation between negative symptom severity and FC between the default mode network and both the salience network (p < 0.001, r = 0.298) and the central executive network (p = 0.003, r = 0.23) in the CHR group. This meta-analysis lends support for the hypothesis that large-scale network dysfunctions represent a core neural deficit underlying psychosis development.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
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