Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228739, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045442

RESUMO

Recent research indicates that affective responses during exercise are an important determinant of future exercise and physical activity. Thus far these responses have been measured with standardized self-report scales, but this study used biometric software for automated facial action analysis to analyze the changes that occur during physical exercise. A sample of 132 young, healthy individuals performed an incremental test on a cycle ergometer. During that test the participants' faces were video-recorded and the changes were algorithmically analyzed at frame rate (30 fps). Perceived exertion and affective valence were measured every two minutes with established psychometric scales. Taking into account anticipated inter-individual variability, multilevel regression analysis was used to model how affective valence and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) covaried with movement in 20 facial action areas. We found the expected quadratic decline in self-reported affective valence (more negative) as exercise intensity increased. Repeated measures correlation showed that the facial action mouth open was linked to changes in (highly intercorrelated) affective valence and RPE. Multilevel trend analyses were calculated to investigate whether facial actions were typically linked to either affective valence or RPE. These analyses showed that mouth open and jaw drop predicted RPE, whereas (additional) nose wrinkle was indicative for the decline in affective valence. Our results contribute to the view that negative affect, escalating with increasing exercise intensity, may be the body's essential warning signal that physiological overload is imminent. We conclude that automated facial action analysis provides new options for researchers investigating feelings during exercise. In addition, our findings offer physical educators and coaches a new way of monitoring the affective state of exercisers, without interrupting and asking them.

3.
J Sports Sci ; 37(14): 1673-1680, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821629

RESUMO

The development of cynical attitudes towards elite sport is a core symptom of athlete burnout and has been associated with dropout from elite sport. To date, this phenomenon has mainly been studied by investigating explicit attitudes towards sport, whereas athletes' automatic evaluations (i.e. implicit attitudes) that have been shown to influence behavior as well were not considered. This study aimed to compare explicit and implicit attitudes towards sport of young elite athletes with high (N = 24) versus low (N = 26) burnout symptoms. Using self-reported measures, general and athlete burnout symptoms were assessed. Additionally, a single-target implicit association test was administered to examine participants' automatic evaluation of sport. Statistical analysis revealed greater emotional/physical exhaustion and sport devaluation in athletes reporting high compared to low burnout symptoms. Implicit attitudes towards sport did not significantly differ between the groups. Furthermore, no significant correlations were observed between different athlete burnout symptoms and implicit attitudes. Athletes with high burnout symptoms show a tendency to explicitly detach themselves from sport, thus fostering sport devaluation as a core symptom of athlete burnout. However, this process does not seem to be reflected in their implicit attitudes towards sport.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Atitude , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Estresse Psicológico
4.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 269(5): 529-542, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194668

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While physical activity (PA) can play an important role in the treatment of mental disorders (MD), large proportions of patients with MD do not meet PA recommendations. The aim of this trial was to evaluate whether structured psychological intervention (MoVo-LISA) is effective in helping outpatients with MD to increase their level of PA. As active control group (CG) we modified MoVo-LISA to target healthy diet behavior. METHODS: N = 83 outpatients with MD (F1-F4) were randomized to the two conditions. PA (self-report and accelerometry), dietary behavior, social-cognitive determinants of health behavior change, psychiatric symptoms and health-related quality of life were assessed at baseline, 1 and 12 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: Significant time*group interaction effects for objectively measured PA, dietary behavior and fruit and vegetable consumption indicated differential effects of the interventions on these outcomes. PA increased in the MoVo-LISA group (IG) from baseline to follow-up while it decreased in CG. IG showed a significant higher level of objectively measured PA at follow-up compared to CG. Dietary behavior and fruit and vegetable consumption significantly increased from baseline to follow-up in CG, but not IG. IG showed a significant increase in some, but not all social cognitive determinants of health behavior change. CONCLUSIONS: MoVo-LISA is effective in helping outpatients with MD to increase their level of PA in short- and mid-term. The used intervention strategies are effective for the promotion of healthy diet in patients with MD as well.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Acelerometria , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Autorrelato
7.
Front Psychol ; 8: 717, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588518

RESUMO

Doping use in recreational sports is an emerging issue that has received limited attention so far in the psychological literature. The present study assessed the lifetime prevalence of controlled performance and appearance enhancing substances (PAES), and used behavioral reasoning theory to identify the reasons for using and for avoiding using controlled PAES in young exercisers across five European countries, in the context of the "SAFE YOU" Project. Participants were 915 young amateur athletes and exercisers (M = 21.62; SD = 2.62) from Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Italy, and UK who completed an anonymous questionnaire that included measures of self-reported use of controlled PAES, as well as reasons for using and not using controlled PAES. The results of the descriptive analyses demonstrated that almost one out five exercisers in the sample had a previous experience with controlled PAES. Higher prevalence rates were found in Greece and Cyprus and lower in Italy. The most frequently reported reasons for using controlled PAES included achieving the desired results faster; pushing the self to the (physical) limits; and recovering faster after exercise/training. Furthermore, the most frequently reported reasons for not using controlled PAES involved worry about any possible adverse health effects; not feeling the need for using them; and wanting to see what can be achieved naturally without using any controlled PAES. The findings of the present study indicate that the use of controlled PAES is fast becoming a crisis in amateur sports and exercise settings and highlight the need for preventive action and concerted anti-doping education efforts.

8.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 267(7): 639-650, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28194516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) can play an important role in improving the mental and physical health in patients with mental disorders but is not well studied in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the status of PA in outpatients with mental disorders, compare the convergence of self-rating and accelerometer measurement and examine the influence of social cognitive variables from the Motivation-Volition (MoVo) model and clinical measures on PA. METHODS: Eighty-four patients were recruited from three psychiatric outpatient clinics and local psychiatrists (Distribution of ICD-10-Diagnoses: F3.x = 59.5%, F4.x = 20.2%, F2.x = 17.9%, F1.x = 2.4%). PA, Self-efficacy, Outcome-expectancies, Intention, Self-concordance, Action- and Coping-planning, Health-related Quality of Life (SF-12) and Psychiatric Symptoms (SCL-27) were assessed through questionnaires. PA was assessed objectively by accelerometers. RESULTS: Most of the participants did not reach PA recommendations. Subjective and objective measurement of PA showed good accordance for total PA on group level but lower accordance on individual level. Motivational and volitional determinants of health behavior change showed a similar pattern of correlations with PA as in populations without mental disorders. CONCLUSION: Outpatients with mental disorders have the ability and are willing to perform PA but a large proportion of our sample did not meet PA recommendations. To assess group levels of PA, subjective and objective measurement seem equally apt, for individual diagnostics, a combination of both should be considered. Social cognitive determinants of health behavior change seem to be as helpful for the design of PA interventions for patients with mental disorders as they are in other populations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autorrelato , Estatística como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 38(6): 631-638, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28033023

RESUMO

Sometimes our automatic evaluations do not correspond well with those we can reflect on and articulate. We present a novel approach to the assessment of automatic and reflective affective evaluations of exercising. Based on the assumptions of the associative-propositional processes in evaluation model, we measured participants' automatic evaluations of exercise and then shared this information with them, asked them to reflect on it and rate eventual discrepancy between their reflective evaluation and the assessment of their automatic evaluation. We found that mismatch between self-reported ideal exercise frequency and actual exercise frequency over the previous 14 weeks could be regressed on the discrepancy between a relatively negative automatic and a more positive reflective evaluation. This study illustrates the potential of a dual-process approach to the measurement of evaluative responses and suggests that mistrusting one's negative spontaneous reaction to exercise and asserting a very positive reflective evaluation instead leads to the adoption of inflated exercise goals.


Assuntos
Afeto , Exercício/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Autorrelato , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Psychol ; 7: 1226, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27582720

RESUMO

Neuroenhancement (NE) is the non-medical use of psychoactive substances to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience. So far empirical investigations of individuals' motivation for NE however have been hampered by the lack of theoretical foundation. This study aimed to apply drug instrumentalization theory to user motivation for NE. We argue that NE should be defined and analyzed from a behavioral perspective rather than in terms of the characteristics of substances used for NE. In the empirical study we explored user behavior by analyzing relationships between drug options (use over-the-counter products, prescription drugs, illicit drugs) and postulated drug instrumentalization goals (e.g., improved cognitive performance, counteracting fatigue, improved social interaction). Questionnaire data from 1438 university students were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to address the question of whether analysis of drug instrumentalization should be based on the assumption that users are aiming to achieve a certain goal and choose their drug accordingly or whether NE behavior is more strongly rooted in a decision to try or use a certain drug option. We used factor mixture modeling to explore whether users could be separated into qualitatively different groups defined by a shared "goal × drug option" configuration. Our results indicate, first, that individuals' decisions about NE are eventually based on personal attitude to drug options (e.g., willingness to use an over-the-counter product but not to abuse prescription drugs) rather than motivated by desire to achieve a specific goal (e.g., fighting tiredness) for which different drug options might be tried. Second, data analyses suggested two qualitatively different classes of users. Both predominantly used over-the-counter products, but "neuroenhancers" might be characterized by a higher propensity to instrumentalize over-the-counter products for virtually all investigated goals whereas "fatigue-fighters" might be inclined to use over-the-counter products exclusively to fight fatigue. We believe that psychological investigations like these are essential, especially for designing programs to prevent risky behavior.

12.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 38(2): 138-48, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27385674

RESUMO

This multistudy report used an experimental approach to alter automatic evaluations of exercise (AEE). First, we investigated the plasticity of AEE (study 1). A computerized evaluative conditioning task was developed that altered the AEE of participants in two experimental groups (acquisition of positive/negative associations involving exercising) and a control group (η2 part. = .11). Second, we examined connections between changes in AEE and subsequent exercise behavior (chosen intensity on a bike ergometer; study 2) in individuals that were placed in groups according to their baseline AEE. Group differences in exercise behavior were detected (η2 part. = .29). The effect was driven by the performance of the group with preexisting negative AEE that acquired more positive associations. This illustrates the effect of altered AEE on subsequent exercise behavior and the potential of AEE as a target for exercise intervention.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Exercício/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Motivação , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Volição
13.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 11(4): 546-73, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27474142

RESUMO

Good self-control has been linked to adaptive outcomes such as better health, cohesive personal relationships, success in the workplace and at school, and less susceptibility to crime and addictions. In contrast, self-control failure is linked to maladaptive outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms by which self-control predicts behavior may assist in promoting better regulation and outcomes. A popular approach to understanding self-control is the strength or resource depletion model. Self-control is conceptualized as a limited resource that becomes depleted after a period of exertion resulting in self-control failure. The model has typically been tested using a sequential-task experimental paradigm, in which people completing an initial self-control task have reduced self-control capacity and poorer performance on a subsequent task, a state known as ego depletion Although a meta-analysis of ego-depletion experiments found a medium-sized effect, subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the size and existence of the effect and identified instances of possible bias. The analyses served as a catalyst for the current Registered Replication Report of the ego-depletion effect. Multiple laboratories (k = 23, total N = 2,141) conducted replications of a standardized ego-depletion protocol based on a sequential-task paradigm by Sripada et al. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed that the size of the ego-depletion effect was small with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that encompassed zero (d = 0.04, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.15]. We discuss implications of the findings for the ego-depletion effect and the resource depletion model of self-control.


Assuntos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autocontrole , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Psychol ; 7: 838, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27313559

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine how automatic evaluations of exercising (AEE) varied according to adherence to an exercise program. Eighty-eight participants (24.98 years ± 6.88; 51.1% female) completed a Brief-Implicit Association Task assessing their AEE, positive and negative associations to exercising at the beginning of a 3-month exercise program. Attendance data were collected for all participants and used in a cluster analysis of adherence patterns. Three different adherence patterns (52 maintainers, 16 early dropouts, 20 late dropouts; 40.91% overall dropouts) were detected using cluster analyses. Participants from these three clusters differed significantly with regard to their positive and negative associations to exercising before the first course meeting ([Formula: see text] = 0.07). Discriminant function analyses revealed that positive associations to exercising was a particularly good discriminating factor. This is the first study to provide evidence of the differential impact of positive and negative associations on exercise behavior over the medium term. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of evaluative processes from a dual-process perspective and may provide a basis for targeted interventions.

15.
BMC Neurosci ; 17(1): 18, 2016 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27142046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deception can distort psychological tests on socially sensitive topics. Understanding the cerebral processes that are involved in such faking can be useful in detection and prevention of deception. Previous research shows that faking a brief implicit association test (BIAT) evokes a characteristic ERP response. It is not yet known whether temporarily available self-control resources moderate this response. We randomly assigned 22 participants (15 females, 24.23 ± 2.91 years old) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design. Participants first completed a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on doping attitudes as a baseline measure and were then instructed to fake a negative doping attitude both when self-control resources were depleted and non-depleted. Cerebral activity during BIAT performance was assessed using high-density EEG. RESULTS: Compared to the baseline BIAT, event-related potentials showed a first interaction at the parietal P1, while significant post hoc differences were found only at the later occurring late positive potential. Here, significantly decreased amplitudes were recorded for 'normal' faking, but not in the depletion condition. In source space, enhanced activity was found for 'normal' faking in the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Behaviorally, participants were successful in faking the BIAT successfully in both conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that temporarily available self-control resources do not affect overt faking success on a BIAT. However, differences were found on an electrophysiological level. This indicates that while on a phenotypical level self-control resources play a negligible role in deliberate test faking the underlying cerebral processes are markedly different.


Assuntos
Associação , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Decepção , Eletroencefalografia , Testes Psicológicos , Autocontrole , Adulto , Atitude , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Ego , Potenciais Evocados , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Psychol ; 7: 101, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26903909

RESUMO

Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants' willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

17.
Int J Drug Policy ; 31: 51-5, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research indicates that the use of prescription drugs to enhance cognitive functioning is prevalent in Western countries, however, research on this phenomenon in Arab countries is lacking. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency of neuroenhancement (NE) using prescription drugs in a sample of employees in Jordan. METHODS: A sample of 1186 employees (37.11±8.37 years old, 495 female), of whom 723 (35.65±7.53 years old, 396 female) served as teachers, completed a paper-pencil questionnaire. The single sample count technique (SSC) was used in order to secure confidential, self-reporting of prescription drug NE. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence of NE, estimated with the SSC was 15.43%. At 26.16%, the prevalence estimate was markedly higher in the subsample of teachers compared to non-teachers, 0.29%. Surprisingly, 336 participants did not use the SSC and directly affirmed or denied prescription drug NE. These direct responses yielded a prevalence of 11.57% for the full sample, 9.73% for the teachers and 15.60% for the non-teachers. CONCLUSION: This is the first study of the frequency of NE in an Arab sample. Results indicate that the use of prescription drug NE is not limited to Western countries and that teachers in Jordan might constitute a high-risk population. Further, participants seem to differ in their use of indirect estimation methods for reporting prescription drug NE. For future research, it might be useful to triangulate standard self-reports and indirect estimation methods to assess NE. Possible cultural differences and specific high-risk populations for NE should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Automedicação/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Jordânia , Masculino , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Automedicação/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 9: 139, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26074798

RESUMO

Direct assessment of attitudes toward socially sensitive topics can be affected by deception attempts. Reaction-time based indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), are less susceptible to such biases. Neuroscientific evidence shows that deception can evoke characteristic ERP differences. However, the cerebral processes involved in faking an IAT are still unknown. We randomly assigned 20 university students (15 females, 24.65 ± 3.50 years of age) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design, requesting them to complete a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping without deception instruction, and with the instruction to fake positive and negative doping attitudes. Cerebral activity during BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Event-related potentials during faking revealed enhanced frontal and reduced occipital negativity, starting around 150 ms after stimulus presentation. Further, a decrease in the P300 and LPP components was observed. Source analyses showed enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus between 150 and 200 ms during faking, thought to reflect the suppression of automatic responses. Further, more activity was found for faking in the bilateral middle occipital gyri and the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Results indicate that faking reaction-time based tests alter brain processes from early stages of processing and reveal the cortical sources of the effects. Analyzing the EEG helps to uncover response patterns in indirect attitude tests and broadens our understanding of the neural processes involved in such faking. This knowledge might be useful for uncovering faking in socially sensitive contexts, where attitudes are likely to be concealed.

20.
Int J Drug Policy ; 26(11): 1130-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26094122

RESUMO

One of the fundamental challenges in anti-doping is identifying athletes who use, or are at risk of using, prohibited performance enhancing substances. The growing trend to employ a forensic approach to doping control aims to integrate information from social sciences (e.g., psychology of doping) into organised intelligence to protect clean sport. Beyond the foreseeable consequences of a positive identification as a doping user, this task is further complicated by the discrepancy between what constitutes a doping offence in the World Anti-Doping Code and operationalized in doping research. Whilst psychology plays an important role in developing our understanding of doping behaviour in order to inform intervention and prevention, its contribution to the array of doping diagnostic tools is still in its infancy. In both research and forensic settings, we must acknowledge that (1) socially desirable responding confounds self-reported psychometric test results and (2) that the cognitive complexity surrounding test performance means that the response-time based measures and the lie detector tests for revealing concealed life-events (e.g., doping use) are prone to produce false or non-interpretable outcomes in field settings. Differences in social-cognitive characteristics of doping behaviour that are tested at group level (doping users vs. non-users) cannot be extrapolated to individuals; nor these psychometric measures used for individual diagnostics. In this paper, we present a position statement calling for policy guidance on appropriate use of psychometric assessments in the pursuit of clean sport. We argue that, to date, both self-reported and response-time based psychometric tests for doping have been designed, tested and validated to explore how athletes feel and think about doping in order to develop a better understanding of doping behaviour, not to establish evidence for doping. A false 'positive' psychological profile for doping affects not only the individual 'clean' athlete but also their entourage, their organisation and sport itself. The proposed policy guidance aims to protect the global athletic community against social, ethical and legal consequences from potential misuse of psychological tests, including erroneous or incompetent applications as forensic diagnostic tools in both practice and research.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Atletas , Cognição , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho , Políticas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA