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1.
Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am ; 32(1): 13-25, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798981

RESUMO

Individuals with a genetic susceptibility to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) may benefit from surveillance to increase the likelihood of early detection. Currently, candidates for surveillance are identified based on genetic test results and family history of PDAC, and surveillance is accomplished through imaging of the pancreas (endoscopic ultrasound or MRI). Novel methods that incorporate personalized risk, biomarkers, and radiomics are being investigated in an attempt to improve identification of at-risk individuals and to increase detection of precursor and early-stage lesions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive disease most often diagnosed after local progression or metastatic dissemination, precluding resection and resulting in a high mortality rate. For individuals with elevated personal risk of the development of pancreatic cancer, EUS is a frequently used advanced imaging and diagnostic modality. However, there is variability in the expertise and definition of EUS findings among gastroenterologists, as well as lack of standardized reporting of relevant findings at the time of examination. Adoption of standardized EUS reporting, using a universally accepted and agreed upon terminology, is needed. METHODS: A consensus statement designed to create a standardized reporting template was authored by a multidisciplinary group of experts in pancreatic diseases that includes gastroenterologists, radiologists, surgeons, oncologists, and geneticists. This statement was developed using a modified Delphi process as part of the Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Consortium (PRECEDE) and >75% agreement was required to reach consensus. RESULTS: We identified reporting elements and present standardized reporting templates for EUS indications, procedural data, EUS image capture, and descriptors of findings, tissue sampling, and for postprocedural assessment of adequacy. CONCLUSIONS: Adoption of this standardized EUS reporting template should improve consistency in clinical decision making for individuals with elevated risk of pancreatic cancer by providing complete and accurate reporting of pancreatic abnormalities. Standardization will also help to facilitate research and clinical trial design by using clearly defined and consistent imaging descriptions, thus allowing for comparison of results across different centers.

5.
Pancreatology ; 21(8): 1411-1418, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is associated with debilitating refractory pain. Distinct subtypes of CP pain have been previously characterized based on severity (none, mild-moderate, severe) and temporal (none, intermittent, constant) nature of pain, but no mechanism-based tools are available to guide pain management. This exploratory study was designed to determine if potential pain biomarkers could be detected in patient serum and whether they associate with specific pain patterns. METHODS: Cytokines, chemokines, and peptides associated with nociception and pain were measured in legacy serum samples from CP patients (N = 99) enrolled in the North American Pancreatitis Studies. The unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to cluster CP patients based on their biomarker profile. Classification and regression tree was used to assess whether these biomarkers can predict pain outcomes. RESULTS: The hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a subset of patients with predominantly constant, mild-moderate pain exhibited elevated interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) whereas patients with higher interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) were more likely to have severe pain. Interestingly, analyses of each individual biomarker revealed that patients with constant pain had reduced circulating TNFα and fractalkine. Patients with severe pain exhibited a significant reduction in TNFα as well as trends towards lower levels of IL-6 and substance P. DISCUSSION: The observations from this study indicate that unique pain experiences within the chronic pancreatitis population can be associated with distinct biochemical signatures. These data indicate that further hypothesis-driven analyses combining biochemical measurements and detailed pain phenotyping could be used to develop precision approaches for pain management in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642175

RESUMO

While the associations between individual lifestyle factors and risk of pancreatic cancer were studied extensively, their combined impact has not been examined. We evaluated the association of a composite score of healthy lifestyle factors, including body mass index, cigarette smoking, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), sleep duration, and physical activity with pancreatic cancer risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 63,257 Chinese aged 45 to 74 years at enrollment in 1993 to 1998 with up to 25 years of follow up. Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to estimate HR and its 95% confidence interval (CI) with adjustment for multiple potential confounders. We identified 316 incident pancreatic cancer cases among the cohort participants after a mean 17 years of follow up. Individuals with higher composite scores representing healthier lifestyle were at significantly lower risk of pancreatic cancer. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of pancreatic cancer incidence for the composite scores 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 to 7 were 0.60 (0.50-0.91), 0.48 (0.32-0.71), 0.45 (0.31-0.67), 0.41 (0.27-0.62), and 0.38 (0.24-0.62), respectively, compared with the scores 0 to 1 (P trend < 0.0001). The inverse association was more apparent among participants without diabetes history and was robust in men and women as well as in alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers. In summary, the association for pancreatic cancer risk was stronger for the aggregated than individual healthy lifestyle factors. These findings suggest that a more comprehensive lifestyle modification strategy would be more effective for prevention of pancreatic cancer than the change of a single lifestyle factor. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: In this large prospective Asian study, we calculated a composite score of healthy lifestyle factors, including body mass index, cigarette smoking, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), sleep duration, and physical activity and found this composite score was associated with a significant reduction in pancreatic cancer risk, by as much as 62%. This finding suggests that public health programs emphasizing comprehensive lifestyle modification strategy would be more effective for prevention of pancreatic cancer than the change of a single lifestyle factor.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To successfully implement imaging-based pancreatic cancer (PC) surveillance, it is key to understand the timeline and morphological features of neoplastic progression. We aimed to investigate the progression to neoplasia from serial prediagnostic pancreatic imaging tests in high-risk individuals, and identify factors associated with successful early detection. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the development of pancreatic abnormalities in high-risk individuals who were diagnosed with PC and/or underwent pancreatic surgery in 16 international surveillance programs. RESULTS: Of 2552 high-risk individuals under surveillance, 28 (1%) developed neoplastic progression to PC or high-grade dysplasia during follow-up (median 29 months after baseline, IQR 40). 46% (13/28) presented with a new lesion (median size 15 mm, range 7-57), a median of 11 months (IQR 8, range 3-17) after a prior examination, by which time 77% (10/13) had progressed beyond the pancreas. The other 54% (15/28) had neoplastic progression in a previously detected lesion (12 originally cystic, 2 indeterminate, 1 solid); 11 (73%) had PC progressed beyond the pancreas. The 12 patients with cysts had been followed for 21 months (IQR 15) and had a median growth of 5 mm/year (IQR 8). Successful early detection (as high-grade dysplasia or PC confined to the pancreas) was associated with resection of cystic lesions (versus solid or indeterminate lesions, OR 5.388, 95%CI 1.525-19.029) and small lesions (OR 0.890/mm, 95%CI 0.812-0.976). CONCLUSION: Nearly half of high-risk individuals developing high-grade dysplasia or PC have no prior lesions detected by imaging, yet present at an advanced stage. Progression can occur before the next scheduled annual examination. More sensitive diagnostic tools or a different management strategy for rapidly-growing cysts are needed.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(22): 6135-6144, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465601

RESUMO

PURPOSE: DNA methylation alterations have emerged as front-runners in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) biomarker development. However, much effort to date has focused on single cancers. In this context, gastrointestinal (GI) cancers constitute the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide; yet there is no blood-based assay for the early detection and population screening of GI cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Herein, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of multiple GI cancers to develop a pan-GI diagnostic assay. By analyzing DNA methylation data from 1,781 tumor and adjacent normal tissues, we first identified differentially methylated regions (DMR) between individual GI cancers and adjacent normal, as well as across GI cancers. We next prioritized a list of 67,832 tissue DMRs by incorporating all significant DMRs across various GI cancers to design a custom, targeted bisulfite sequencing platform. We subsequently validated these tissue-specific DMRs in 300 cfDNA specimens and applied machine learning algorithms to develop three distinct categories of DMR panels RESULTS: We identified three distinct DMR panels: (i) cancer-specific biomarker panels with AUC values of 0.98 (colorectal cancer), 0.98 (hepatocellular carcinoma), 0.94 (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma), 0.90 (gastric cancer), 0.90 (esophageal adenocarcinoma), and 0.85 (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma); (ii) a pan-GI panel that detected all GI cancers with an AUC of 0.88; and (iii) a multi-cancer (tissue of origin) prediction panel, EpiPanGI Dx, with a prediction accuracy of 0.85-0.95 for most GI cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Using a novel biomarker discovery approach, we provide the first evidence for a cfDNA methylation assay that offers robust diagnostic accuracy for GI cancers.

9.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 321(5): G449-G460, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523348

RESUMO

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a complex inflammatory disorder with numerous associated genetic and environmental risk factors. The most distressing characteristic of CP is recalcitrant pain, often requiring surgical resection including total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). We studied five consented subjects undergoing pancreatic resection and processed isolated cells for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq). Using high-dimensional transcriptomic cluster analysis, we identified 11 unique cell clusters in the pancreas tissue. These cell clusters include a cluster of undifferentiated/dedifferentiated cells and two unique clusters of acinar cells, one of which appears to be in a transitional stage. To determine the cellular response to protease inhibitor and stimulation, we treated aliquots of cells from one subject with a protease inhibitor cocktail with and without bethanechol (a muscarinic receptor agonist) at 100 and 400 µM and compared gene expression profiles. The protease inhibitors appeared to reduce cell stress. Pancreatic digestive enzymes and islet hormones were upregulated in both doses of bethanechol-treated cells compared with naïve cells. High-dose bethanechol appeared to be toxic and consistent with hyperstimulation. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of investigating human acinar cell physiology at the single-cell level and initial evidence that these cells retain responsiveness to agonist stimulation with predicted second messenger and transcriptomic responses.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We conducted single cell RNA sequencing on pancreas tissue from five individuals. We identified eleven unique cell clusters including a large population of dedifferentiated cells as well as two unique clusters of acinar cells, one of which appears to exist in a transitional state. We also examined the cellular response of pancreas tissue to stimulation and identified affected genes and pathways, including pancreatic digestive enzymes.


Assuntos
Células Acinares/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Células Acinares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Acinares/patologia , Desdiferenciação Celular , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Agonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/patologia , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Pancreatite Crônica/metabolismo , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/cirurgia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(11): 2068-2078, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited research has been conducted on the effect of quality diet index (QDI), which represents a comprehensive assessment of healthy diet quality and quantity, on pancreatic cancer risk in Asian populations. METHODS: Using data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 middle-aged or older Chinese men and women, four QDI scores: the Alternative Health Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and the Heathy Diet Indicator (HDI), at baseline were calculated. After 25 years of follow-up, 311 cohort participants developed pancreatic cancer. Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to estimate HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for pancreatic cancer associated with higher QDI scores. RESULTS: Higher scores of AHEI-2010, aMED, and DASH were significantly associated with lower pancreatic cancer risk (all P trend < 0.05). Compared with the lowest quartile, HRs (95% CIs) of pancreatic cancer for the highest quartiles of AHEI-2010, aMED, and DASH scores were 0.65 (0.46-0.90), 0.57 (0.38-0.85), and 0.66 (0.46-0.95), respectively. These associations were more apparent among men. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in the QDI-pancreatic cancer risk association between subgroups stratified by levels of body mass index, history of diabetes, and smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Higher QDI scores were significantly associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. IMPACT: The consistent results across multiple QDIs shows that adherence to a healthy diet may lower pancreatic cancer risk, suggesting that dietary modification may be a promising approach for primary prevention of pancreatic cancer.

12.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(10): 2128-2136, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236339

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are progressive inflammatory syndromes with variable features. Pain is the primary feature that contributes to low physical and mental quality of life with a third of patients reporting severe pain. Pain experience is worsened by depression. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk of the psychiatric conditions of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with pain in CP and RAP + CP subjects. METHODS: The study cohort included phenotyped and genotyped RAP and CP patients from the North American Pancreatitis Study II of European Ancestry. Candidate genetic association studies were based on the absence of pain vs pain that is constant, constant-severe, or severe. Twenty-eight candidate genetic loci for anxiety and PTSD risk were identified in the literature and were the focus of this study. RESULTS: We identified 24 significant pain-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms within 13 loci across the 3 pain patterns in CP and RAP + CP (P < 0.002). Thirteen anxiety or PTSD genes were within these pain loci indicating nonrandom associations (P < 4.885 × 10-23). CTNND2 was associated with all pain categories and all pancreatitis etiologies. Implicated systems include neuronal signaling (HTR2A, DRD3, NPY, and BDNF), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (NR3C1 and FKBP5), and cell-cell interaction (CTNND2 and THBS2). DISCUSSION: A component of constant and severe pain in patients with RAP and CP is associated with genetic predisposition to anxiety and PTSD. Identification of patients at risk eligible for trials of targeted treatment as a component of a multidisciplinary pain management strategy should be formally evaluated.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Dor/etiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/complicações , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico , /genética
13.
Pancreas ; 50(6): 807-814, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data from the International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium studies have demonstrated that screening for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma can be effective and that surveillance improves survival in high-risk individuals. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and cross-sectional imaging are both used, although there is some suggestion that EUS is superior. Demonstration of the cost-effectiveness of screening is important to implement screening in high-risk groups. METHODS: Results from centers with EUS-predominant screening were pooled to evaluate efficacy of index EUS in screening. A decision analysis model simulated the outcome of high-risk patients who undergo screening and evaluated the parameters that would make screening cost-effective at a US $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year willingness to pay. RESULTS: One-time index EUS has a sensitivity of 71.25% and specificity of 99.82% to detection to detect high-risk lesions. Screening with index EUS was cost-effective, particularly at lifetime pancreatic cancer probabilities of greater than 10.8%, or at lower probabilities if life expectancy after resection of a lesion that was at least 16 years, and if missed, lesion rates on index EUS are 5% or less. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic cancer screening can be cost-effective through index EUS, particularly for those individuals at high-lifetime risk of cancer.

14.
Pancreatology ; 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Smoking prevalence in patients with chronic pancreatitis [CP] is high. We aimed to understand lifetime history of smoking and cohort trends in CP patients to inform effective strategies for smoking cessation. METHOD: Data on 317 CP patients from the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 [NAPS2] Continuation and Validation Study and the NAPS2 Ancillary Study were analyzed. Smoking history was assessed for each phase of life from the onset of smoking to study enrollment. Data on second-hand smoke and drinking history were also collected. We compared demographic factors, drinking history, pain level and pancreas morphology by smoking status at age 25 (non-smoking, <1 pack per day [PPD], ≥1 PPD). We compared smoking prevalence by birth cohorts: 1930-1949, 1950-1969, 1970-1989. RESULT: Fifty-one percent of CP patients reported smoking at the time of enrollment. Those who smoked ≥1 PPD at age 25 smoked a cumulative total of 30.3 pack-years of cigarettes over a lifetime. Smoking at age 25 was associated with greater lifetime drinking and greater exposure to second-hand smoke at home and at workplace. Pancreatic atrophy and pseudocysts were more common among smokers. Pancreatic pain was more severe among smokers, and 12-13% of smokers reported smoking to alleviate pain. Male CP patients born in 1950-1969 reported the highest peak prevalence of smoking, and female CP patients born in 1970-1989 reported highest peak prevalence of smoking. CONCLUSION: CP patients exhibit intense and sustained smoking behavior once established in the 20s. Regardless, cohort analyses demonstrate that the behaviors could potentially be altered by policy changes.

15.
J Immunother ; 44(5): 185-192, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935273

RESUMO

Despite its increased application in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), complete response to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is rare. Given the critical role of host immunity in regulating cancer, we sought to correlate baseline inflammatory profiles to significant response to NAT. PDAC patients receiving NAT were classified as responders (R) or nonresponders (NR) by carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response, pathologic tumor size, and lymph node status in the resected specimen. Baseline (treatment-naive) plasma was analyzed to determine levels of 27 inflammatory mediators. Logistic regression was used to correlate individual mediators with response. Network analysis and Pearson correlation maps were derived to determine baseline inflammatory mediator profiles. Forty patients (20R and 20NR) met study criteria. The R showed significantly higher overall survival (59.4 vs. 21.25 mo, P=0.002) and disease-free survival (50.97 vs. 10.60 mo, P=0.005), compared with NR. soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha was a significant predictor of no response to NAT (P=0.045). Analysis of inflammatory profiles using the Pearson heat map analysis followed by network analysis depicted increased inflammatory network complexity in NR compared with R (1.69 vs. 1), signifying a more robust baseline inflammatory status of NR. A panel of inflammatory mediators identified by logistic regression and Fischer score analysis was used to create a potential decision tree to predict NAT response. We demonstrate that baseline inflammatory profiles are associated with response to NAT in PDAC, and that an upregulated inflammatory status is associated with a poor response to NAT. Further analysis into the role of inflammatory mediators as predictors of chemotherapy response is warranted.

16.
Gut ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have found aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX)/pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX)/death domain-associated protein (DAXX) and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to be promising prognostic biomarkers for non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NF-PanNETs). However, they have not been comprehensively evaluated, especially among small NF-PanNETs (≤2.0 cm). Moreover, their status in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) from other sites remains unknown. DESIGN: An international cohort of 1322 NETs was evaluated by immunolabelling for ARX/PDX1 and ATRX/DAXX, and telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridisation for ALT. This cohort included 561 primary NF-PanNETs, 107 NF-PanNET metastases and 654 primary, non-pancreatic non-functional NETs and NET metastases. The results were correlated with numerous clinicopathological features including relapse-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were associated with several adverse prognostic findings and distant metastasis/recurrence (p<0.001). The 5-year RFS rates for patients with ATRX/DAXX-negative and ALT-positive NF-PanNETs were 40% and 42% as compared with 85% and 86% for wild-type NF-PanNETs (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Shorter 5-year RFS rates for ≤2.0 cm NF-PanNETs patients were also seen with ATRX/DAXX loss (65% vs 92%, p=0.003) and ALT (60% vs 93%, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, ATRX/DAXX and ALT status were independent prognostic factors for RFS. Conversely, classifying NF-PanNETs by ARX/PDX1 expression did not independently correlate with RFS. Except for 4% of pulmonary carcinoids, ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were only identified in primary (25% and 29%) and NF-PanNET metastases (62% and 71%). CONCLUSIONS: ATRX/DAXX and ALT should be considered in the prognostic evaluation of NF-PanNETs including ≤2.0 cm tumours, and are highly specific for pancreatic origin among NET metastases of unknown primary.

17.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(7): 729-740, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893071

RESUMO

Early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is key to improving patient outcomes; however, PDAC is usually diagnosed late. Therefore, blood-based minimally invasive biomarker assays for limited volume clinical samples are urgently needed. A novel miRNA profiling platform (Abcam Fireplex-Oncology Panel) was used to investigate the feasibility of developing early detection miRNA biomarkers with 20 µL plasma from a training set (58 stage II PDAC cases and 30 controls) and two validation sets (34 stage II PDAC cases and 25 controls; 44 stage II PDAC cases and 18 controls). miR-34a-5p [AUC = 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.87], miR-130a-3p (AUC = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.84), and miR-222-3p (AUC = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58-0.81) were identified as significantly differentially abundant in plasma from stage II PDAC versus controls. Although none of the miRNAs individually outperformed the currently used serologic biomarker for PDAC, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), combining the miRNAs with CA 19-9 improved AUCs from 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.95) for CA 19-9 alone to 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.97), 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.98), and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.87-0.97), respectively. Gene set enrichment analyses of transcripts correlated with high and low expression of the three miRNAs in The Cancer Genome Atlas PDAC sample set. These miRNA biomarkers, assayed in limited volume plasma together with CA19-9, discriminate stage II PDAC from controls with good sensitivity and specificity. Unbiased profiling of larger cohorts should help develop an informative early detection biomarker assay for diagnostic settings. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Development of minimally invasive biomarker assays for detection of premalignant disease and early-stage pancreatic cancer is key to improving patient survival. This study describes a limited volume plasma miRNA biomarker assay that can detect early-stage resectable pancreatic cancer in clinical samples necessary for effective prevention and clinical intervention.

18.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic-related disruptions to EUS-based pancreatic cancer surveillance in high-risk individuals remain uncertain. METHODS: Analysis of enrolled participants in the CAPS5 Study, a prospective multicenter study of pancreatic cancer surveillance in high-risk individuals. RESULTS: Amongst 693 enrolled high-risk individuals under active surveillance, 108 (16%) had an EUS scheduled during the COVID-19 pandemic-related shutdown (median length of 78 days) in the spring of 2020, with 97% of these procedures being canceled. Of these canceled surveillance EUSs, 83% were rescheduled in a median of 4.1 months, however 17% were not rescheduled after 6 months follow-up. Prior history of cancer was associated with increased likelihood of rescheduling. To date no pancreatic cancer has been diagnosed among those whose surveillance was delayed. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 delayed pancreatic cancer surveillance with no adverse outcomes in efficiently rescheduled individuals. However, 1 in 6 high-risk individuals had not rescheduled surveillance, indicating the need for vigilance to ensure timely surveillance rescheduling.

19.
Histopathology ; 79(4): 573-583, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847404

RESUMO

AIMS: The hallmark of Lynch syndrome (LS) is DNA mismatch repair protein (MMR) deficiency. Recently, MMR deficiency in non-neoplastic colonic crypts has been identified as a novel indicator of LS. We aimed to determine whether MMR-deficient non-neoplastic endometrial glands can distinguish patients with and without LS, and to compare the level of MMR deficiency in the normal endometrium and colon in LS patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of MMR proteins in the normal endometrial mucosa from 64 patients, including 34 patients with confirmed LS (17 with endometrial cancer and 17 without cancer), 30 patients with endometrial cancer without LS (10 with tumours with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and 20 with MMR-proficient tumours), and in the normal colonic mucosa from 30 LS patients. MMR-deficient non-neoplastic endometrial glands were identified in 47% of LS patients and in no patients without LS (P < 0.001). MMR-deficient non-neoplastic glands were more often identified in LS patients with endometrial cancer (65%) than in those without endometrial cancer (29%) (P = 0.04). In contrast to what was seen in the normal colon, MMR-deficient glands in the normal endometrium were seen as large, contiguous groups, ranging in number from two to 101 (87% versus 45%, P = 0.02). MMR-deficient glands were identified at a higher density in the endometrium than in the colon in LS patients (median number of MMR-deficient glands, 22 versus two, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that MMR-deficient non-neoplastic endometrial glands constitute an indicator of LS, and that MMR-deficient glands in the endometrium are present in a pattern of contiguous large groups.

20.
Pancreatology ; 21(3): 649-657, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pain burn-out during the course of chronic pancreatitis (CP), proposed in the 1980s, remains controversial, and has clinical implications. We aimed to describe the natural course of pain in a well-characterized cohort. METHODS: We constructed the clinical course of 279 C P patients enrolled from 2000 to 2014 in the North American Pancreatitis Studies from UPMC by retrospectively reviewing their medical records (median observation period, 12.4 years). We assessed abdominal pain at different time points, characterized pain pattern (Type A [short-lived pain episodes] or B [persistent pain and/or clusters of recurrent severe pain]) and recorded information on relevant covariates. RESULTS: Pain at any time, at the end of follow-up, Type A pain pattern or B pain pattern was reported by 89.6%, 46.6%, 34% and 66% patients, respectively. In multivariable analyses, disease duration (time from first diagnosis of pancreatitis to end of observation) did not associate with pain - at last clinical contact (OR, 1.0, 95% CI 0.96-1.03), at NAPS2 enrollment (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.07) or Type B pain pattern (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97-1.04). Patients needing endoscopic or surgical therapy (97.8 vs. 75.2%, p < 0.001) and those with alcohol etiology (94.7 vs. 84.9%, p = 0.007) had a higher prevalence of pain. In multivariable analyses, invasive therapy associated with Type B pain and pain at last clinical contact. CONCLUSIONS: Only a subset of CP patients achieve durable pain relief. There is urgent need to develop new strategies to evaluate and manage pain, and to identify predictors of response to pain therapies for CP.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/fisiopatologia , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Pancreatite Crônica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
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