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1.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798793

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The treatment algorithm of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has evolved since the introduction of immunotherapy. The IMbrave150 trial set atezolizumab-bevacizumab as a new standard-of-care first-line treatment for unresectable HCC patients. However, for patients with intermediate or advanced stage with portal vein thrombosis but without distant metastases, 90Yttrium transarterial radioembolization (90Y-TARE) is considered the treatment of choice. AREAS COVERED: We discuss the main evidence regarding the use of 90Y-TARE in HCC, the recent progress of immunotherapy in this tumor, and the preclinical rationale of combining VEGF blockade with the other two treatment strategies. EXPERT OPINION: HCC has an extremely heterogeneous tumor immune microenvironment. This may explain the inconsistent outcomes obtained with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The identification of patients who could benefit most from immunotherapy is crucial; however, reliable markers of response are lacking. Radiation therapy and VEGF inhibition have an established synergism with immunotherapy, mainly linked to enhanced antigen presentation and reduced immunosuppressive immune infiltrate. Combining an immune-checkpoint inhibitor with VEGF blockade and 90Y-TARE might hence overcome primary resistances observed when each of these treatments is administerd alone.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802383

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) monotherapy appears to be effective in a small cohort of patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (mTNBC). This supports the exploration of strategies for increasing the efficacy of immunotherapy. To enhance overall response and clinical outcomes, several immune-based combinations are being investigated. AREAS COVERED: The authors present a synopsis of current, state of art immune-based combinations in this setting and reflect on future possibilities. They shed light on recently presented and published clinical trials and ongoing studies. A literature search was conducted in October 2021; in addition, abstracts of international cancer meetings were reviewed. EXPERT OPINION: Clinical trials suggest that ICI monotherapy could be beneficial in a minority of mTNBC patients; conversely, several immune-based combinations have reported notable results in recently presented or published studies. Some of these combination strategies have been approved for mTNBC - as in the case of chemoimmunotherapy in PD-L1 positive patients. Numerous trials are investigating novel ICI-based combinations and their results are eagerly awaited.

4.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536504

RESUMO

Prostate cancer remains the most frequently diagnosed non-skin malignancy in male patients, still representing one of the main causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Evidence is mounting that suggests the putative role of microbiota in the carcinogenesis as well as in modulating the efficacy and activity of anticancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeted therapies) in a large number of hematological and solid tumors. However, few data are available regarding the interactions between prostate cancer and microbiome so far, in particular in terms of the impact of microbiota on disease development, pathogenesis, and response to medical treatments in this genitourinary malignancy. Herein, we provide an overview of current knowledge, novel insights and emerging therapeutic approaches related to gastrointestinal and genitourinary microbiome in prostate cancer patients, especially focusing on available evidence and published trials on this topic.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576078

RESUMO

Recent pieces of evidence have emerged on the relevance of microorganisms in modulating responses to anticancer treatments and reshaping the tumor-immune microenvironment. On the one hand, many studies have addressed the role of the gut microbiota, providing interesting correlative findings with respect to etiopathogenesis and treatment responses. On the other hand, intra-tumoral bacteria are being recognized as intrinsic and essential components of the cancer microenvironment, able to promote a plethora of tumor-related aspects from cancer growth to resistance to chemotherapy. These elements will be probably more and more valuable in the coming years in early diagnosis and risk stratification. Furthermore, microbial-targeted intervention strategies may be used as adjuvants to current therapies to improve therapeutic responses and overall survival. This review focuses on new insights and therapeutic approaches that are dawning against pancreatic cancer: a neoplasm that arises in a central metabolic "hub" interfaced between the gut and the host.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/microbiologia , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Homeostase , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
7.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358103

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a recalcitrant disease characterized by high incidence and poor prognosis. The extremely complex genomic landscape of PC has a deep influence on cultivating a tumor microenvironment, resulting in the promotion of tumor growth, drug resistance, and immune escape mechanisms. Despite outstanding progress in personalized medicine achieved for many types of cancer, chemotherapy still represents the mainstay of treatment for PC. Olaparib was the first agent to demonstrate a significant benefit in a biomarker-selected population, opening the doors for a personalized approach. Despite the failure of a large number of studies testing targeted agents or immunotherapy to demonstrate benefits over standard chemotherapy regimens, some interesting agents, alone or in combination with other drugs, have achieved promising results. A wide spectrum of therapeutic strategies, including immune-checkpoint inhibitors tyrosine kinase inhibitors and agents targeting metabolic pathways or the tumor microenvironment, is currently under investigation. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current landscape and future directions of personalized medicine for patients affected by PC.

8.
Liver Cancer ; 10(4): 370-379, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414124

RESUMO

Introduction: Cabozantinib has been approved by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) previously treated with sorafenib. Cabozantinib is also being tested in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors in the frontline setting. Real-life clinical data of cabozantinib for HCC are still lacking. Moreover, the prognostic factors for HCC treated with cabozantinib have not been investigated. Methods: We evaluated clinical data and outcome of HCC patients who received cabozantinib in the legal context of named patient use in Italy. Results: Ninety-six patients from 15 centres received cabozantinib. All patients had preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A), mostly with an advanced HCC (77.1%) in a third-line setting (75.0%). The prevalence of performance status (PS) > 0, macrovascular invasion (MVI), extrahepatic spread, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) >400 ng/mL was 50.0, 30.2, 67.7, and 44.8%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were 12.1 (95% confidence interval 9.4-14.8) and 5.1 (3.3-6.9) months, respectively. Most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were fatigue (67.7%), diarrhoea (54.2%), anorexia (45.8%), HFSR (43.8%), weight loss (24.0%), and hypertension (24.0%). Most common treatment-related Grade 3-4 AEs were fatigue (6.3%), HFSR (6.3%), and increased aminotransferases (6.3%). MVI, ECOG-PS > 0, and AFP >400 ng/mL predicted a worse OS. Discontinuation for intolerance and no new extrahepatic lesions at the progression were associated with better outcomes. Conclusions: In a real-life Western scenario (mostly in a third-line setting), cabozantinib efficacy and safety data were comparable with those reported in its registration trial. Data regarding the prognostic factors might help in patient selection and design of clinical trials.

10.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407053

RESUMO

The administration of approved systemic treatments for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited to patients with preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A/B7) and performance status. Conversely, metronomic chemotherapy can be safely administered to patients with poor clinical conditions and severe liver impairment. The metronomic schedule demonstrated to exert different anticancer mechanisms compared to that of the same agent administered at its standard schedule, including immune stimulation and the inhibition of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Nevertheless, metronomic chemotherapy is a nearly neglected option for the treatment of advanced HCC patients, even among those who cannot afford standard treatments. Herein, we report the case of a 40-year-old patient affected by HBV-HDV-related cirrhosis who was diagnosed with advanced HCC. The severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh B9) did not allow to administer first-line treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors so that the patient received metronomic capecitabine as upfront therapy. Due to the suspect of progressive disease at the first radiologic assessment, metronomic cyclophosphamide was added to capecitabine aiming to enhance its efficacy. After 4 months of treatment, complete tumor response, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) normalization and the recovery of a Child-Pugh A were achieved. The patient was then able to undergo liver transplantation, and, after 18 months from the diagnosis, he is still free of disease recurrence. This experience emphasizes the reliability of metronomic capecitabine as a well-tolerated and effective treatment when patient's conditions prevent the administration of standard first-line treatments. In fact, metronomic capecitabine demonstrated its effectiveness in advanced HCC in retrospective and prospective analyses, leading to median progression-free survival and overall survival of, respectively, 6.03 and 14.47 months in phase II single-arm trial. Moreover, in consideration of the raising interest in immune-checkpoint inhibition in HCC, we believe that the immunomodulating effects of metronomic chemotherapy, either capecitabine or cyclophosphamide, warrant future trials exploring its combination with immunotherapy.

11.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(11): 1245-1251, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy has recently taken on an extremely important role in medical oncology, as first- or later-line treatment in several tumor types, and recent years have seen the emerging of clinical trials assessing immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AREAS COVERED: Herein, we provide an overview of recently published studies exploring the dual immune checkpoint blockade or the combination of ICIs plus biological treatments as first-line treatment in HCC patients with advanced disease, especially focusing on the biological rationale behind these therapeutic strategies, and ongoing active and recruiting clinical trials. EXPERT OPINION: Results of studies on monotherapy with ICIs have suggested that this strategy could be beneficial only in a minority of patients; conversely, the recently published IMbrave150 study has reported an overall survival benefit in HCC receiving the combination of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab compared to sorafenib as first-line treatment. A wide number of clinical trials is evaluating ICI-based combinations in advanced HCC, a strategy which is supported by robust preclinical and early-phase clinical data, and results of these studies are highly awaited.

13.
J Chemother ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313188

RESUMO

Advanced biliary tract cancer (aBTC) comprises a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies with dismal prognosis. Given the scarcity of prospective evidence, the aim of this study was to derive clinically useful insights and prognostic factors from a large, real-world series of aBTC. Clinicopathologic variables and treatment outcomes were retrospectively collected involving 940 patients diagnosed with aBTC between 2001 and 2017, and treated with first-line chemotherapy (CT1) at 14 Italian medical oncology institutions. Median overall survival (OS) was 10.3 months (CI95% 9.5-11.1). CT1 with gemcitabine-Platinum salts doublets achieved OS of 11.7 months vs 7.5 with gemcitabine alone (HR 0.67, p < 0.001). However, a clear temporal trend towards improved OS could not be demonstrated. Radical surgery of recurrent disease achieved a relapse-free survival of 5.9 months. A substantial minority (44.5%) of patients were able to receive a second-line chemotherapy, which achieved a response rate of 7.6%, and disease control in 30% of patients with no significant differences between combination regimens and monotherapies. In a large retrospective series of real-world aBTC, outcomes of standard CT1 closely resembled those of the registrational trials. A limited set of easily retrievable independent prognostic factors was defined. Further research is needed on second-line regimens.

14.
Acta Oncol ; 60(10): 1317-1324, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of advanced biliary tract cancer (aBTC) is represented by first-line chemotherapy (CT1). However, some patients do not gain any benefit from CT1, contributing to the overall dismal prognosis of aBTC. The present study aimed to devise a prognostic model in aBTC patients receiving CT1. METHODS: A large panel of clinical, laboratory, and pathology variables, available before the start of CT1, were retrospectively assessed in a multi-centric cohort to determine their prognostic value on univariate and multivariate regression analysis. The variables that showed a significant correlation with overall survival (OS) were computed in a three-tier prognostic score. External validation of the prognostication performance was carried out. RESULTS: Clinical histories of 935 patients (median OS 10.3 months), with diagnosis dates ranging from 2001 to 2017, were retrieved from 14 institutions. According to multivariate analysis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, carbohydrate antigen 19.9, albumin levels, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were strongly associated with OS (p <0.01). The prognostic score could generate a highly significant stratification (all between-group p values ≤0.001) into groups of favorable (comprising 51.5% of the sample), intermediate (39.2%), and poor prognosis (9.3%): median OS was 12.7 (CI95% 11.0-14.4), 7.1 (CI95% 5.8-8.4), and 3.2 months (CI95% 1.7-4.7), respectively. This OS gradient was replicated in the validation set (129 patients), with median OS of 12.7 (CI95% 11.0-14.3), 7.5 (CI95% 6.1-8.9), and 1.4 months (CI95% 0.1-2.7), respectively (all between-group p values ≤0.05). CONCLUSION: A prognostic score, derived from a limited set of easily-retrievable variables, efficiently stratified a large population of unselected aBTC patients undergoing CT1. This tool could be useful to clinicians, to ascertain the potential benefit from CT1 at the start of treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Linfócitos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 15(2): 152, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141431

RESUMO

Among biliary tract cancers, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) has different characteristics compared with those in other sites. Current guidelines suggest several treatment options for ICC, including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). However, the role of SBRT in locally advanced ICC is unclear. The aim of the present study was to present a systematic review on the efficacy and safety of SBRT in ICC. A systematic review based on the PRISMA methodology was performed. Only papers reporting outcomes in terms of overall survival (OS) after SBRT in inoperable patients with ICC were included. Secondary aims were local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS) and treatment-related toxicity. Six papers (145 patients) were included in the present analysis. SBRT was frequently used as a salvage treatment, since 28.6-66.7% of patients received previous systemic or local treatments. The median SBRT dose was 45 Gy delivered in 3-5 fractions. The median follow-up was 16 months, and median OS time was 14 months (range, 10-48 months). In one of the included studies, SBRT was significantly superior in terms of OS compared with both chemoradiation and trans-arterial-radio-embolization. The 1-year LC rate was 85% in one study, and 1-year PFS rates were 50 and 68% in two studies, respectively. Toxicity was generally not reported in detail or was reported including other sites of biliary cancers. Overall, limited evidence was available on the efficacy of SBRT in ICC, which should be further investigated in prospective studies with a larger number of patients. However, based on the available data, SBRT seems to produce similar results compared with other ICC treatments, with the advantage of being a very short and non-invasive therapy. Therefore, SBRT should be considered in selected patients with ICC.

17.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167433

RESUMO

Introduction: While sorafenib monotherapy represented the mainstay of medical treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients for more than a decade, novel agents and combination therapies have recently produced unprecedented paradigm shifts. The combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab is now being evaluated as a front-line treatment in advanced HCC patients; early phase clinical trials have already reported promising results.Areas covered: This paper reviews the combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab for the treatment of advanced HCC. The preclinical rationale and completed and ongoing trials are examined and later, the authors reflect on biomarkers of predictive of response to immune-based combinations and future treatment decision-making on the basis of tolerability and clinical benefits provided by these novel therapeutics. A literature search was conducted in April 2021 of Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library and Scopus databases; moreover, abstracts of international cancer meetings were reviewed.Expert opinion: The landscape of new agents and combinations continues to expand. Recently, immune-based combinations have reported important results in advanced HCC, as witnessed by the landmark IMbrave150 trial. Based on the promising results of early phase clinical trials, lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab has the potential to represent a novel treatment option in this setting.

18.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043239, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the guiding ethical principles that should be considered for critical resource allocation during pandemic emergency situations, and especially for the COVID-19 outbreak. The secondary objective was to define the priority to be assigned to each principle. SETTING: The study was conducted from March to June 2020 within the context of an ethical committee (EC) in Northern Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven EC members and five additional external healthcare and bioethical professionals, forming a multidisciplinary panel, took part in the study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The compilation of a list of ethical principles (maximum of 10 items) and their priority ranking and application within an emergency pandemic context was established as the expected outcome of this work. RESULTS: A consensus on 10 guiding ethical principles was reached by the multidisciplinary panel. Transparency ranked first on the priority list as the most frequently voted principle, followed by the number of lives saved, life-years saved, respect for individuals' autonomy and equity. Other principles including life cycle, 'sickest first', reciprocity, instrumental value and lottery were also considered appropriate as potential tiebreakers. These principles were discussed and made consistent with the current Italian pandemic context by producing an explanatory document. CONCLUSIONS: The identified principles could be used in preparedness plans to guide resource allocation during pandemic events. By combining their rank and relevance in relation to disease, health system organisations, social and economic settings, and critical resources at risk of scarcity, these principles could help to maximise the benefit of resource use for the community, thus reducing inequalities for individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Triagem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The need to estimate prognosis of advanced BTC (aBTC) patients treated with first-line chemotherapy is compelling. The aim of the study is to evaluate the ECSIPOT (psECogSIiPnigOT) index, influenced by PECS (PsECogSii) index, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and GOT. METHODS: This international study was conducted on a training cohort of 126 patients and in three validation cohorts, both European and Korean. ECSIPOT index formula: (PECS:0 = 1 point; PECS:1 = 1.4 points; PECS:2 = 3.2 points) + (PNI > 36.7 = 1 point; PNI < 36.7 = 2 points) + (GOT < 100 = 1 point; GOT > 100 = 2 points). Event-time distributions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: In the training cohort, mOS was 12.9, 6.3, and 2.8 months for patients with ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 2.11; ECSIPOT-2: HR 4.93; p < 0.0001). In the first validation cohort, mOS was 11.5, 7.3, and 3.3 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 1.74; ECSIPOT-2: HR 3.41; p < 0.0001). In the second validation cohort, mOS was 25.2, 12.5, and 3.0 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR = 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 2.33; ECSIPOT-2: HR 8.46; p < 0.0001). In the third validation cohort, mOS was 11.8, 8.1, and 4.6 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR = 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 1.47; ECSIPOT-2: HR 3.17; p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis in all cohorts confirmed the ECSIPOT index as an independent prognostic factor for OS. CONCLUSION: The easy assessment and good risk-stratification performance make the ECSIPOT index a promising tool to comprehensively estimate the prognosis of aBTC patients.

20.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 8474-8478, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977731

RESUMO

Orbital metastases are an extremely rare finding in patients with hepatocarcinoma (HCC), especially as its first presentation. Therefore, the risk of misdiagnosis is high, as well as that of drastic delays of the therapeutic algorithm. Here we report a 71-year-old man presenting with orbital metastases as the initial sign of HCC, whose initial misdiagnosis led to the impossibility to start life-saving cancer treatment. The patient's history has begun on March 2018 with a growing tumefaction of the right orbit initially treted with antibiotics and corticosteroids without benefit. Subsequently, a facial CT scan showed a voluminous right intra-orbital mass, eroding the orbital roof. Tissue biopsy documented well differentiated malignant epithelial tumor cells. Under the suspect of primitive lachrymal gland tumor, the patient was admitted to the head and neck Unit with surgical intent. However, a subsequent 18F-FDG-PET documented the presence of liver lesions and multiple sites of metastasis. A new biopsy, this time on liver nodules, was carried out and the diagnosis of HCC was finally made. Samples from the first biopsy were then reviewed and judged consistent with HCC metastasis. Unfortunately, the initial misdiagnosis resulted in a six-month delay of the start of a therapeutic approach. During that time, patient's general conditions got extremely worse, making him unable to afford an antiblastic treatment. The patient died three months after the definitive diagnosis. This case suggests that the presence of intraorbital lesion requires a multimodal approach starting from the initial presentation. Performing a complete staging since tumor's clinical onset is mandatory, preferably before carrying out a tissue biopsy. Even though HCC represents a rare cause of intraocular metastasis, it needs to be ruled out when an orbital mass is documented, as the short median survival and the frequently poor conditions of HCC patients make a timely diagnosis crucial.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Orbitárias , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Neoplasias Orbitárias/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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