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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(24): 243202, 2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563275

RESUMO

When atoms are excited to high-lying Rydberg states they interact strongly with dipolar forces. The resulting state-dependent level shifts allow us to study many-body systems displaying intriguing nonequilibrium phenomena, such as constrained spin systems, and are at the heart of numerous technological applications, e.g., in quantum simulation and computation platforms. Here, we show that these interactions also have a significant impact on dissipative effects caused by the inevitable coupling of Rydberg atoms to the surrounding electromagnetic field. We demonstrate that their presence modifies the frequency of the photons emitted from the Rydberg atoms, making it dependent on the local neighborhood of the emitting atom. Interactions among Rydberg atoms thus turn spontaneous emission into a many-body process which manifests, in a thermodynamically consistent Markovian setting, in the emergence of collective jump operators in the quantum master equation governing the dynamics. We discuss how this collective dissipation-stemming from a mechanism different from the much studied superradiance and subradiance-accelerates decoherence and affects dissipative phase transitions in Rydberg ensembles.

2.
Phys Rev E ; 105(5): L052102, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706185

RESUMO

We analyze the performance of slowly driven meso- and microscale refrigerators and heat engines that operate between two thermal baths with a small temperature difference. Using a general scaling argument, we show that such devices can work arbitrarily close to their Carnot limit only if heat leaks between the baths are fully suppressed. Their power output is then subject to a universal geometric bound that decays quadratically to zero at the Carnot limit. This bound can be asymptotically saturated in the quasistatic limit if the driving protocols are suitably optimized and the temperature difference between the baths goes to zero with the driving frequency. These results hold under generic conditions for any thermodynamically consistent dynamics admitting a well-defined adiabatic-response regime and a generalized Onsager symmetry. For illustration, we work out models of a qubit-refrigerator and a coherent charge pump operating as a cooling device.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(4): 040602, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058746

RESUMO

We develop a general framework to describe the thermodynamics of microscopic heat engines driven by arbitrary periodic temperature variations and modulations of a mechanical control parameter. Within the slow-driving regime, our approach leads to a universal trade-off relation between efficiency and power, which follows solely from geometric arguments and holds for any thermodynamically consistent microdynamics. Focusing on Lindblad dynamics, we derive a second bound showing that coherence as a genuine quantum effect inevitably reduces the performance of slow engine cycles regardless of the driving amplitudes. To show how our theory can be applied in practice, we work out a specific example, which lies within the range of current solid-state technologies.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(24): 240602, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412035

RESUMO

Quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium can host intriguing phenomena such as transitions to exotic dynamical states. Although this emergent behaviour can be observed in experiments, its potential for technological applications is largely unexplored. Here, we investigate the impact of collective effects on quantum engines that extract mechanical work from a many-body system. Using an optomechanical cavity setup with an interacting atomic gas as a working fluid, we demonstrate theoretically that such engines produce work under periodic driving. The stationary cycle of the working fluid features nonequilibrium phase transitions, resulting in abrupt changes of the work output. Remarkably, we find that our many-body quantum engine operates even without periodic driving. This phenomenon occurs when its working fluid enters a phase that breaks continuous time-translation symmetry: The emergent time-crystalline phase can sustain the motion of a load generating mechanical work. Our findings pave the way for designing novel nonequilibrium quantum machines.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(13): 130601, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312036

RESUMO

Thermodynamic uncertainty relations (TURs) are recently established relations between the relative uncertainty of time-integrated currents and entropy production in nonequilibrium systems. For small perturbations away from equilibrium, linear response (LR) theory provides the natural framework to study generic nonequilibrium processes. Here, we use LR to derive TURs in a straightforward and unified way. Our approach allows us to generalize TURs to systems without local time-reversal symmetry, including, e.g., ballistic transport and periodically driven classical and quantum systems. We find that, for broken time reversal, the bounds on the relative uncertainty are controlled both by dissipation and by a parameter encoding the asymmetry of the Onsager matrix. We illustrate our results with an example from mesoscopic physics. We also extend our approach beyond linear response: for Markovian dynamics, it reveals a connection between the TUR and current fluctuation theorems.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(9): 090601, 2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547314

RESUMO

For classical ballistic transport in a multiterminal geometry, we derive a universal trade-off relation between total dissipation and the precision, at which particles are extracted from individual reservoirs. Remarkably, this bound becomes significantly weaker in the presence of a magnetic field breaking time-reversal symmetry. By working out an explicit model for chiral transport enforced by a strong magnetic field, we show that our bounds are tight. Beyond the classical regime, we find that, in quantum systems far from equilibrium, the correlated exchange of particles makes it possible to exponentially reduce the thermodynamic cost of precision.

7.
Phys Rev E ; 97(1-1): 012115, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29448488

RESUMO

The complex zeros of partition functions were originally investigated by Lee and Yang to explain the behavior of condensing gases. Since then, Lee-Yang zeros have become a powerful tool to describe phase transitions in interacting systems. Today, Lee-Yang zeros are no longer just a theoretical concept; they have been determined in recent experiments. In one approach, the Lee-Yang zeros are extracted from the high cumulants of thermodynamic observables at finite size. Here we employ this method to investigate a phase transition in a molecular zipper. From the energy fluctuations in small zippers, we can predict the temperature at which a phase transition occurs in the thermodynamic limit. Even when the system does not undergo a sharp transition, the Lee-Yang zeros carry important information about the large-deviation statistics and its symmetry properties. Our work suggests an interesting duality between fluctuations in small systems and their phase behavior in the thermodynamic limit. These predictions may be tested in future experiments.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(17): 170602, 2017 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29219425

RESUMO

We identify a universal indicator for the impact of coherence on periodically driven quantum devices by dividing their power output into a classical contribution and one stemming solely from superpositions. Specializing to Lindblad dynamics and small driving amplitudes, we derive general upper bounds on both the coherent and the total power of cyclic heat engines. These constraints imply that, for sufficiently slow driving, coherence inevitably leads to power losses in the linear-response regime. We illustrate our theory by working out the experimentally relevant example of a single-qubit engine.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(18): 180601, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28524675

RESUMO

Statistical physics provides the concepts and methods to explain the phase behavior of interacting many-body systems. Investigations of Lee-Yang zeros-complex singularities of the free energy in systems of finite size-have led to a unified understanding of equilibrium phase transitions. The ideas of Lee and Yang, however, are not restricted to equilibrium phenomena. Recently, Lee-Yang zeros have been used to characterize nonequilibrium processes such as dynamical phase transitions in quantum systems after a quench or dynamic order-disorder transitions in glasses. Here, we experimentally realize a scheme for determining Lee-Yang zeros in such nonequilibrium settings. We extract the dynamical Lee-Yang zeros of a stochastic process involving Andreev tunneling between a normal-state island and two superconducting leads from measurements of the dynamical activity along a trajectory. From the short-time behavior of the Lee-Yang zeros, we predict the large-deviation statistics of the activity which is typically difficult to measure. Our method paves the way for further experiments on the statistical mechanics of many-body systems out of equilibrium.

10.
Phys Rev E ; 93(6): 062134, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27415235

RESUMO

The thermodynamics of quantum systems coupled to periodically modulated heat baths and work reservoirs is developed. By identifying affinities and fluxes, the first and the second law are formulated consistently. In the linear response regime, entropy production becomes a quadratic form in the affinities. Specializing to Lindblad dynamics, we identify the corresponding kinetic coefficients in terms of correlation functions of the unperturbed dynamics. Reciprocity relations follow from symmetries with respect to time reversal. The kinetic coefficients can be split into a classical and a quantum contribution subject to an additional constraint, which follows from a natural detailed balance condition. This constraint implies universal bounds on efficiency and power of quantum heat engines. In particular, we show that Carnot efficiency cannot be reached whenever quantum coherence effects are present, i.e., when the Hamiltonian used for work extraction does not commute with the bare system Hamiltonian. For illustration, we specialize our universal results to a driven two-level system in contact with a heat bath of sinusoidally modulated temperature.

11.
Phys Rev E ; 93: 042112, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27176259

RESUMO

We consider the performance of periodically driven stochastic heat engines in the linear response regime. Reaching the theoretical bounds for efficiency and efficiency at maximum power typically requires full control over the design and the driving of the system. We develop a framework which allows us to quantify the role that limited control over the system has on the performance. Specifically, we show that optimizing the driving entering the work extraction for a given temperature protocol leads to a universal, one-parameter dependence for both maximum efficiency and maximum power as a function of efficiency. In particular, we show that reaching Carnot efficiency (and, hence, Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency at maximum power) requires to have control over the amplitude of the full Hamiltonian of the system. Since the kinetic energy cannot be controlled by an external parameter, heat engines based on underdamped dynamics can typically not reach Carnot efficiency. We illustrate our general theory with a paradigmatic case study of a heat engine consisting of an underdamped charged particle in a modulated two-dimensional harmonic trap in the presence of a magnetic field.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25679584

RESUMO

For thermoelectric power generation in a multiterminal geometry, strong numerical evidence for a universal bound as a function of the magnetic-field induced asymmetry of the nondiagonal Onsager coefficients is presented. This bound implies, inter alia, that the power vanishes at least linearly when the maximal efficiency is approached. In particular, this result rules out that Carnot efficiency can be reached at finite power, which an analysis based on the second law only would, in principle, allow.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 112(14): 140601, 2014 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24765938

RESUMO

We introduce a simple model for an engine based on the Nernst effect. In the presence of a magnetic field, a vertical heat current can drive a horizontal particle current against a chemical potential. For a microscopic model invoking classical particle trajectories subject to the Lorentz force, we prove a universal bound 3-2√2≃0.172 for the ratio between the maximum efficiency and the Carnot efficiency. This bound, as the slightly lower one 1/6 for efficiency at maximum power, can indeed be saturated for a large magnetic field and small fugacity.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(7): 070603, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25166361

RESUMO

For thermoelectric transport in the presence of a magnetic field that breaks time-reversal symmetry, a strong bound on the Onsager coefficients is derived within a general setup using three terminals. Asymmetric Onsager coefficients lead to a maximum efficiency substantially smaller than the Carnot efficiency reaching only η(C)/4 in the limit of strong asymmetry. Related bounds are derived for efficiency at maximum power, which can become larger than the Curzon-Ahlborn value η(C)/2, and for a cooling device. Our approach reveals that in the presence of reversible currents the standard analysis based on the positivity of entropy production is incomplete without considering the role of current conservation explicitly.

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