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1.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oxidized guanine nucleosides, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), derived from DNA and RNA, respectively, were used to investigate the importance of oxidative stress to nucleic acids in vivo. High urinary excretion of 8-oxodG is associated with cancer development, whereas high urinary excretion of 8-oxoGuo is associated with mortality in type 2 diabetes. Like creatinine, these small water-soluble molecules are not reabsorbed in the kidney. Therefore, 8-oxo nucleoside/creatinine reciprocal concentration ratios are identical in plasma and urine. The total amount of 8-oxo guanine nucleosides excreted by the kidneys is the product of plasma concentration and glomerular filtration rate. METHODS: With relevant equations and an estimated glomerular filtration rate, the 24-h urinary excretion of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo was calculated in 2679 subjects with type 2 diabetes, displaying good correlation with the measured urinary 8-oxo nucleoside/creatinine ratio: DNA oxidation r = 0.86 and RNA oxidation r = 0.84 (p < 0.05 for both). RESULTS: Survival analyses based on the quartiles of the 8-oxodG/creatinine ratio and the quartiles of calculated 24-h urinary excretion rate of the 2679 subjects gave similar hazard ratio estimates for death due to all causes. This finding was similar for the 8-oxoGuo hazard ratio estimates. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that oxidatively generated modifications to DNA and RNA in vivo can be measured using 1) a spot urine sample, normalized to urinary creatinine, 2) 24-h urine, or 3) a single plasma sample based on concentrations of 8-oxo nucleoside and creatinine and glomerular filtration rate.

2.
Hum Reprod ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560039

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Are higher testosterone levels during pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated with longer offspring anogenital distance (AGD)? SUMMARY ANSWER: AGD was similar in 3-month-old children born of mothers with PCOS compared to controls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: AGD is considered a marker of prenatal androgenization. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Maternal testosterone levels were measured by mass spectrometry at Gestational Week 28 in 1127 women. Maternal diagnosis of PCOS before pregnancy was defined according to Rotterdam criteria. Offspring measures included AGD from anus to posterior fourchette (AGDaf) and clitoris (AGDac) in girls and to scrotum (AGDas) and penis (AGDap) and penile width in boys and body composition (weight and BMI SD scores) at age 3 months. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The study was part of the prospective study, Odense Child Cohort (OCC), and included mothers with PCOS (n = 139) and controls (n = 1422). The control population included women with regular menstrual cycles (<35 days) before conception and no signs of androgen excess (hirsutism and/or acne). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: AGD measures were comparable in offspring of women with PCOS compared to controls (all P > 0.2) despite significantly higher maternal levels of total testosterone (mean: 2.4 versus 2.0 nmol/l) and free testosterone (mean: 0.005 versus 0.004 nmol/l) in women with PCOS versus controls (both P < 0.001). In women with PCOS, maternal testosterone was an independent positive predictor of offspring AGDas and AGDap in boys. Maternal testosterone levels did not predict AGD in girls born of mothers with PCOS or in boys or girls born of women in the control group. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The diagnosis of PCOS was based on retrospective information and questionnaires during pregnancy. Women participating in OCC were more ethnically homogenous, leaner, more educated and less likely to smoke compared to the background population. Our study findings, therefore, need to be reproduced in prospective study cohorts with PCOS, in more obese study populations and in women of other ethnicities. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our finding of the same AGD in girls born of mothers with PCOS compared to controls expands previous results of studies reporting longer AGD in adult women with PCOS. Our results suggest that longer AGD in adult women with PCOS could be the result of increased testosterone levels in puberty, perhaps in combination with weight gain. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Financial grants for the study were provided by the Danish Foundation for Scientific Innovation and Technology (09-067180), Ronald McDonald Children Foundation, Odense University Hospital, the Region of Southern Denmark, the Municipality of Odense, the Mental Health Service of the Region of Southern Denmark, The Danish Council for Strategic Research, Program Commission on Health, Food and Welfare (2101-08-0058), Odense Patient data Explorative Network, Novo Nordisk Foundation (grant no. NNF15OC00017734), the Danish Council for Independent Research and the Foundation for research collaboration between Rigshospitalet and Odense University Hospital and the Health Foundation (Helsefonden). There is no conflict of interest of any author that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220805, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on the association of common GLIS3 variants with various forms of diabetes and the biological role of GLIS3 in beta-cells, we sequenced GLIS3 in non-diabetic and diabetic Danes to investigate the effect of rare missense variants on glucose metabolism. METHODS: We sequenced 53 patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), 5,726 non-diabetic participants, 2,930 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 206 patients with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) -positive diabetes. RESULTS: In total we identified 86 rare (minor allele frequency < 0.1%) missense variants. None was considered causal for the presence of MODY. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, we observed a higher prevalence of rare GLIS3 missense variants (2.5%) compared to non-diabetic individuals (1.8%) (odds ratio of 1.37 (interquartile range:1.01-1.88, p = 0.04)). A significantly increased HbA1c was found among patients with type 2 diabetes and with GADA-positive diabetes carrying rare GLIS3 variants compared to non-carriers of rare GLIS3 variants with diabetes (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004, respectively). One variant (p.I28V) was found to have a minor allele frequency of only 0.03% among patients with type 2 diabetes compared to 0.2% among non-diabetic individuals suggesting a protective function (odds ratio of 0.20 (interquartile range: 0.005-1.4, p = 0.1)), an effect which was supported by publically available data. This variant was also associated with a lower level of fasting plasma glucose among non-diabetic individuals (p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Rare missense variants in GLIS3 associates nominally with increased level of HbA1c and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In contrast, the rare p.I28V variant associate with reduced level of fasting plasma glucose and may be protective against type 2 diabetes.

4.
Fertil Steril ; 112(4): 764-772, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of maternal serum (S) and urinary (U) cortisol and cortisone levels during the third trimester and to examine associations between maternal cortisol status, offspring sex, and maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) status. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: The study is part of the prospective Odense Child Cohort. PATIENT(S): The study cohort included 1,489 women (with PCOS, n = 145; without PCOS, n = 1,344). INTERVENTION(S): Fasting blood samples, 24-hour urinary samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Fasting morning S-cortisol and 24-hour U-cortisol/U-cortisone (24-hour U-C/C) were collected at gestational week 28 and measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULT(S): Maternal S-cortisol levels were significantly higher in women pregnant with girls (n = 702) vs. boys (n = 787): mean (mean - SD; mean + SD) 833 (643; 1,079) vs. 799 (588; 1,083) nmol/L. In multiple regression analyses, maternal S-cortisol was positively associated with female offspring and inversely associated with maternal age and parity. When women were divided according to PCOS status, 24-hour U-cortisone was higher: 467 (334; 652) vs. 415 (286; 604) nmol/24 hours; and 24-hour U-C/C was lower in women with PCOS compared with women without PCOS. CONCLUSION(S): Maternal third trimester S-cortisol levels were positively associated with female offspring. Cortisol metabolism was higher in women with PCOS vs. women without PCOS.

5.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323001

RESUMO

Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system is involved in cancer pathogenesis and serves as an important target for multiple cancer treatments. EGFR and its ligands epidermal growth factor (EGF), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AREG) and transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) have potential applications as prognostic or predictive serological biomarkers in cancer. The aim was to establish EGFR and EGFR ligand reference intervals in healthy women. Methods EGFR and EGFR ligands were measured in serum from 419 healthy women aged 26-78 years. The need for age partitioned reference intervals was evaluated using Lahti's method. EGFR and EGF were analyzed using ELISA assays, whereas HB-EGF, BTC, AREG and TGF-α were analyzed using the highly sensitive automated single molecule array (Simoa) enabling detection below the lower reference limit for all six biomarkers. Results Reference intervals for EGFR and the EGFR ligands were determined as the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. All six biomarkers were detectable in all serum samples. For EGFR, EGF, HB-EGF and TGF-α, reference intervals were established for women <55 years and for women >55 years, whilst common reference intervals were established for AREG and BTC including women aged 26-78 years. Conclusions Age specific reference intervals were determined for EGFR, EGF, HB-EGF, BTC, AREG and TGF-α.

6.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 181(24)2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267953

RESUMO

In this review, we discuss the myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), which is characterised by extreme mental and physical fatigue with associated symptoms of pain, disturbed sleep, cognitive and autonomic dysfunction, as well as post-exertional malaise. This con-dition is often preceded by an infection, severe physiological and/or psychological strain. Over the last decades, research has demonstrated mitochondrial, neuroendocrine, immuno-logical, and metabolic perturbations in patients with ME/CFS, giving hope for the development of new biomarkers and new treatment modalities.

7.
Free Radic Res ; 53(6): 694-703, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161826

RESUMO

The relationship between RNA and DNA oxidation and pharmacological treatment has not been systematically investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to investigate the association between pharmacological treatments and levels of urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation in T2D patients. Vejle Diabetes Biobank cohort data was nested into nationwide registry data. Multiple logistic regression was used to associate drug usage with risk of high (above median) RNA and DNA oxidation. Data from 2664 T2D patients (64% male, age range: 25-75) were included. Questionnaire-validated lipid lowering drug use was associated with low RNA oxidation (Odds ratio, OR 0.71, 95% CI: [0.59-0.87]). Insulin and non-specific antidiabetic drugs were associated with low DNA oxidation (insulin: OR 0.60, 95% CI [0.49-0.73]). Oral antidiabetics were associated with high DNA oxidation and RNA oxidation (OR 1.30, 95% CI [1.10-1.53] and OR 1.26, 95% CI [1.07-1.29]). Our findings indicate that diabetes-related drugs are associated with RNA and DNA oxidation and further studies are required to determine causality in T2D patients.

8.
Pharmacogenomics ; 20(9): 643-657, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250730

RESUMO

Aim: The need for pharmacogenomic education is becoming more and more urgent. Our aim was to evaluate the progress in pharmacogenomics education since then, and to put forward further recommendations. Methods: A survey was sent to 248 schools of medicine, pharmacy, nursing and health professions around the world. Results: The majority of the study programs (87%) include pharmacogenomics education, which is generally taught as part of the pharmacology curriculum. On average, educators and teachers have selected appropriate and highly relevant pharmacogenomics biomarkers to include in their teaching programs. Conclusions: Based on the results, we can conclude that the state of pharmacogenomics education at the surveyed universities has improved substantially since 2005.

9.
Diabetologia ; 62(6): 1024-1035, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904939

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have an altered bacterial composition of their gut microbiota compared with non-diabetic individuals. However, these alterations may be confounded by medication, notably the blood-glucose-lowering biguanide, metformin. We undertook a clinical trial in healthy and previously drug-free men with the primary aim of investigating metformin-induced compositional changes in the non-diabetic state. A secondary aim was to examine whether the pre-treatment gut microbiota was related to gastrointestinal adverse effects during metformin treatment. METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy young Danish men were included in an 18-week one-armed crossover trial consisting of a pre-intervention period, an intervention period and a post-intervention period, each period lasting 6 weeks. Inclusion criteria were men of age 18-35 years, BMI between 18.5 kg/m2 and 27.5 kg/m2, HbA1c < 39 mmol/mol (5.7%) and plasma creatinine within the normal range. No prescribed medication, including antibiotics, for 2 months prior to recruitment were allowed and no previous gastrointestinal surgery, discounting appendectomy or chronic illness requiring medical treatment. During the intervention the participants were given metformin up to 1 g twice daily. Participants were examined five times in the fasting state with blood sampling and recording of gastrointestinal symptoms. Examinations took place at Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark before and after the pre-intervention period, halfway through and immediately after the end of intervention and after the wash-out period. Faecal samples were collected at nine evenly distributed time points, and bacterial DNA was extracted and subjected to 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing in order to evaluate gut microbiota composition. Subjective gastrointestinal symptoms were reported at each visit. RESULTS: Data from participants who completed visit 1 (n=23) are included in analyses. For the primary outcome the relative abundance of 11 bacterial genera significantly changed during the intervention but returned to baseline levels after treatment cessation. In line with previous reports, we observed a reduced abundance of Intestinibacter spp. and Clostridium spp., as well as an increased abundance of Escherichia/Shigella spp. and Bilophila wadsworthia. The relative abundance at baseline of 12 bacterial genera predicted self-reported gastrointestinal adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Intake of metformin changes the gut microbiota composition in normoglycaemic young men. The microbiota changes induced by metformin extend and validate previous reports in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Secondary analyses suggest that pre-treatment gut microbiota composition may be a determinant for development of gastrointestinal adverse effects following metformin intake. These results require further investigation and replication in larger prospective studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrialsregister.eu 2015-000199-86 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02546050 FUNDING: This project was funded by Danish Diabetes Association and The Novo Nordisk Foundation.

10.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
11.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 49(7): 890-903, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is used for the treatment of severe cases of IBD, including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, one-third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. We have previously investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in inflammation were associated with response to anti-TNF therapy among patients with CD or UC. AIM: A new cohort of patients was established for replication of the previous findings and to identify new SNPs associated with anti-TNF response. METHODS: Fifty-three SNPs assessed previously in cohort 1 (482 CD and 256 UC patients) were genotyped in cohort 2 (587 CD and 458 UC patients). The results were analysed using logistic regression (adjusted for age and gender). RESULTS: Ten SNPs were associated with anti-TNF response either among patients with CD (TNFRSF1A(rs4149570) (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.02-3.60, P = 0.04), IL18(rs187238) (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.00-1.82, P = 0.05), and JAK2(rs12343867) (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.78, P = 0.03)), UC (TLR2(rs11938228) (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.92, P = 0.02), TLR4(rs5030728) (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.24-4.01, P = 0.01) and (rs1554973) (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.27-0.90, P = 0.02), NFKBIA(rs696) (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06-2.00, P = 0.02), and NLRP3(rs4612666) (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91, P = 0.01)) or in the combined cohort of patient with CD and UC (IBD) (TLR4(rs5030728) (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01-2.11, P = 0.04) and (rs1554973)(OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.98, P = 0.03), NFKBIA(rs696) (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54, P = 0.04), NLRP3(rs4612666) (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.95, P = 0.02), IL1RN(rs4251961) (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-1.00, P = 0.05), IL18(rs1946518) (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.53, P = 0.04), and JAK2(rs12343867) (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.53, P = 0.04)). CONCLUSIONS: The results support that polymorphisms in genes involved in the regulation of the NFκB pathway (TLR2, TLR4, and NFKBIA), the TNF-α signalling pathway (TNFRSF1A), and other cytokine pathways (NLRP3, IL1RN, IL18, and JAK2) were associated with response to anti-TNF therapy. Our multi-SNP model predicted response rate of more than 82% (in 9% of the CD patients) and 75% (in 15% of the UC patients), compared to 71% and 64% in all CD and UC patients, respectively. More studies are warranted to predict response for use in the clinic.

12.
Diabetologia ; 62(2): 292-305, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547231

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Identifying rare coding variants associated with albuminuria may open new avenues for preventing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes. Efforts to identify genetic susceptibility variants for albuminuria have so far been limited, with the majority of studies focusing on common variants. METHODS: We performed an exome-wide association study to identify coding variants in a two-stage (discovery and replication) approach. Data from 33,985 individuals of European ancestry (15,872 with and 18,113 without diabetes) and 2605 Greenlanders were included. RESULTS: We identified a rare (minor allele frequency [MAF]: 0.8%) missense (A1690V) variant in CUBN (rs141640975, ß = 0.27, p = 1.3 × 10-11) associated with albuminuria as a continuous measure in the combined European meta-analysis. The presence of each rare allele of the variant was associated with a 6.4% increase in albuminuria. The rare CUBN variant had an effect that was three times stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with those without (pinteraction = 7.0 × 10-4, ß with diabetes = 0.69, ß without diabetes = 0.20) in the discovery meta-analysis. Gene-aggregate tests based on rare and common variants identified three additional genes associated with albuminuria (HES1, CDC73 and GRM5) after multiple testing correction (pBonferroni < 2.7 × 10-6). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The current study identifies a rare coding variant in the CUBN locus and other potential genes associated with albuminuria in individuals with and without diabetes. These genes have been implicated in renal and cardiovascular dysfunction. The findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of albuminuria and highlight target genes and pathways for the prevention of diabetes-related kidney disease.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1505-1513, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297969

RESUMO

We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

14.
Diabetes Care ; 41(11): 2396-2403, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) shares clinical features with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes; however, there is ongoing debate regarding the precise definition of LADA. Understanding its genetic basis is one potential strategy to gain insight into appropriate classification of this diabetes subtype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide association study of LADA in case subjects of European ancestry versus population control subjects (n = 2,634 vs. 5,947) and compared against both case subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 2,454 vs. 968) and type 2 diabetes (n = 2,779 vs. 10,396). RESULTS: The leading genetic signals were principally shared with type 1 diabetes, although we observed positive genetic correlations genome-wide with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we observed a novel independent signal at the known type 1 diabetes locus harboring PFKFB3, encoding a regulator of glycolysis and insulin signaling in type 2 diabetes and inflammation and autophagy in autoimmune disease, as well as an attenuation of key type 1-associated HLA haplotype frequencies in LADA, suggesting that these are factors that distinguish childhood-onset type 1 diabetes from adult autoimmune diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the need for further investigations of the genetic factors that distinguish forms of autoimmune diabetes as well as more precise classification strategies.

15.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 165, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) results from the combined effects of susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Polymorphisms in genes regulating inflammation may explain part of the heritability of AS. METHODS: Using a candidate gene approach in this case-control study, 51 mainly functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes regulating inflammation were assessed in 709 patients with AS and 795 controls. Data on the patients with AS were obtained from the DANBIO registry where patients from all of Denmark are monitored in routine care during treatment with conventional and biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). The results were analyzed using logistic regression (adjusted for age and sex). RESULTS: Nine polymorphisms were associated with risk of AS (p < 0.05). The polymorphisms were in genes regulating a: the TNF-α pathway (TNF -308 G > A (rs1800629), and - 238 G > A (rs361525); TNFRSF1A -609 G > T (rs4149570), and PTPN22 1858 G > A (rs2476601)), b: the IL23/IL17 pathway (IL23R G > A (rs11209026), and IL18-137 G > C (rs187238)), or c: the NFkB pathway (TLR1 743 T > C (rs4833095), TLR4 T > C (rs1554973), and LY96-1625 C > G (rs11465996)). After Bonferroni correction the homozygous variant genotype of TLR1 743 T > C (rs4833095) (odds ratios (OR): 2.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48-4.51, p = 0.04), and TNFRSF1A -609 G > T (rs4149570) (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.31-2.41, p = 0.01) were associated with increased risk of AS and the combined homozygous and heterozygous variant genotypes of TNF -308 G > A (rs1800629) (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.44-0.72, p = 0.0002) were associated with reduced risk of AS. CONCLUSION: We replicated associations between AS and the polymorphisms in TNF (rs1800629), TNFRSF1A (rs4149570), and IL23R (rs11209026). Furthermore, we identified novel risk loci in TNF (rs361525), IL18 (rs187238), TLR1 (rs4833095), TLR4 (rs1554973), and LY96 (rs11465996) that need validation in independent cohorts. The results suggest that genetically determined high activity of the TNF-α, IL23/IL17, and NFkB pathways increase risk of AS.

16.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 56(12): 1981-1991, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990304

RESUMO

In contrast to population-based medical decision making, which emphasizes the use of evidence-based treatment strategies for groups of patients, personalized medicine is based on optimizing treatment at the level of the individual patient. The creation of molecular profiles of individual patients was made possible by the advent of "omics" technologies, based on high throughput instrumental techniques in combination with biostatistics tools and artificial intelligence. The goal of personalized laboratory medicine is to use advanced technologies in the process of preventive, curative or palliative patient management. Personalized medicine does not rely on changes in concentration of a single molecular marker to make a therapeutic decision, but rather on changes of a profile of markers characterizing an individual patient's status, taking into account not only the expected response to treatment of the disease but also the expected response of the patient. Such medical approach promises a more effective diagnostics with more effective and safer treatment, as well as faster recovery and restoration of health and improved cost effectiveness. The laboratory medicine profession is aware of its key role in personalized medicine, but to empower the laboratories, at least an enhancement in cooperation between disciplines within laboratory medicine will be necessary.

17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(10): 3819-3827, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060213

RESUMO

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism. In pregnancy, testosterone levels may be higher in women with PCOS compared with controls. Aims: To compare total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in third-trimester pregnant women with PCOS and controls and to establish reference ranges for TT, FT, and SHBG in PCOS and controls. Methods: The study was part of the prospective study, Odense Child Cohort. PCOS was diagnosed by questionnaires and/or patient records. Fasting blood samples were collected at gestational week 28 and plasma TT was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in women with PCOS (n = 145) and in women without PCOS (controls, n = 1341). Results: Levels of TT (mean, 2.4 vs 2.0 nmol/L) and FT (mean, 0.005 vs 0.004 nmol/L) were higher, whereas SHBG levels (mean, 447 vs 477 nmol/L) were lower in women with PCOS vs controls (all P < 0.001). Reference intervals for TT, FT, and SHBG in women with PCOS and controls were overlapping, and partitioning of reference intervals was an ambiguous decision. In multiple regression analyses, TT and FT levels were positively associated with PCOS status and BMI and inversely associated with age and parity. Offspring sex did not predict maternal TT and FT. Conclusions: TT and FT levels were higher in third-trimester pregnant women with PCOS compared with controls. Separate reference interval for FT in women with PCOS should be considered.

18.
Telemed J E Health ; 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients are undergoing oral anticoagulation treatment with vitamin K antagonists, which necessitates measuring international normalized ratio (INR) several times each month. INTRODUCTION: Patients can learn to measure their INR at home and choose their own dose for the next period with potential gains in treatment quality and reduced healthcare expenses. This is, however, connected to the potential problem of losing tight external control of the patient treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled trial using the telemedicine software CSO/AC together with the INR point-of-care-test CoaguChek XS for 10 months to investigate the use of criteria-driven healthcare interactions. A total of 87 patients were divided into two groups. The patient self-management (PSM) group was surveilled using the criteria INR <1.8, INR >4.5, change in warfarin/week >1.25 mg, missing INR or dosage. The patient self-testing (PST) group was handled as routine care. RESULTS: A total of 84 patients were followed for 10 months. No differences were seen in average INR or fraction of INR in therapeutic range (2-3) in the two groups or the start compared with the end. The PST group was handled using 4.2 interactions per month whereas the PSM group used 1.1 interactions per month. No adverse effects of PSM were observed. DISCUSSION: Using criteria-driven interactions enabled a considerable reduction in interactions per month. The two groups were comparable in terms of treatment effect and safety. CONCLUSIONS: Using criteria to guide PSM interactions maintains good treatment effect while reducing healthcare expenses.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2162, 2018 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29849136

RESUMO

In the originally published version of this Article, the affiliation details for Santi González, Jian'an Luan and Claudia Langenberg were inadvertently omitted. Santi González should have been affiliated with 'Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Joint BSC-CRG-IRB Research Program in Computational Biology, 08034 Barcelona, Spain', and Jian'an Luan and Claudia Langenberg should have been affiliated with 'MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK'. Furthermore, the abstract contained an error in the SNP ID for the rare variant in chromosome Xq23, which was incorrectly given as rs146662057 and should have been rs146662075. These errors have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

20.
Cell Metab ; 28(1): 159-174.e11, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861389

RESUMO

Activation of energy expenditure in thermogenic fat is a promising strategy to improve metabolic health, yet the dynamic processes that evoke this response are poorly understood. Here we show that synthesis of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin is indispensable for stimulating and sustaining thermogenic fat function. Cardiolipin biosynthesis is robustly induced in brown and beige adipose upon cold exposure. Mimicking this response through overexpression of cardiolipin synthase (Crls1) enhances energy consumption in mouse and human adipocytes. Crls1 deficiency in thermogenic adipocytes diminishes inducible mitochondrial uncoupling and elicits a nuclear transcriptional response through endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated retrograde communication. Cardiolipin depletion in brown and beige fat abolishes adipose thermogenesis and glucose uptake, which renders animals insulin resistant. We further identify a rare human CRLS1 variant associated with insulin resistance and show that adipose CRLS1 levels positively correlate with insulin sensitivity. Thus, adipose cardiolipin has a powerful impact on organismal energy homeostasis through thermogenic fat bioenergetics.

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