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1.
FASEB J ; 35(3): e21376, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605487

RESUMO

Emphysema, a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is characterized by irreversible alveolar destruction that results in a progressive decline in lung function. This alveolar destruction is caused by cigarette smoke, the most important risk factor for COPD. Only 15%-20% of smokers develop COPD, suggesting that unknown factors contribute to disease pathogenesis. We postulate that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a receptor/transcription factor highly expressed in the lungs, may be a new susceptibility factor whose expression protects against COPD. Here, we report that Ahr-deficient mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke develop airspace enlargement concomitant with a decline in lung function. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure also increased cleaved caspase-3, lowered SOD2 expression, and altered MMP9 and TIMP-1 levels in Ahr-deficient mice. We also show that people with COPD have reduced expression of pulmonary and systemic AHR, with systemic AHR mRNA levels positively correlating with lung function. Systemic AHR was also lower in never-smokers with COPD. Thus, AHR expression protects against the development of COPD by controlling interrelated mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. This study identifies the AHR as a new, central player in the homeostatic maintenance of lung health, providing a foundation for the AHR as a novel therapeutic target and/or predictive biomarker in chronic lung disease.

2.
Thorax ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504568

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In COPD, small airway fibrosis occurs due to increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in and around the airway smooth muscle (ASM) layer. Studies of immune cells and peripheral lung tissue have shown that epigenetic changes occur in COPD but it is unknown whether airway mesenchymal cells are reprogrammed. OBJECTIVES: Determine if COPD ASM cells have a unique epigenetic response to profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1). METHODS: Primary human ASM cells from COPD and non-COPD smoking patients were stimulated with TGF-ß1. Gene array analysis performed to identify differences in ECM expression. Airway accumulation of collagen 15α1 and tenascin-C proteins was assessed. Aforementioned ASM cells were stimulated with TGF-ß1 ± epigenetic inhibitors with qPCR quantification of COL15A1 and TNC. Global histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity were assessed. chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR for histone H3 and H4 acetylation at COL15A1 and TNC promoters was carried out. Effects of bromoterminal and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitor JQ1(+) on expression and acetylation of ECM target genes were assessed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: COPD ASM show significantly higher COL15A1 and TNC expression in vitro and the same trend for higher levels of collagen 15α1 and tenascin-c deposited in COPD airways in vivo. Epigenetic screening indicated differential response to HDAC inhibition. ChIP-qPCR revealed histone H4 acetylation at COL15A1 and TNC promoters in COPD ASM only. ChIP-qPCR found JQ1(+) pretreatment significantly abrogated TGF-ß1 induced histone H4 acetylation at COL15A1 and TNC. CONCLUSIONS: BET protein binding to acetylated histones is important in TGF-ß1 induced expression of COL15A1 and TNC and maintenance of TGF-ß1 induced histone H4 acetylation in cell progeny.

3.
Thorax ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273021

RESUMO

COPD-derived fibroblasts have increased cellular senescence. Senescent cell accumulation can induce tissue dysfunction by their senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We aimed to determine the SASP of senescent fibroblasts and COPD-derived lung fibroblasts, including severe, early-onset (SEO)-COPD. SASP protein secretion was measured after paraquat-induced senescence in lung fibroblasts using Olink Proteomics and compared between (SEO-)COPD-derived and control-derived fibroblasts. We identified 124 SASP proteins of senescent lung fibroblasts, of which 42 were secreted at higher levels by COPD-derived fibroblasts and 35 by SEO-COPD-derived fibroblasts compared with controls. Interestingly, the (SEO-)COPD-associated SASP included proteins involved in chronic inflammation, which may contribute to (SEO-)COPD pathogenesis.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17415, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060632

RESUMO

Hyperinflation contributes to dyspnea intensity in COPD. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying hyperinflation and how inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) affect this important aspect of COPD pathophysiology. To investigate the effect of ICS/long-acting ß2-agonist (LABA) treatment on both lung function measures of hyperinflation, and the nasal epithelial gene-expression profile in severe COPD. 117 patients were screened and 60 COPD patients entered a 1-month run-in period on low-dose ICS/LABA budesonide/formoterol (BUD/F) 200/6 one inhalation b.i.d. Patients were then randomly assigned to 3-month treatment with either a high dose BDP/F 100/6 two inhalations b.i.d. (n = 31) or BUD/F 200/6 two inhalations b.i.d. (n = 29). Lung function measurements and nasal epithelial gene-expression were assessed before and after 3-month treatment and validated in independent datasets. After 3-month ICS/LABA treatment, residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC)% predicted was reduced compared to baseline (p < 0.05). We identified a nasal gene-expression signature at screening that associated with higher RV/TLC% predicted values. This signature, decreased by ICS/LABA treatment was enriched for genes associated with increased p53 mediated apoptosis was replicated in bronchial biopsies of COPD patients. Finally, this signature was increased in COPD patients compared to controls in nasal, bronchial and small airways brushings. Short-term ICS/LABA treatment improves RV/TLC% predicted in severe COPD. Furthermore, it decreases the expression of genes involved in the signal transduction by the p53 class mediator, which is a replicable COPD gene expression signature in the upper and lower airways.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01351792 (registration date May 11, 2011), ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00848406 (registration date February 20, 2009), ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00158847 (registration date September 12, 2005).

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16980, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046825

RESUMO

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine found to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is no consensus on how MIF levels differ in COPD compared to control conditions and there are no reports on MIF expression in lung tissue. Here we studied gene expression of members of the MIF family MIF, D-Dopachrome Tautomerase (DDT) and DDT-like (DDTL) in a lung tissue dataset with 1087 subjects and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) regulating their gene expression. We found higher MIF and DDT expression in COPD patients compared to non-COPD subjects and found 71 SNPs significantly influencing gene expression of MIF and DDTL. Furthermore, the platform used to measure MIF (microarray or RNAseq) was found to influence the splice variants detected and subsequently the direction of the SNP effects on MIF expression. Among the SNPs found to regulate MIF expression, the major LD block identified was linked to rs5844572, a SNP previously found to be associated with lower diffusion capacity in COPD. This suggests that MIF may be contributing to the pathogenesis of COPD, as SNPs that influence MIF expression are also associated with symptoms of COPD. Our study shows that MIF levels are affected not only by disease but also by genetic diversity (i.e. SNPs). Since none of our significant eSNPs for MIF or DDTL have been described in GWAS for COPD or lung function, MIF expression in COPD patients is more likely a consequence of disease-related factors rather than a cause of the disease.

6.
Thorax ; 75(11): 934-943, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anti-inflammatory pneumoprotein club cell secretory protein-16 (CC-16) is associated with the clinical expression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to determine if there is a causal effect of serum CC-16 level on the risk of having COPD and/or its progression using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis for serum CC-16 in two COPD cohorts (Lung Health Study (LHS), n=3850 and ECLIPSE, n=1702). We then used the CC-16-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as instrumental variables in MR analysis to identify a causal effect of serum CC-16 on 'COPD risk' (ie, case status in the International COPD Genetics Consortium/UK-Biobank dataset; n=35 735 COPD cases, n=222 076 controls) and 'COPD progression' (ie, annual change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s in LHS and ECLIPSE). We also determined the associations between SNPs associated with CC-16 and gene expression using n=1111 lung tissue samples from the Lung Expression Quantitative Trait Locus Study. RESULTS: We identified seven SNPs independently associated (p<5×10-8) with serum CC-16 levels; six of these were novel. MR analysis suggested a protective causal effect of increased serum CC-16 on COPD risk (MR estimate (SE) -0.11 (0.04), p=0.008) and progression (LHS only, MR estimate (SE) 7.40 (3.28), p=0.02). Five of the SNPs were also associated with gene expression in lung tissue (at false discovery rate <0.1) of several genes, including the CC-16-encoding gene SCGB1A1. CONCLUSION: We have identified several novel genetic variants associated with serum CC-16 level in COPD cohorts. These genetic associations suggest a potential causal effect of serum CC-16 on the risk of having COPD and its progression, the biological basis of which warrants further investigation.

7.
Allergy ; 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is implicated in COPD. Although these receptors share common ligands and signalling pathways, it is not known whether they act in concert to drive pathological processes in COPD. We examined the impact of RAGE and/or TLR4 gene deficiency in a mouse model of COPD and also determined whether expression of these receptors correlates with airway neutrophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in COPD patients. METHODS: We measured airway inflammation and AHR in wild-type, RAGE-/- , TLR4-/- and TLR4-/- RAGE-/- mice following acute exposure to cigarette smoke (CS). We also examined the impact of smoking status on AGER (encodes RAGE) and TLR4 bronchial gene expression in patients with and without COPD. Finally, we determined whether expression of these receptors correlates with airway neutrophilia and AHR in COPD patients. RESULTS: RAGE-/- mice were protected against CS-induced neutrophilia and AHR. In contrast, TLR4-/- mice were not protected against CS-induced neutrophilia and had more severe CS-induced AHR. TLR4-/- RAGE-/- mice were not protected against CS-induced neutrophilia but were partially protected against CS-induced mediator release and AHR. Current smoking was associated with significantly lower AGER and TLR4 expression irrespective of COPD status, possibly reflecting negative feedback regulation. However, consistent with preclinical findings, AGER expression correlated with higher sputum neutrophil counts and more severe AHR in COPD patients. TLR4 expression did not correlate with neutrophilic inflammation or AHR. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of RAGE but not TLR4 signalling may protect against airway neutrophilia and AHR in COPD.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8721, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457454

RESUMO

In asthma, the airway epithelium has an impaired capacity to differentiate and plays a key role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling through mediator release. The study objective was to investigate the release of (IL)-1 family members from primary airway epithelial-cells during differentiation, and how they affect primary airway fibroblast (PAF)-induced inflammation, extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and collagen I remodeling. The release of IL-1α/ß and IL-33 during airway epithelial differentiation was assessed over 20-days using air-liquid interface cultures. The effect of IL-1 family cytokines on airway fibroblasts grown on collagen-coated well-plates and 3-dimensional collagen gels was assessed by measurement of inflammatory mediators and ECM proteins by ELISA and western blot, as well as collagen fiber formation using non-linear optical microscopy after 24-hours. The production of IL-1α is elevated in undifferentiated asthmatic-PAECs compared to controls. IL-1α/ß induced fibroblast pro-inflammatory responses (CXCL8/IL-8, IL-6, TSLP, GM-CSF) and suppressed ECM-production (collagen, fibronectin, periostin) and the cell's ability to repair and remodel fibrillar collagen I via LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 activity, as confirmed by inhibition with ß-aminopropionitrile. These data support a role for epithelial-derived-IL-1 in the dysregulated repair of the asthmatic-EMTU and provides new insights into the contribution of airway fibroblasts in inflammation and airway remodeling in asthma.

9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(1): L48-L60, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460521

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with features of accelerated aging, including cellular senescence, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes. We propose that these features are particularly apparent in patients with severe, early-onset (SEO)-COPD. Whether fibroblasts from COPD patients display features of accelerated aging and whether this is also present in relatively young SEO-COPD patients is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine markers of aging in (SEO)-COPD-derived lung fibroblasts and investigate the impact on ECM. Aging hallmarks and ECM markers were analyzed in lung fibroblasts from SEO-COPD and older COPD patients and compared with fibroblasts from matched non-COPD groups (n = 9-11 per group), both at normal culture conditions and upon Paraquat-induced senescence. COPD-related differences in senescence and ECM expression were validated in lung tissue. Higher levels of cellular senescence, including senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal)-positive cells (19% for COPD vs. 13% for control) and p16 expression, DNA damage (γ-H2A.X-positive nuclei), and oxidative stress (MGST1) were detected in COPD compared with control-derived fibroblasts. Most effects were also different in SEO-COPD, with SA-ß-gal-positive cells only being significant in SEO-COPD vs. matched controls. Lower decorin expression in COPD-derived fibroblasts correlated with higher p16 expression, and this association was confirmed in lung tissue. Paraquat treatment induced cellular senescence along with clear changes in ECM expression, including decorin. Fibroblasts from COPD patients, including SEO-COPD, display higher levels of cellular senescence, DNA damage, and oxidative stress. The association between cellular senescence and ECM expression changes may suggest a link between accelerated aging and ECM dysregulation in COPD.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Paraquat/toxicidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia
10.
JCI Insight ; 5(8)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324168

RESUMO

The IL1RL1 (ST2) gene locus is robustly associated with asthma; however, the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this locus to specific asthma subtypes and the functional mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be defined. We tested for association between IL1RL1 region SNPs and characteristics of asthma as defined by clinical and immunological measures and addressed functional effects of these genetic variants in lung tissue and airway epithelium. Utilizing 4 independent cohorts (Lifelines, Dutch Asthma GWAS [DAG], Genetics of Asthma Severity and Phenotypes [GASP], and Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study [MAAS]) and resequencing data, we identified 3 key signals associated with asthma features. Investigations in lung tissue and primary bronchial epithelial cells identified context-dependent relationships between the signals and IL1RL1 mRNA and soluble protein expression. This was also observed for asthma-associated IL1RL1 nonsynonymous coding TIR domain SNPs. Bronchial epithelial cell cultures from asthma patients, exposed to exacerbation-relevant stimulations, revealed modulatory effects for all 4 signals on IL1RL1 mRNA and/or protein expression, suggesting SNP-environment interactions. The IL1RL1 TIR signaling domain haplotype affected IL-33-driven NF-κB signaling, while not interfering with TLR signaling. In summary, we identify that IL1RL1 genetic signals potentially contribute to severe and eosinophilic phenotypes in asthma, as well as provide initial mechanistic insight, including genetic regulation of IL1RL1 isoform expression and receptor signaling.

11.
Thorax ; 75(2): 180-183, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937552

RESUMO

Translation of genomic alterations to protein changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is largely unexplored. Using integrated proteomic and RNA sequencing analysis of COPD and control lung tissues, we identified a protein signature in COPD characterised by extracellular matrix changes and a potential regulatory role for SUMO2. Furthermore, we identified 61 differentially expressed novel, non-reference, peptides in COPD compared with control lungs. This included two peptides encoding for a new splice variant of SORBS1, of which the transcript usage was higher in COPD compared with control lungs. These explorative findings and integrative proteogenomic approach open new avenues to further unravel the pathology of COPD.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Proteogenômica/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
J Pathol ; 250(5): 624-635, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691283

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating lung disease with a high personal and societal burden. Exposure to toxic particles and gases, including cigarette smoke, is the main risk factor for COPD. Together with smoking cessation, current treatment strategies of COPD aim to improve symptoms and prevent exacerbations, but there is no disease-modifying treatment. The biggest drawback of today's COPD treatment regimen is the 'one size fits all' pharmacological intervention, mainly based on disease severity and symptoms and not the individual's disease pathology. To halt the worrying increase in the burden of COPD, disease management needs to be advanced with a focus on personalized treatment. The main pathological feature of COPD includes a chronic and abnormal inflammatory response within the lungs, which results in airway and alveolar changes in the lung as reflected by (small) airways disease and emphysema. Here we discuss recent developments related to the abnormal inflammatory response, ECM and age-related changes, structural changes in the small airways and the role of sex-related differences, which are all relevant to explain the individual differences in the disease pathology of COPD and improve disease endotyping. Furthermore, we will discuss the most recent developments of new treatment strategies using biologicals to target specific pathological features or disease endotypes of COPD. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Assuntos
Pulmão/patologia , Medicina de Precisão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
14.
Eur Respir J ; 55(2)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727692

RESUMO

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the context of disease pathogenesis, both asthma and COPD involve chronic inflammation of the lung and are characterised by the abnormal release of inflammatory cytokines, dysregulated immune cell activity and remodelling of the airways. To date, current treatments still only manage symptoms and do not reverse the primary disease processes. In recent work, interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-1ß have been suggested to play important roles in both asthma and COPD. In this review, we summarise overwhelming pre-clinical evidence for dysregulated signalling of IL-1α and IL-1ß contributing to disease pathogenesis and discuss the paradox of IL-1 therapeutic studies in asthma and COPD. This is particularly important given recent completed and ongoing clinical trials with IL-1 biologics that have had varying degrees of failure and success as therapeutics for disease modification in asthma and COPD.

15.
Sci Adv ; 5(12): eaaw3413, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844660

RESUMO

The human bronchial epithelium is composed of multiple distinct cell types that cooperate to defend against environmental insults. While studies have shown that smoking alters bronchial epithelial function and morphology, its precise effects on specific cell types and overall tissue composition are unclear. We used single-cell RNA sequencing to profile bronchial epithelial cells from six never and six current smokers. Unsupervised analyses led to the characterization of a set of toxin metabolism genes that localized to smoker ciliated cells, tissue remodeling associated with a loss of club cells and extensive goblet cell hyperplasia, and a previously unidentified peri-goblet epithelial subpopulation in smokers who expressed a marker of bronchial premalignant lesions. Our data demonstrate that smoke exposure drives a complex landscape of cellular alterations that may prime the human bronchial epithelium for disease.


Assuntos
Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/metabolismo , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/patologia , Heterogeneidade Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Caliciformes/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Caliciformes/patologia , Humanos , Hiperplasia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia/genética , Hiperplasia/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/induzido quimicamente , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Transcrição Genética/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635387

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking causes lung inflammation and tissue damage. Lung fibroblasts play a major role in tissue repair. Previous studies have reported smoking-associated changes in fibroblast responses and methylation patterns. Our aim was to identify the effect of current smoking on miRNA expression in primary lung fibroblasts. Small RNA sequencing was performed on lung fibroblasts from nine current and six ex-smokers with normal lung function. MiR-335-5p and miR-335-3p were significantly downregulated in lung fibroblasts from current compared to ex-smokers (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05). Differential miR-335-5p expression was validated with RT-qPCR (p-value = 0.01). The results were validated in lung tissue from current and ex-smokers and in bronchial biopsies from non-diseased smokers and never-smokers (p-value <0.05). The methylation pattern of the miR-335 host gene, determined by methylation-specific qPCR, did not differ between current and ex-smokers. To obtain insights into the genes regulated by miR-335-5p in fibroblasts, we overlapped all proven miR-335-5p targets with our previously published miRNA targetome data in lung fibroblasts. This revealed Rb1, CARF, and SGK3 as likely targets of miR-335-5p in lung fibroblasts. Our study indicates that miR-335-5p downregulation due to current smoking may affect its function in lung fibroblasts by targeting Rb1, CARF and SGK3.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Pulmão/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fumantes
17.
Eur Respir J ; 54(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537701

RESUMO

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are widely prescribed for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet have variable outcomes and adverse reactions, which may be genetically determined. The primary aim of the study was to identify the genetic determinants for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) changes related to ICS therapy.In the Lung Health Study (LHS)-2, 1116 COPD patients were randomised to the ICS triamcinolone acetonide (n=559) or placebo (n=557) with spirometry performed every 6 months for 3 years. We performed a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study for the genotype-by-ICS treatment effect on 3 years of FEV1 changes (estimated as slope) in 802 genotyped LHS-2 participants. Replication was performed in 199 COPD patients randomised to the ICS, fluticasone or placebo.A total of five loci showed genotype-by-ICS interaction at p<5×10-6; of these, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs111720447 on chromosome 7 was replicated (discovery p=4.8×10-6, replication p=5.9×10-5) with the same direction of interaction effect. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data revealed that in glucocorticoid-treated (dexamethasone) A549 alveolar cell line, glucocorticoid receptor binding sites were located near SNP rs111720447. In stratified analyses of LHS-2, genotype at SNP rs111720447 was significantly associated with rate of FEV1 decline in patients taking ICS (C allele ß 56.36 mL·year-1, 95% CI 29.96-82.76 mL·year-1) and in patients who were assigned to placebo, although the relationship was weaker and in the opposite direction to that in the ICS group (C allele ß -27.57 mL·year-1, 95% CI -53.27- -1.87 mL·year-1).The study uncovered genetic factors associated with FEV1 changes related to ICS in COPD patients, which may provide new insight on the potential biology of steroid responsiveness in COPD.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacogenética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Células A549 , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1153-1163, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209336

RESUMO

Human lungs enable efficient gas exchange and form an interface with the environment, which depends on mucosal immunity for protection against infectious agents. Tightly controlled interactions between structural and immune cells are required to maintain lung homeostasis. Here, we use single-cell transcriptomics to chart the cellular landscape of upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma in healthy lungs, and lower airways in asthmatic lungs. We report location-dependent airway epithelial cell states and a novel subset of tissue-resident memory T cells. In the lower airways of patients with asthma, mucous cell hyperplasia is shown to stem from a novel mucous ciliated cell state, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. We report the presence of pathogenic effector type 2 helper T cells (TH2) in asthmatic lungs and find evidence for type 2 cytokines in maintaining the altered epithelial cell states. Unbiased analysis of cell-cell interactions identifies a shift from airway structural cell communication in healthy lungs to a TH2-dominated interactome in asthmatic lungs.


Assuntos
Asma/patologia , Pulmão/citologia , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metaplasia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Th2/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
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