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1.
J Pathol ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691283

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating lung disease with a high personal and societal burden. Exposure to toxic particles and gases, including cigarette smoke, is the main risk factor for COPD. Next to smoking cessation, current treatment strategies of COPD aim to improve symptoms and prevent exacerbations, yet there is no disease modifying treatment. The biggest drawback of today's COPD treatment regime is the 'one size fits all' pharmacological intervention, mainly based on disease severity and symptoms and not the individual's disease pathology. To halt the worrying increase in the burden of COPD, disease management needs to be advanced with a focus on personalized treatment. The main pathological feature of COPD includes a chronic and abnormal inflammatory response within the lungs which results in airway and alveolar changes in the lung as reflected by (small) airways disease and emphysema. Here we discuss recent developments related to the abnormal inflammatory response, extracellular matrix and age-related changes, structural changes in the small airways, and the role of sex-related differences, that are all relevant to explain the individual differences in disease pathology of COPD and improve disease endotyping. Furthermore, we will discuss the most recent developments of new treatment strategies using biologicals to target specific pathological features or disease endotypes of COPD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635387

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking causes lung inflammation and tissue damage. Lung fibroblasts play a major role in tissue repair. Previous studies have reported smoking-associated changes in fibroblast responses and methylation patterns. Our aim was to identify the effect of current smoking on miRNA expression in primary lung fibroblasts. Small RNA sequencing was performed on lung fibroblasts from nine current and six ex-smokers with normal lung function. MiR-335-5p and miR-335-3p were significantly downregulated in lung fibroblasts from current compared to ex-smokers (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05). Differential miR-335-5p expression was validated with RT-qPCR (p-value = 0.01). The results were validated in lung tissue from current and ex-smokers and in bronchial biopsies from non-diseased smokers and never-smokers (p-value <0.05). The methylation pattern of the miR-335 host gene, determined by methylation-specific qPCR, did not differ between current and ex-smokers. To obtain insights into the genes regulated by miR-335-5p in fibroblasts, we overlapped all proven miR-335-5p targets with our previously published miRNA targetome data in lung fibroblasts. This revealed Rb1, CARF, and SGK3 as likely targets of miR-335-5p in lung fibroblasts. Our study indicates that miR-335-5p downregulation due to current smoking may affect its function in lung fibroblasts by targeting Rb1, CARF and SGK3.

4.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537701

RESUMO

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are widely prescribed for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet with variable outcomes and adverse reactions which may be genetically determined. The primary aim of the study was to identify the genetic determinants for FEV1 changes related to ICS therapy. In the Lung Health Study 2 (LHS-2), 1116 COPD patients were randomised to the ICS, triamcinolone acetonide (n=559), or placebo (n=557) with spirometry performed every 6 months for 3 years. We performed a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the genotype-by-ICS treatment effect on 3 years of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) changes (estimated as slope) in 802 genotyped LHS-2 participants. Replication was performed in 199 COPD patients randomised to the ICS, fluticasone or placebo. A total of five loci showed genotype-by-ICS interaction at p<5×10-6; of these, SNP rs111720447 on chromosome 7 was replicated (discovery p=4.8×10-6, replication p=5.9×10-5) with the same direction of interaction effect. ENCODE data revealed that in glucocorticoid treated (dexamethasone) A549 alveolar cell line, glucocorticoid receptor binding sites were located near SNP rs111720447. In stratified analyses of LHS-2, genotype at SNP rs111720447 was significantly associated with rate of FEV1 decline in patients taking ICS (C allele beta=56.35 mL·year-1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=29.96, 82.76 mL·yr-1) and also in patients who were assigned to placebo, though the relationship was weaker and in the opposite direction than that in the ICS group (C allele beta=-27.57 mL·year-1, 95% CI=-53.27, -1.87 mL·yr-1). The study uncovered genetic factors associated with FEV1 changes related to ICS in COPD patients, which may provide new insight on the potential biology of steroid responsiveness in COPD.

6.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1153-1163, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209336

RESUMO

Human lungs enable efficient gas exchange and form an interface with the environment, which depends on mucosal immunity for protection against infectious agents. Tightly controlled interactions between structural and immune cells are required to maintain lung homeostasis. Here, we use single-cell transcriptomics to chart the cellular landscape of upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma in healthy lungs, and lower airways in asthmatic lungs. We report location-dependent airway epithelial cell states and a novel subset of tissue-resident memory T cells. In the lower airways of patients with asthma, mucous cell hyperplasia is shown to stem from a novel mucous ciliated cell state, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. We report the presence of pathogenic effector type 2 helper T cells (TH2) in asthmatic lungs and find evidence for type 2 cytokines in maintaining the altered epithelial cell states. Unbiased analysis of cell-cell interactions identifies a shift from airway structural cell communication in healthy lungs to a TH2-dominated interactome in asthmatic lungs.

8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(4): 431-443, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950644

RESUMO

Rationale: Histologic stains have been used as the gold standard to visualize extracellular matrix (ECM) changes associated with airway remodeling in asthma, yet they provide no information on the biochemical and structural characteristics of the ECM, which are vital to understanding alterations in tissue function.Objectives: To demonstrate the use of nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) and texture analysis algorithms to image fibrillar collagen (second harmonic generation) and elastin (two-photon excited autofluorescence), to obtain biochemical and structural information on the remodeled ECM environment in asthma.Methods: Nontransplantable donor lungs from donors with asthma (n = 13) and control (n = 12) donors were used for the assessment of airway collagen and elastin fibers by NLOM, and extraction of lung fibroblasts for in vitro experiments.Measurements and Main Results: Fibrillar collagen is not only increased but also highly disorganized and fragmented within large and small asthmatic airways compared with control subjects, using NLOM imaging. Furthermore, such structural alterations are present in pediatric and adult donors with asthma, irrespective of fatal disease. In vitro studies demonstrated that asthmatic airway fibroblasts are deficient in their packaging of fibrillar collagen-I and express less decorin, important for collagen fibril packaging. Packaging of collagen fibrils was found to be more disorganized in asthmatic airways compared with control subjects, using transmission electron microscopy.Conclusions: NLOM imaging enabled the structural assessment of the ECM, and the data suggest that airway remodeling in asthma involves the progressive accumulation of disorganized fibrillar collagen by airway fibroblasts. This study highlights the future potential clinical application of NLOM to assess airway remodeling in vivo.

9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airflow obstruction is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is defined as either the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% or < lower limit of normal (LLN). This study aimed to assess the overlap between genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on airflow obstruction using these two definitions in the same population stratified by smoking. METHODS: GWASes were performed in the LifeLines Cohort Study for both airflow obstruction definitions in never-smokers (NS = 5071) and ever-smokers (ES = 4855). The FEV1/FVC < 70% models were adjusted for sex, age, and height; FEV1/FVC < LLN models were not adjusted. Ever-smokers models were additionally adjusted for pack-years and current-smoking. The overlap in significantly associated SNPs between the two definitions and never/ever-smokers was assessed using several p-value thresholds. To quantify the agreement, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the p-values and ORs. Replication was performed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study (NS = 432, ES = 823). The overlapping SNPs with p < 10- 4 were validated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen and Rotterdam Study cohorts (NS = 1966, ES = 3134) and analysed for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue (n = 1087). RESULTS: In the LifeLines cohort, 96% and 93% of the never- and ever-smokers were classified concordantly based on the two definitions. 26 and 29% of the investigated SNPs were overlapping at p < 0.05 in never- and ever-smokers, respectively. At p < 10- 4 the overlap was 4% and 6% respectively, which could be change findings as shown by simulation studies. The effect estimates of the SNPs of the two definitions correlated strongly, but the p-values showed more variation and correlated only moderately. Similar observations were made in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study. Two overlapping SNPs in never-smokers (NFYC and FABP7) had the same direction of effect in the validation cohorts and the NFYC SNP was an eQTL for NFYC-AS1. NFYC is a transcription factor that binds to several known COPD genes, and FABP7 may be involved in abnormal pulmonary development. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of airflow obstruction and the population under study may be important determinants of which SNPs are associated with airflow obstruction. The genes FABP7 and NFYC(-AS1) could play a role in airflow obstruction in never-smokers specifically.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína 7 de Ligação a Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Homologia de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846474

RESUMO

The aim was to investigate whether microRNA (miRNA) expression is modulated by inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatmentWe performed genome-wide miRNA analysis on bronchial biopsies of 69 moderate/severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients at baseline and after 6- and 30-month treatment with the ICS fluticasone propionate or placebo. The effect of ICS on miRNA expression was validated in differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cultures, and functional studies were conducted in BEAS-2B cells. MiRNAs affected by ICS and their predicted targets were compared to an independent miRNA dataset of bronchial brushings from COPD patients and healthy controls.Treatment with ICS for both 6 and 30 months significantly altered the expression of four miRNAs, including miR-320d, which was increased during ICS treatment compared with placebo. The ICS-induced increase of miR-320d was confirmed in primary airway epithelial cells. MiR-320d negatively correlated targets were enriched for pro-inflammatory genes and were increased in the bronchial brushes of patients with lower lung function in the independent dataset. Overexpression of miR-320d in BEAS-2B cells dampened cigarette smoke extract-induced pro-inflammatory activity via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB.Collectively, we identified miR-320d as a novel mediator of ICS, regulating the pro-inflammatory response of the airway epithelium.

11.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
12.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 212, 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of COPD. The epigenome, and more specifically DNA methylation, is recognized as important link between these factors. We postulate that DNA methylation is one of the routes by which cigarette smoke influences the development of COPD. In this study, we aim to identify CpG-sites that are associated with cigarette smoke exposure and lung function levels in whole blood and validate these CpG-sites in lung tissue. METHODS: The association between pack years and DNA methylation was studied genome-wide in 658 current smokers with >5 pack years using robust linear regression analysis. Using mediation analysis, we subsequently selected the CpG-sites that were also associated with lung function levels. Significant CpG-sites were validated in lung tissue with pyrosequencing and expression quantitative trait methylation (eQTM) analysis was performed to investigate the association between DNA methylation and gene expression. RESULTS: 15 CpG-sites were significantly associated with pack years and 10 of these were additionally associated with lung function levels. We validated 5 CpG-sites in lung tissue and found several associations between DNA methylation and gene expression. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to validate a panel of CpG-sites that are associated with cigarette smoking and lung function levels in whole blood in the tissue of interest: lung tissue.

13.
Environ Int ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449631

RESUMO

Respiratory symptoms are important indicators of respiratory diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to respiratory symptoms development but less is known about gene-environment interactions. We aimed to assess interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and occupational exposures on respiratory symptoms cough, dyspnea and phlegm. As identification cohort LifeLines I (n = 7976 subjects) was used. Job-specific exposure was estimated using the ALOHA + job exposure matrix. SNP-by-occupational exposure interactions on respiratory symptoms were tested using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, and current smoking. SNP-by-exposure interactions with a p-value <10-4 were tested for replication in two independent cohorts: LifeLines II (n = 5260) and the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort (n = 1529). The interaction estimates of the replication cohorts were meta-analyzed using PLINK. Replication was achieved when the meta-analysis p-value was <0.05 and the interaction effect had the same direction as in the identification cohort. Additionally, we assessed whether replicated SNPs associated with gene expression by analyzing if they were cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue. In the replication meta-analysis, sixteen out of 477 identified SNP-by-occupational exposure interactions had a p-value <0.05 and 9 of these interactions had the same direction as in the identification cohort. Several identified loci were plausible candidates for respiratory symptoms, such as TMPRSS9, SERPINH1, TOX3, and ARHGAP18. Three replicated SNPs were cis-eQTLs for FCER1A, CHN1, and TIMM13 in lung tissue. Taken together, this genome-wide SNP-by-occupational exposure interaction study in relation to cough, dyspnea, and phlegm identified several suggestive susceptibility genes. Further research should determine if these genes are true susceptibility loci for respiratory symptoms in relation to occupational exposures.

14.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072506

RESUMO

Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with worse prognosis and quality of life. This study aimed to identify microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA regulatory networks underlying CMH.The expression profiles of miRNA and mRNA in bronchial biopsies from 63 COPD patients were associated with CMH using linear regression. Potential mRNA targets of each CMH-associated miRNA were identified using Pearson correlations. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and STRING (search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins) analysis were used to identify key genes and pathways.20 miRNAs and 539 mRNAs were differentially expressed with CMH in COPD. The expression of 10 miRNAs was significantly correlated with the expression of one or more mRNAs. Of these, miR-134-5p, miR-146a-5p and the let-7 family had the highest representation of CMH-associated mRNAs among their negatively correlated predicted targets. KRAS and EDN1 were identified as key regulators of CMH and were negatively correlated predicted targets of miR-134-5p and let-7a-5p, let-7d-5p, and let-7f-5p, respectively. GSEA suggested involvement of MUC5AC-related genes and several other relevant gene sets in CMH. The lower expression of miR-134-5p was confirmed in primary airway fibroblasts from COPD patients with CMH.We identified miR-134-5p, miR-146a-5p and let-7 family, along with their potential target genes including KRAS and EDN1, as potential key miRNA-mRNA networks regulating CMH in COPD.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11881, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089872

RESUMO

Genome-wide mRNA profiling in lung tissue from human and animal models can provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While 6 months of smoke exposure are widely used, shorter durations were also reported. The overlap of short term and long-term smoke exposure in mice is currently not well understood, and their representation of the human condition is uncertain. Lung tissue gene expression profiles of six murine smoking experiments (n = 48) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and analyzed to identify the murine smoking signature. The "human smoking" gene signature containing 386 genes was previously published in the lung eQTL study (n = 1,111). A signature of mild COPD containing 7 genes was also identified in the same study. The lung tissue gene signature of "severe COPD" (n = 70) contained 4,071 genes and was previously published. We detected 3,723 differentially expressed genes in the 6 month-exposure mice datasets (FDR <0.1). Of those, 184 genes (representing 48% of human smoking) and 1,003 (representing 27% of human COPD) were shared with the human smoking-related genes and the COPD severity-related genes, respectively. There was 4-fold over-representation of human and murine smoking-related genes (P = 6.7 × 10-26) and a 1.4 fold in the severe COPD -related genes (P = 2.3 × 10-12). There was no significant enrichment of the mice and human smoking-related genes in mild COPD signature. These data suggest that murine smoke models are strongly representative of molecular processes of human smoking but less of COPD.

16.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10: 32, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527240

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease of the lungs that is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Genetic factors account for only a small amount of COPD risk, but epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, have the potential to mediate the interactions between an individual's genetics and environmental exposure. DNA methylation is highly cell type-specific, and individual cell type studies of DNA methylation in COPD are sparse. Fibroblasts are present within the airway and parenchyma of the lung and contribute to the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix in COPD. No assessment or comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in the airway and parenchymal fibroblasts from individuals with and without COPD has been undertaken. These data provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to COPD and the differing pathologies of small airways disease and emphysema in COPD. Methods: Genome-wide DNA methylation was evaluated at over 485,000 CpG sites using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array in the airway (non-COPD n = 8, COPD n = 7) and parenchymal fibroblasts (non-COPD n = 17, COPD n = 29) isolated from individuals with and without COPD. Targeted gene expression was assessed by qPCR in matched RNA samples. Results: Differentially methylated DNA regions were identified between cells isolated from individuals with and without COPD in both airway and parenchymal fibroblasts. Only in parenchymal fibroblasts was differential DNA methylation associated with differential gene expression. A second analysis of differential DNA methylation variability identified 359 individual differentially variable CpG sites in parenchymal fibroblasts. No differentially variable CpG sites were identified in the airway fibroblasts. Five differentially variable-methylated CpG sites, associated with three genes, were subsequently assessed for gene expression differences. Two genes (OAT and GRIK2) displayed significantly increased gene expression in cells isolated from individuals with COPD. Conclusions: Differential and variable DNA methylation was associated with COPD status in the parenchymal fibroblasts but not airway fibroblasts. Aberrant DNA methylation was associated with altered gene expression imparting biological function to DNA methylation changes. Changes in DNA methylation are therefore implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying COPD pathogenesis and may represent novel therapeutic targets.

17.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 58(6): 727-735, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256623

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and to date, existing pharmacologic interventions have been ineffective at controlling inflammatory processes associated with the disease. To address this issue, we used the Connectivity Map (cMap) database to identify drug candidates with the potential to attenuate cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. We queried cMap using three independent in-house cohorts of healthy nonsmokers and smokers. Potential drug candidates were validated against four publicly available human datasets, as well as six independent datasets from cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Overall, these analyses yielded two potential drug candidates: kaempferol and bethanechol. Subsequently, the efficacy of each drug was validated in vivo in a model of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. BALB/c mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke and treated with each of the two candidate drugs either prophylactically or therapeutically. We found that kaempferol, but not bethanechol, was able to reduce cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia, both when administered prophylactically and when administered therapeutically. Mechanistically, kaempferol decreased expression of IL-1α and CXCL5 concentrations in the lung. Our data suggest that cMap analyses may serve as a useful tool to identify novel drug candidates against cigarette smoke-induced inflammation.

18.
Thorax ; 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212667

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COPD is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease of the lungs and the third leading cause of death worldwide. The current knowledge of the pathophysiology of COPD is limited and novel insights in underlying disease mechanisms are urgently needed. Since there are clear parallels between ageing and COPD, we investigated genes underlying lung ageing in general and abnormal lung ageing in COPD. METHODS: Whole genome mRNA profiling was performed on lung tissue samples (n=1197) and differential gene expression with increasing age was analysed using an adjusted linear regression model. Subsequent pathway analysis was performed using GeneNetwork and the gene-expression signature was compared with lung ageing in the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. In a subset of patients with COPD (n=311) and non-COPD controls (n=270), we performed an interaction analysis between age and COPD to identify genes differentially expressed with age in COPD compared with controls, followed by gene set enrichment pathway analysis. RESULTS: We identified a strong gene-expression signature for lung ageing with 3509 differentially expressed genes, of which 33.5% were found nominal significant in the GTEx project. Interestingly, we found EDA2R as a strong candidate gene for lung ageing. The age*COPD interaction analysis revealed 69 genes significantly differentially expressed with age between COPD and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that processes related to lung development, cell-cell contacts, calcium signalling and immune responses are involved in lung ageing in general. Pathways related to extracellular matrix, mammalian target of rapamycin signalling, splicing of introns and exons and the ribosome complex are proposed to be involved in abnormal lung ageing in COPD.

19.
Eur Respir Rev ; 26(146)2017 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212834

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence, in particular in the elderly. COPD is characterised by abnormal tissue repair resulting in (small) airways disease and emphysema. There is accumulating evidence that ageing hallmarks are prominent features of COPD. These ageing hallmarks have been described in different subsets of COPD patients, in different lung compartments and also in a variety of cell types, and thus might contribute to different COPD phenotypes. A better understanding of the main differences and similarities between normal lung ageing and the pathology of COPD may improve our understanding of the mechanisms driving COPD pathology, in particular in those patients that develop the most severe form of COPD at a relatively young age, i.e. severe early-onset COPD patients.In this review, after introducing the main concepts of lung ageing and COPD pathology, we focus on the role of (abnormal) ageing in lung remodelling and repair in COPD. We discuss the current evidence for the involvement of ageing hallmarks in these pathological features of COPD. We also highlight potential novel treatment strategies and opportunities for future research based on our current knowledge of abnormal lung ageing in COPD.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Senescência Celular , Pulmão/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Regeneração , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Respir Res ; 18(1): 213, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasal gene expression profiling is a promising method to characterize COPD non-invasively. We aimed to identify a nasal gene expression profile to distinguish COPD patients from healthy controls. We investigated whether this COPD-associated gene expression profile in nasal epithelium is comparable with the profile observed in bronchial epithelium. METHODS: Genome wide gene expression analysis was performed on nasal epithelial brushes of 31 severe COPD patients and 22 controls, all current smokers, using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. We repeated the gene expression analysis on bronchial epithelial brushes in 2 independent cohorts of mild-to-moderate COPD patients and controls. RESULTS: In nasal epithelium, 135 genes were significantly differentially expressed between severe COPD patients and controls, 21 being up- and 114 downregulated in COPD (false discovery rate < 0.01). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) showed significant concordant enrichment of COPD-associated nasal and bronchial gene expression in both independent cohorts (FDRGSEA < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We identified a nasal gene expression profile that differentiates severe COPD patients from controls. Of interest, part of the nasal gene expression changes in COPD mimics differentially expressed genes in the bronchus. These findings indicate that nasal gene expression profiling is potentially useful as a non-invasive biomarker in COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01351792 (registration date May 10, 2011), ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00848406 (registration date February 19, 2009), ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00807469 (registration date December 11, 2008).


Assuntos
Brônquios/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Brônquios/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética
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