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1.
Environ Int ; 143: 105983, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution and mortality is well established, yet some uncertainties remain: there are few studies that account for road traffic noise exposure or that consider in detail the shape of the exposure-response function for cause-specific mortality outcomes, especially at low-levels of exposure. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter [(PM) with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total and cause-specific mortality, accounting for road traffic noise. METHODS: We used data on 24,541 females (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and linked to the Danish Causes of Death Register for follow-up on date of death and its cause, until the end of 2013. Annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 at the participants' residences since 1990 were estimated using the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS dispersion model, and annual mean road traffic noise levels (Lden) were estimated using the Nord2000 model. We examined associations between the three-year running mean of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 with total and cause-specific mortality by using time-varying Cox Regression models, adjusting for individual characteristics and residential road traffic noise. RESULTS: During the study period, 3,708 nurses died: 843 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 310 from respiratory disease (RD), and 64 from diabetes. In the fully adjusted models, including road traffic noise, we detected associations of three-year running mean of PM2.5 with total (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.06; 1.01-1.11), CVD (1.14; 1.03-1.26), and diabetes mortality (1.41; 1.05-1.90), per interquartile range of 4.39 µg/m3. In a subset of the cohort exposed to PM2.5 < 20 µg/m3, we found even stronger association with total (1.19; 1.11-1.27), CVD (1.27; 1.01-1.46), RD (1.27; 1.00-1.60), and diabetes mortality (1.44; 0.83-2.48). We found similar associations with PM10 and none with NO2. All associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. DISCUSSION: Long-term exposure to low-levels of PM2.5 and PM10 is associated with total mortality, and mortality from CVD, RD, and diabetes. Associations were even stronger at the PM2.5 levels below EU limit values and were independent of road traffic noise.

2.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 81, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconclusive evidence has suggested a possible link between air pollution and central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We investigated a range of air pollutants in relation to types of CNS tumors. METHODS: We identified all (n = 21,057) intracranial tumors in brain, meninges and cranial nerves diagnosed in Denmark between 1989 and 2014 and matched controls on age, sex and year of birth. We established personal 10-year mean residential outdoor exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrous oxides (NOX), primary emitted black carbon (BC) and ozone. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) linearly (per interquartile range (IQR)) and categorically. We accounted for personal income, employment, marital status, use of medication as well as socio-demographic conditions at area level. RESULTS: Malignant tumors of the intracranial CNS was associated with BC (OR: 1.034, 95%CI: 1.005-1.065 per IQR. For NOx the OR per IQR was 1.026 (95%CI: 0.998-1.056). For malignant non-glioma tumors of the brain we found associations with PM2.5 (OR: 1.267, 95%CI: 1.053-1.524 per IQR), BC (OR: 1.049, 95%CI: 0.996-1.106) and NOx (OR: 1.051, 95% CI: 0.996-1.110). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that air pollution is associated with malignant intracranial CNS tumors and malignant non-glioma of the brain. However, additional studies are needed.

3.
Environ Int ; 142: 105891, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593048

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution has been linked to stroke, but few studies have examined in detail stroke subtypes and confounding by road traffic noise, which was recently associated with stroke. Here we examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of stroke (overall, ischemic, hemorrhagic), adjusting for road traffic noise. In a nationwide Danish Nurse Cohort consisting of 23,423 nurses, recruited in 1993 or 1999, we identified 1,078 incident cases of stroke (944 ischemic and 134 hemorrhagic) up to December 31, 2014, defined as first-ever hospital contact. The full residential address histories since 1970 were obtained for each participant and the annual means of air pollutants (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm and < 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and road traffic noise were determined using validated models. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) for the associations of one-, three, and 23-year running mean of air pollutants with stroke adjusting for potential confounders and noise. In fully adjusted models, the HRs (95% CI) per interquartile range increase in one-year running mean of PM2.5 and overall, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke were 1.12 (1.01-1.25), 1.13 (1.01-1.26), and 1.07 (0.80-1.44), respectively, and remained unchanged after adjustment for noise. Long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 was associated with the risk of stroke independent of road traffic noise.

4.
Environ Res ; 188: 109788, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562949

RESUMO

Natural environments have been associated with mental health benefits worldwide. However, how different elements and types of natural environments associate with mental health is still largely unknown. In this study, we perform a detailed analysis on a large, nation-wide data set of mental health records (908 553 individuals) for Denmark combined with remotely-sensed land cover and vegetation density data. We explore associations between growing up surrounded by different environments and rates of a spectrum of 18 psychiatric disorders. Childhood land cover exposure for urban, agricultural, near-natural green space, and blue space was determined around the residence of each individual. Vegetation density and air pollution were evaluated as potential pathways. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate rates as hazard ratios and then adjusted for potential confounding from other known risk factors. For 12 of 18 disorders, rates were lower for children growing up in environments with more natural elements (near-natural green space, blue space, and agriculture) compared to children growing up in urban environments. High vegetation density was associated with lower rates for most disorders within all the examined environments, whereas mitigation of air pollution by natural environments seemed a less important potential pathway. Rates were not notably changed by adjustment for urbanization, parental and municipal socioeconomic status, family history of mental illness, and parents' age. In conclusion, we found that growing up surrounded by a range of natural environments such as near-natural green space, blue space, and agriculture may lower rates of psychiatric disorders. Our results show the importance of ensuring access to natural environments from as nature-based solutions for improved public health and sustainable, livable cities.

5.
Environ Res ; 188: 109762, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a complex mixture and the various PM constituents likely affect health differently. The literature on the relationships among specific PM constituents and the risk of cancer is sparse. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of PM2.5 and its constituents with the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and the two main NHL subtypes. METHODS: We undertook a nationwide register-based case-control study including 20,847 cases registered in the Danish Cancer Registry with NHL between 1989 and 2014. Among the entire Danish population, we selected 41,749 age and sex-matched controls randomly from the Civil Registration System. We assessed modelled outdoor PM concentrations at addresses of cases and controls with a state-of-the-art multi scale air pollution modelling system and used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for individual and neighborhood level socio-demographic variables. RESULTS: The 10-year time-weighted average concentrations of PM2.5, primary carbonaceous particles (BC/OC), secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and sea salt were 17.4, 2.3, 7.8, 0.3, and 4.1 µg/m3, respectively among controls. The results showed higher risk for NHL in association with exposure to BC/OC (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07, per interquartile range (IQR)) and SOA (OR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.09, per IQR). The results indicated a higher risk for follicular lymphoma in association with several PM components. Including PM2.5 (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.98-1.38), BC/OC (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.97-1.14), SIA (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 0.80-1.08), SOA (OR = 4.52; 95% CI: 0.86-23.83) per IQR. CONCLUSION: This is the first study on PM constituents and the risk of NHL. The results indicated an association with primary carbonaceous and secondary organic PM. The results need replication in other settings before any firm conclusion can be reached.

6.
Environ Res ; 187: 109633, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442789

RESUMO

Transportation noise is a growing public health concern worldwide and epidemiological evidence has linked road traffic noise with mortality. However, incongruent effect estimates have been reported between incidence and mortality studies. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise at the most and least exposed façades was associated with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, respiratory, or cancer mortality in a Danish cohort study. In a cohort of 52,758 individuals from Copenhagen and Aarhus, we estimated road traffic noise at the most and least exposed façades, as well as ambient air pollution, at all present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2016. Using the Danish cause of death register we identified cause-specific mortality. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Ten-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure at the most exposed façade was associated with an 8% higher risk for all-cause mortality per interquartile range (IQR; 10.4 dB) higher exposure level (95% CI: 1.05-1.11). Higher risks were also observed for CVD (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.19) and stroke (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.25) mortality. Road traffic noise at the least exposed façade (per IQR; 8.4 dB) was associated with CVD (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.15), IHD (HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21) and stroke (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.95-1.19) mortality. Results were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 and NO2. In conclusion, this study adds to the body of evidence linking exposure to road traffic noise with higher risk of mortality.

7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(5): 57003, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been linked to coronary heart disease, although evidence on PM2.5 and myocardial infarction (MI) incidence is mixed. OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and MI incidence, adjusting for road traffic noise. METHODS: We used data from the nationwide Danish Nurse Cohort on 22,882 female nurses (>44 years of age) who, at recruitment in 1993 or 1999, reported information on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Data on MI incidence was collected from the Danish National Patient Register until the end of 2014. Annual mean concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter <2.5 µg/m3 (PM2.5), PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the nurses' residences since 1990 (PM10 and PM2.5) or 1970 (NO2 and NOx) were estimated using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model/Urban Background Model/AirGIS (DEHM/UBM/AirGIS) dispersion model. We used time-varying Cox regression models to examine the association between 1- and 3-y running means of these pollutants, as well as 23-y running means of NO2 and NOx, with both overall and fatal incident MI. Associations were explored in three progressively adjusted models: Model 1, adjusted for age and baseline year; Model 2, with further adjustment for potential confounding by lifestyle and cardiovascular disease risk factors; and Model 3, with further adjustment for road traffic noise, modeled as the annual mean of a weighted 24-h average (Lden). RESULTS: Of the 22,882 women, 641 developed MI during a mean follow-up of 18.6 y, 121 (18.9%) of which were fatal. Reported hazard ratios (HRs) were based on interquartile range increases of 5.3, 5.5, 8.1, and 11.5 µg/m3 for PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and NOx, respectively. In Model 1, we observed a positive association between a 3-y running mean of PM2.5 and an overall incident MI with an HR= 1.20 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.35), which attenuated to HR= 1.06 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.23) in Model 2. In Model 1 for incident fatal MI, we observed a strong association with a 3-y running mean of PM2.5, with an HR= 1.69 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.13), which attenuated to HR= 1.35 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.81) in Model 2. Similar associations were seen for PM10, with 3-y, Model 2 estimates for overall and fatal incident MI of HR= 1.06 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.23) and HR= 1.35 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.81), respectively. No evidence of an association was observed for NO2 or NOx. For all pollutants, associations in Model 2 were robust to further adjustment for road traffic noise in Model 3 and were similar for a 1-y running mean exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We found no association between long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10, NO2, or NOx and overall MI incidence, but we observed positive associations for PM2.5 and PM10 with fatal MI. We present novel findings that the association between PM and MI incidence is robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5818.

8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(5): 57004, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research on effects of transportation noise on incident hypertension is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether residential road traffic noise increases the risk for hypertension. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 57,053 individuals 50-64 years of age at enrollment, we identified 21,241 individuals who fulfilled our case definition of filling ≥2 prescriptions and ≥180 defined daily doses of antihypertensive drugs (AHTs) within a year, during a mean follow-up time of 14.0 y. Residential addresses from 1987 to 2016 were obtained from national registers, and road traffic noise at the most exposed façade as well as the least exposed façade was modeled for all addresses. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We found no associations between the 10-y mean exposure to road traffic noise and filled prescriptions for AHTs, with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.999 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.980, 1.019)] per 10-dB increase in road traffic noise at the most exposed façade and of 1.001 (95% CI: 0.977, 1.026) at the least exposed façade. Interaction analyses suggested an association with road traffic noise at the least exposed façade among subpopulations of current smokers and obese individuals. CONCLUSION: The present study does not support an association between road traffic noise and filled prescriptions for AHTs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6273.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175588

RESUMO

There is limited evidence regarding a possible association between exposure to ambient air pollutants and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Previous epidemiological studies have relied on crude estimations for air pollution exposure and/or small numbers of NHL cases. The objective of our study was to analyze this association based on air pollution modeled at the address level and NHL cases identified from the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry. We identified 20,874 incident NHL cases diagnosed between 1989 and 2014 and randomly selected 41,749 controls matched on age and gender among the entire Danish population. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted for individual and neighborhood level sociodemographic variables. There was no association between exposure to PM2.5 , BC, O3 , SO2 or NO2 and overall risk of NHL but several air pollutants were associated with higher risk of follicular lymphoma, but statistically insignificant, for example, PM2.5 (OR = 1.15 per 5 µg/m3 ; 95% CI: 0.98-1.34) and lower risk for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR = 0.92 per 5 µg/m3 ; 95% CI: 0.82-1.03). In this population-based study, we did not observe any convincing evidence of a higher overall risk for NHL with higher exposure to ambient air pollutants.

10.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(2): e64-e73, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution affects neurological function, but its association with schizophrenia risk is unclear. We investigated exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOX) as a whole and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) specifically, as well as PM10, and PM2·5, during childhood and subsequent schizophrenia risk. METHODS: People born in Denmark from 1980 to 1984 (N=230 844), who were residing in the country on their tenth birthday, and who had two Danish-born parents were followed-up from their tenth birthday until schizophrenia diagnosis or Dec 31, 2016. Mean daily exposure to each pollutant (NO2, NOX, PM10, and PM2·5) at all of an individual's residential addresses from birth to their tenth birthday was modelled. Incidence rate ratios, cumulative incidence, and population attributable risks were calculated using survival analysis techniques. FINDINGS: We analysed data between Aug 1, 2018, and Nov 15, 2019. Of 230 844 individuals included, 2189 cohort members were diagnosed with schizophrenia during follow-up. Higher concentrations of residential NO2 and NOX exposure during childhood were associated with subsequent elevated schizophrenia risk. People exposed to daily mean concentrations of more than 26·5 µg/m3 NO2 had a 1·62 (95% CI 1·41-1·87) times increased risk compared with people exposed to a mean daily concentration of less than 14·5 µg/m3. The absolute risks of developing schizophrenia by the age of 37 years when exposed to daily mean concentrations of more than 26·5 µg/m3 NO2 between birth and 10 years were 1·45% (95% CI 1·30-1·62%) for men and 1·03% (0·90-1·17) for women, whereas when exposed to a mean daily concentration of less than 14·5 µg/m3, the risk was 0·80% (95% CI 0·69-0·92%) for men and 0·67% (0·57-0·79) for women. Associations between exposure to PM2·5 or PM10 and schizophrenia risk were less consistent. INTERPRETATION: If the association between air pollution and schizophrenia is causal, reducing ambient air pollution including NO2 and NOX could have a potentially considerable effect on lowering schizophrenia incidence at the population level. Further investigations are necessary to establish a causal relationship. FUNDING: Lundbeck Foundation, Stanley Medical Research Institute, European Research Council, NordForsk, Novo Nordisk Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council, Danish National Research Foundation.

11.
Schizophr Res ; 216: 488-495, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699630

RESUMO

High exposure to green space and natural environments has previously been associated with lower schizophrenia rates possibly through low air pollution and improved psychological restoration. Exposure to natural environments could explain the negative urban-rural gradient of schizophrenia, but it is unclear if all natural environments are associated with schizophrenia rates. We investigated the association between schizophrenia and growing up surrounded by environments classified as mainly urban, agricultural, near-natural green space, and blue space. Vegetation density and air pollution were assessed as potential pathways. We used the Danish population (943 027 people) and remotely-sensed environmental data to determine land cover exposure and vegetation density around each individual's residence. Effect sizes were estimated using Cox regression and adjusted for air pollution, socioeconomic status, and urbanization. Our results show that growing up surrounded by non-urban environments is associated with lower schizophrenia rates. Firstly, growing up surrounded by non-built-up areas (agricultural areas, near-natural green and blue space) is associated with lower schizophrenia rates compared to urban areas. Secondly, rates decrease with vegetation density in a dose-response relationship for urban and agricultural areas. Air pollution mitigation more strongly explained the protective association in near-natural green spaces, implying that restorative pathways together with air pollution mitigation may explain lower rates in natural environments. This study suggests that ensuring access to natural environments during childhood may be important for schizophrenia prevention, whilst being the first study to show that natural environments may influence schizophrenia rates through multiple pathways.

12.
Environ Res ; 183: 108930, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution in early life has been linked to cognitive deficits and adverse neurodevelopmental effects. However, studies examining associations between air pollutants and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have had conflicting findings. METHODS: Individuals born in Denmark 1992-2007 (n = 809,654) were followed for the development of ADHD from 1997 to 2013. Data on daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from air-modeling data at a 1 km × 1 km resolution at residences within the first five years of life, was linked with population-based data from the Danish national registers, including data on clinical diagnoses of ADHD. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ADHD, according to increases in exposures, adjusting for age, year, sex, and parental education and income. RESULTS: Exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 during early life was associated with a significantly increased risk of ADHD: IRR of 1.38 (Cl: 1.35 to 1.42) per 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 and an IRR of 1.51 (Cl: 1.41 to 1.62) per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5. In two-pollutant models, the association between NO2 and ADHD did not change (IRR 1.35; 95% CI: 1.31 to 1.39), while the association with PM2.5 was substantially attenuated (IRR 1.07; 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.16), although in stratified models an elevated association with PM2.5 was found in the lowest quintile of NO2 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: In this large nationwide prospective cohort study, residential air pollution exposure, specifically NO2, during early childhood was associated with the development of ADHD, even when adjusted for parental level of income and education.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(11): e1914401, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675084

RESUMO

Importance: Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder, and recent studies have suggested that exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during childhood is associated with an elevated risk of subsequently developing schizophrenia. However, it is not known whether the increased risk associated with NO2 exposure is owing to a greater genetic liability among those exposed to highest NO2 levels. Objective: To examine the associations between childhood NO2 exposure and genetic liability for schizophrenia (as measured by a polygenic risk score), and risk of developing schizophrenia. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study including individuals with schizophrenia (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision code F20) and a randomly selected subcohort. Using national registry data, all individuals born in Denmark between May 1, 1981, and December 31, 2002, were followed up from their 10th birthday until the first occurrence of schizophrenia, emigration, death, or December 31, 2012, whichever came first. Statistical analyses were conducted between October 24, 2018, and June 17, 2019. Exposures: Individual exposure to NO2 during childhood estimated as mean daily exposure to NO2 at residential addresses from birth to the 10th birthday. Polygenic risk scores were calculated as the weighted sum of risk alleles at selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms based on genetic material obtained from dried blood spot samples from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank and on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium genome-wide association study summary statistics file. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was schizophrenia. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) for schizophrenia with 95% CIs according to the exposures. Results: Of a total of 23 355 individuals, 11 976 (51.3%) were male and all had Danish-born parents. During the period of the study, 3531 were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Higher polygenic risk scores were correlated with higher childhood NO2 exposure (ρ = 0.0782; 95% CI, 0.065-0.091; P < .001). A 10-µg/m3 increase in childhood daily NO2 exposure (AHR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.15-1.32) and a 1-SD increase in polygenic risk score (AHR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.23-1.35) were independently associated with increased schizophrenia risk. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the apparent association between NO2 exposure and schizophrenia is only slightly confounded by a higher polygenic risk score for schizophrenia among individuals living in areas with greater NO2. The findings demonstrate the utility of including polygenic risk scores in epidemiologic studies.

14.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105268, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675564

RESUMO

Studies on health effects of long-term exposure to specific PM2.5 constituents are few. Previous studies have reported an association between black carbon (BC) exposure and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and a few studies have found an association between sulfate exposure and mortality. These studies, however, relied mainly on exposure data from centrally located air-monitoring stations, which is a crude approximation of personal exposure. We focused on specific chemical constituents of PM2.5, i.e. elemental and primary organic carbonaceous particles (BC/OC), sea salt, secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, i.e. NO3-, NH4+, and SO42-), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA), in relation to all-cause, CVD and respiratory disease mortality. We followed a Danish cohort of 49,564 individuals from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2015. We combined residential address history from 1979 onwards with mean annual air pollution concentrations obtained by the AirGIS air pollution modelling system, lifestyle information from baseline questionnaires and socio-demography obtained by register linkage. During 895,897 person-years of follow-up, 10,193 deaths from all causes occurred - of which 2319 were CVD-related and 870 were related to respiratory disease. The 15-year time-weighted average concentrations of PM2.5, BC/OC, sea salt, SIA and SOA were 13.8, 2.8, 3.4, 4.9, and 0.3 µg/m3, respectively. For all-cause mortality, a higher risk was observed with higher exposure to PM2.5, BC/OC and SOA with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.03 (95% confidence intervals: 1.01, 1.05), 1.06 (1.03, 1.09), and 1.08 (1.03, 1.13) per interquartile range, respectively. The associations for BC/OC and SOA remained after adjustment for PM2.5 in two-pollutant models. For CVD mortality, we observed elevated risks with higher exposure to PM2.5, BC/OC and SIA. The results showed no clear relationship between sea salt and mortality. In this study, we observed a relationship between long-term exposure to PM2.5, BC/OC, and SOA and all-cause mortality and between PM2.5, BC/OC, and SIA and CVD mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fuligem/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14279, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582769

RESUMO

Modelling wind speeds in urban areas have many applications e.g. in relation to assessment of wind energy, modelling air pollution, and building design and engineering. Models for extrapolating the urban wind speed exist, but little attention has been paid to the influence of the upwind terrain and the foundations for the extrapolation schemes. To analyse the influence of the upwind terrain and the foundations for the extrapolation of the urban wind speed, measurements from six urban and non-urban stations were explored, and a model for the urban wind speed with and without upwind influence was developed and validated. The agreement between the wind directions at the stations is found to be good, and the influence of atmospheric stability, horizontal temperature gradients, land-sea breeze, temperature, global radiation and Monin-Obukhov Length is found to be small, although future work should explore if this is valid for other urban areas. Moreover, the model is found to perform reasonably well, but the upwind influence is overestimated. Areas of model improvement are thus identified. The upwind terrain thus influences the modelling of the urban wind speed to a large extent, and the fundamental assumptions for the extrapolation scheme are fulfilled for this specific case.

16.
PLoS Biol ; 17(8): e3000353, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430271

RESUMO

The search for the genetic factors underlying complex neuropsychiatric disorders has proceeded apace in the past decade. Despite some advances in identifying genetic variants associated with psychiatric disorders, most variants have small individual contributions to risk. By contrast, disease risk increase appears to be less subtle for disease-predisposing environmental insults. In this study, we sought to identify associations between environmental pollution and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. We present exploratory analyses of 2 independent, very large datasets: 151 million unique individuals, represented in a United States insurance claims dataset, and 1.4 million unique individuals documented in Danish national treatment registers. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) county-level environmental quality indices (EQIs) in the US and individual-level exposure to air pollution in Denmark were used to assess the association between pollution exposure and the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. These results show that air pollution is significantly associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that pollutants affect the human brain via neuroinflammatory pathways that have also been shown to cause depression-like phenotypes in animal studies.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dinamarca , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(3): 37004, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels, raising concerns as to whether WT noise (WTN) increases risk for cardiovascular disease, as observed for traffic noise. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to WTN increases risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. METHODS: We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius 20 times the height of the closest WT and 25% of the dwellings within [Formula: see text] the height of the closest WT. Using data on WT type and simulated hourly wind at each WT, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency (LF) indoor WTN for each dwelling and derived 1-y and 5-y running nighttime averages. We used hospital and mortality registries to identify all incident cases of MI ([Formula: see text]) and stroke ([Formula: see text]) among all adults age 25-85 y ([Formula: see text]), who lived in one of these dwellings for [Formula: see text] over the period 1982-2013. We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for individual- and area-level covariates. RESULTS: IRRs for MI in association with 5-y nighttime outdoor WTN [Formula: see text] (vs. [Formula: see text]) dB(A) and indoor LF WTN [Formula: see text] (vs. [Formula: see text]) dB(A) were 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.62; 47 exposed cases] and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.73, 2.28; 12 exposed cases), respectively. IRRs for intermediate categories of outdoor WTN [24-30, 30-36, and [Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text]] were slightly above the null and of similar size: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.12), 1.07 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.12), and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.22), respectively. For stroke, IRRs for the second and third outdoor exposure groups were similar to those for MI, but near or below the null for higher exposures. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find convincing evidence of associations between WTN and MI or stroke. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3340.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(3): 37005, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is associated with annoyance and, potentially, sleep disturbances. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate whether long-term WT noise (WTN) exposure is associated with the redemption of prescriptions for sleep medication and antidepressants. METHODS: For all Danish dwellings within a radius of [Formula: see text] heights and for 25% of randomly selected dwellings within a radius of [Formula: see text] heights, we estimated nighttime outdoor and low-frequency (LF) indoor WTN, using information on WT type and simulated hourly wind. During follow-up from 1996 to 2013, 68,696 adults redeemed sleep medication and 82,373 redeemed antidepressants, from eligible populations of 583,968 and 584,891, respectively. We used Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates. RESULTS: Five-year mean outdoor nighttime WTN of [Formula: see text] was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI]: 0.98, 1.33) for sleep medication and HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) for antidepressants (compared with exposure to WTN of [Formula: see text]). We found no overall association with indoor nighttime LF WTN. In age-stratified analyses, the association with outdoor nighttime WTN was strongest among persons [Formula: see text] of age, with HRs (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group ([Formula: see text]) of 1.68 (1.27, 2.21) for sleep medication and 1.23 (0.90, 1.69) for antidepressants. For indoor nighttime LF WTN, the HRs (95% CIs) among persons [Formula: see text] of age exposed to [Formula: see text] were 1.37 (0.81, 2.31) for sleep medication and 1.34 (0.80, 2.22) for antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: We observed high levels of outdoor WTN to be associated with redemption of sleep medication and antidepressants among the elderly, suggesting that WTN may potentially be associated with sleep and mental health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3909.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Environ Int ; 123: 265-272, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551059

RESUMO

Air pollutants such as NO2 and PM2.5 have consistently been linked to mortality, but only few previous studies have addressed associations with long-term exposure to black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3). We investigated the association between PM2.5, PM10, BC, NO2, and O3 and mortality in a Danish cohort of 49,564 individuals who were followed up from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2015. Residential address history from 1979 onwards was combined with air pollution exposure obtained by the state-of-the-art, validated, THOR/AirGIS air pollution modelling system, and information on residential traffic noise exposure, lifestyle and socio-demography. We observed higher risks of all-cause as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with higher long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10, BC, and NO2. For PM2.5 and CVD mortality, a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.29 (95% CI: 1.13-1.47) per 5 µg/m3 was observed, and correspondingly HRs of 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05-1.27) and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04-1.17) were observed for BC (per 1 µg/m3) and NO2 (per 10 µg/m3), respectively. Adjustment for noise gave slightly lower estimates for the air pollutants and CVD mortality. Inverse relationships were observed for O3. None of the investigated air pollutants were related to risk of respiratory mortality. Stratified analyses suggested that the elevated risks of CVD and all-cause mortality in relation to long-term PM, NO2 and BC exposure were restricted to males. This study supports a role of PM, BC, and NO2 in all-cause and CVD mortality independent of road traffic noise exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fuligem/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
20.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 18(14): 10199-10218, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450115

RESUMO

The evaluation and intercomparison of air quality models is key to reducing model errors and uncertainty. The projects AQMEII3 and EURODELTA-Trends, in the framework of the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants and the Task Force on Measurements and Modelling, respectively (both task forces under the UNECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution, LTRAP), have brought together various regional air quality models to analyze their performance in terms of air concentrations and wet deposition, as well as to address other specific objectives. This paper jointly examines the results from both project communities by intercomparing and evaluating the deposition estimates of reduced and oxidized nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) in Europe simulated by 14 air quality model systems for the year 2010. An accurate estimate of deposition is key to an accurate simulation of atmospheric concentrations. In addition, deposition fluxes are increasingly being used to estimate ecological impacts. It is therefore important to know by how much model results differ and how well they agree with observed values, at least when comparison with observations is possible, such as in the case of wet deposition. This study reveals a large variability between the wet deposition estimates of the models, with some performing acceptably (according to previously defined criteria) and others underestimating wet deposition rates. For dry deposition, there are also considerable differences between the model estimates. An ensemble of the models with the best performance for N wet deposition was made and used to explore the implications of N deposition in the conservation of protected European habitats. Exceedances of empirical critical loads were calculated for the most common habitats at a resolution of 100 × 100 m2 within the Natura 2000 network, and the habitats with the largest areas showing exceedances are determined. Moreover, simulations with reduced emissions in selected source areas indicated a fairly linear relationship between reductions in emissions and changes in the deposition rates of N and S. An approximate 20 % reduction in N and S deposition in Europe is found when emissions at a global scale are reduced by the same amount. European emissions are by far the main contributor to deposition in Europe, whereas the reduction in deposition due to a decrease in emissions in North America is very small and confined to the western part of the domain. Reductions in European emissions led to substantial decreases in the protected habitat areas with critical load exceedances (halving the exceeded area for certain habitats), whereas no change was found, on average, when reducing North American emissions in terms of average values per habitat.

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