*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(23): 237701, 2021 Dec 03.*

##### RESUMO

Cooper pair splitters are promising candidates for generating spin-entangled electrons. However, the splitting of Cooper pairs is a random and noisy process, which hinders further synchronized operations on the entangled electrons. To circumvent this problem, we here propose and analyze a dynamic Cooper pair splitter that produces a noiseless and regular flow of spin-entangled electrons. The Cooper pair splitter is based on a superconductor coupled to quantum dots, whose energy levels are tuned in and out of resonance to control the splitting process. We identify the optimal operating conditions for which exactly one Cooper pair is split per period of the external drive and the flow of entangled electrons becomes noiseless. To characterize the regularity of the Cooper pair splitter in the time domain, we analyze the g^{(2)} function of the output currents and the distribution of waiting times between split Cooper pairs. Our proposal is feasible using current technology, and it paves the way for dynamic quantum information processing with spin-entangled electrons.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6358, 2021 Nov 04.*

##### RESUMO

Controlled generation and detection of quantum entanglement between spatially separated particles constitute an essential prerequisite both for testing the foundations of quantum mechanics and for realizing future quantum technologies. Splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor provides entangled electrons at separate locations. However, experimentally accessing the individual split Cooper pairs constitutes a major unresolved issue as they mix together with electrons from competing processes. Here, we overcome this challenge with the first real-time observation of the splitting of individual Cooper pairs, enabling direct access to the time-resolved statistics of Cooper pair splitting. We determine the correlation statistics arising from two-electron processes and find a pronounced peak that is two orders of magnitude larger than the background. Our experiment thereby allows to unambiguously pinpoint and select split Cooper pairs with 99% fidelity. These results open up an avenue for performing experiments that tap into the spin-entanglement of split Cooper pairs.

*Sci Adv ; 7(2)2021 Jan.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum technologies involving qubit measurements based on electronic interferometers rely critically on accurate single-particle emission. However, achieving precisely timed operations requires exquisite control of the single-particle sources in the time domain. Here, we demonstrate accurate control of the emission time statistics of a dynamic single-electron transistor by measuring the waiting times between emitted electrons. By ramping up the modulation frequency, we controllably drive the system through a crossover from adiabatic to nonadiabatic dynamics, which we visualize by measuring the temporal fluctuations at the single-electron level and explain using detailed theory. Our work paves the way for future technologies based on the ability to control, transmit, and detect single quanta of charge or heat in the form of electrons, photons, or phonons.

*Nat Commun ; 11(1): 367, 2020 Jan 17.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum calorimetry, the thermal measurement of quanta, is a method of choice for ultrasensitive radiation detection ranging from microwaves to gamma rays. The fundamental temperature fluctuations of the calorimeter, dictated by the coupling of it to the heat bath, set the ultimate lower bound of its energy resolution. Here we reach this limit of fundamental equilibrium fluctuations of temperature in a nanoscale electron calorimeter, exchanging energy with the phonon bath at very low temperatures. The approach allows noninvasive measurement of energy transport in superconducting quantum circuits in the microwave regime with high efficiency, opening the way, for instance, to observe quantum jumps, detecting their energy to tackle central questions in quantum thermodynamics.