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1.
Child Dev ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364163

RESUMO

To examine the contributions of maternal and paternal age on offspring externalizing and internalizing problems, this study analyzed problem behaviors at age 10-12 years from four Dutch population-based cohorts (N = 32,892) by a multiple informant design. Bayesian evidence synthesis was used to combine results across cohorts with 50% of the data analyzed for discovery and 50% for confirmation. There was evidence of a robust negative linear relation between parental age and externalizing problems as reported by parents. In teacher-reports, this relation was largely explained by parental socio-economic status. Parental age had limited to no association with internalizing problems. Thus, in this large population-based study, either a beneficial or no effect of advanced parenthood on child problem behavior was observed.

2.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

3.
Dev Psychol ; 55(8): 1733-1742, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070434

RESUMO

This multisample longitudinal study examined the directionality of effects between identity exploration and commitment processes and depressive symptoms across adolescence. We compared two theoretical perspectives. According to the vulnerability model, identity uncertainty predicts depressive symptoms, whereas the scar model holds that depressive symptoms play into identity uncertainty. In investigating both models, we examined reciprocal within-person associations in Study 1 (N = 497, Mage Time 1 [T1] = 14.03 years, comprising five annual waves) and Study 2 (N = 1,022, Mage T1 = 15.80 years, comprising four annual waves). To this end, we applied the random-intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) in both studies. Results supported the vulnerability model across Studies 1 and 2. Specifically, within-person increasing reconsideration of commitment (Study 1) and ruminative exploration (Study 2) predicted a within-person increase in depressive symptoms 1 year later, but not vice versa. Commitment processes did not predict depressive symptoms at the within-person level. Our findings indicate that maladaptive exploration processes of identity formation play a particularly important role in the development of depressive symptoms at the within-person level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Dev Psychol ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507219

RESUMO

One particular developmental task during adolescence is to regulate fluctuating moods to successfully transition through this period. The aim of this person-centered study was to identify distinct developmental trajectories of adolescent mood variability and to compare adolescents in different trajectories on changes in depressive symptoms, delinquency, and alcohol consumption in early to middle (ages 13-16) and middle to late adolescence (ages 16-20). Dutch adolescents (n = 482, 57.1% male) rated their daily emotions three weeks per year for five years using Internet daily diaries (ages 13-18). Day-to-day mood changes were calculated as an indicator of mood variability. Adolescents provided annual reports on depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, and alcohol consumption (ages 13-20). Results showed that most adolescents (88%) followed a trajectory characterized by decreases in mood variability (i.e., more stable moods). However, a minority (12%) followed a trajectory of increases in mood variability with a peak during middle adolescence. Adolescents with an increasing mood variability trajectory showed stable depressive and delinquency symptoms in early to middle adolescence compared with adolescents with a decreasing mood variability trajectory, who showed a decline in these symptoms. At age 16, there was a significant difference between the groups in depressive and delinquency symptoms, which stayed stable toward late adolescence. Although the two groups did not differ concerning alcohol consumption in early to middle adolescence, adolescents from the increasing mood variability class experienced less steep increases in alcohol use from middle to late adolescence compared with adolescents from the decreasing mood variability class. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315439

RESUMO

Although the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is involved in aggression and social affiliation, it has not been examined in gene-environment interaction studies. This longitudinal study examined the effect of genetic variants in OXTR and its gene-environment interaction with perceived deviant peer affiliation in the trajectories of antisocial behavior in 323 adolescents (182 males) from 13 to 18 years. Annual assessments of reactive and proactive aggression, delinquency, and friends' delinquency, as well as DNA at age 17 were collected. Gene-based tests yielded no main effect of OXTR, but revealed a significant gene-environment interaction in proactive aggression and delinquency. Variation in the OXTR might affect the influence of deviant peer affiliation on antisocial behavior, contributing to a better understanding of individual differences in antisocial behavior.

6.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1699, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283375

RESUMO

The family social relations model (SRM) is applied to identify the sources of variance in interpersonal dispositions in families, but the antecedents or consequences of those sources are rarely investigated. Simultaneous modeling of the SRM with antecedents or consequences using structural equation modeling (SEM) allows to do so, but may become computationally prohibitive in small samples. We therefore consider two factor score regression (FSR) methods: regression and Bartlett FSR. Based on full information maximum likelihood (FIML), we derive closed-form expressions for the regression and Bartlett factor scores in the presence of missingness. A simulation study in both a complete- and incomplete-case setting compares the performance of these FSR methods with SEM and an ANOVA-based approach. In both settings, the regression FIML factor scores as explanatory variable produces unbiased estimators with precision comparable to the SEM-estimators. When SRM-effects are used as dependent variables, none of the FSR methods are a suitable alternative for SEM. The latter result deviates from previous studies on FSR in more simple settings. As an example, we explore whether gender and past victimhood of relational and physical aggression are antecedents for family dynamics of perceived support, and whether those dynamics predict physical and relational aggression.

7.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1161-1170, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150663

RESUMO

Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.

8.
Biol Psychol ; 138: 56-62, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130613

RESUMO

Abundant research has highlighted a disadvantage experienced by children of ethnic minority groups in, for example, educational and health care settings. In order to understand implicit attitudes that contribute to ethnic disparities, underlying neural correlates have been widely studied. However, this has been limited to the context of adults. Using a sample of nulliparous Caucasian females (N = 46), the current study is the first to examine how early attentional and facial perceptual processing stages, assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs), differentiate for stimuli of young ingroup (of the same ethnicity) or outgroup (of a different ethnicity) children. Additionally, we assessed how a differentiation in ERPs may relate to subsequent adult responsiveness to children by measuring both cuteness ratings and motivation to view child faces. Similar to previous findings for adult facial stimuli, we found significant differences in attentional (N200) and facial perceptual (N170) processing when adults were faced with children of different ethnicities. Furthermore, increased differentiation in attentional processing (N200) for ingroup and outgroup children was associated with reduced cuteness ratings of outgroup children. Importantly however, participants showed no overall preference for ingroup child faces, as motivation to view child faces was even greater towards outgroup child faces. In addition, increased self-reported motivation for parental care was related to enhanced cuteness appraisals of outgroup child faces. Taken together, these findings reveal how early social categorization processes may lead to biased behavior when interacting with children of ethnic minorities.

9.
J Res Adolesc ; 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063277

RESUMO

Adaptive mother-adolescent conflict interactions are characterized by the ability to move from negative to positive emotions. The current micro-observational study investigated how mothers and adolescents make transitions between positive, neutral and negative emotions and whether these transitions depend on maternal internalizing problems. We used three annual waves of conflict interaction observations among 102 mother-adolescent dyads. Mothers were more likely than adolescents to initiate positivity after negativity whereas adolescents were more likely than mothers to reciprocate negativity. Mothers high and low in internalizing problems were equally likely to drive transitions toward positivity. Our study indicates that an active role of mothers in regulating negativity toward positivity is desirable because adolescents are likely to maintain dysfunctional interaction patterns of rigid negativity.

10.
Addiction ; 113(11): 2073-2086, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances among adolescents and young adults. Earlier age at cannabis initiation is linked to adverse life outcomes, including multi-substance use and dependence. This study estimated the heritability of age at first cannabis use and identified associations with genetic variants. METHODS: A twin-based heritability analysis using 8055 twins from three cohorts was performed. We then carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis of age at first cannabis use in a discovery sample of 24 953 individuals from nine European, North American and Australian cohorts, and a replication sample of 3735 individuals. RESULTS: The twin-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 19-60%]. Shared and unique environmental factors explained 39% (95% CI = 20-56%) and 22% (95% CI = 16-29%). The genome-wide association meta-analysis identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 16 within the calcium-transporting ATPase gene (ATP2C2) at P < 5E-08. All five SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2  > 0.8), with the strongest association at the intronic variant rs1574587 (P = 4.09E-09). Gene-based tests of association identified the ATP2C2 gene on 16q24.1 (P = 1.33e-06). Although the five SNPs and ATP2C2 did not replicate, ATP2C2 has been associated with cocaine dependence in a previous study. ATP2B2, which is a member of the same calcium signalling pathway, has been associated previously with opioid dependence. SNP-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was non-significant. CONCLUSION: Age at cannabis initiation appears to be moderately heritable in western countries, and individual differences in onset can be explained by separate but correlated genetic liabilities. The significant association between age of initiation and ATP2C2 is consistent with the role of calcium signalling mechanisms in substance use disorders.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943075

RESUMO

Developmental changes in adolescents' relationships with parents and friends intertwine, but individual differences in these relationships are likely to emerge as not all adolescents develop similarly. Generalized anxiety symptoms may underlie these individual differences, as these symptoms have frequently been associated with interpersonal difficulties. This study examines relationship quality development with parents and friends in adolescents with low and high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms. A latent transition analysis was performed in a two-cohort five-wave study design covering ages 12 to 16 (n = 923, 50.8% males) and 16 to 20 (n = 390, 43.4% males). About one-third of adolescents with high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms perceived a turbulent relationship with both their parents and best friends, whereas only one-tenth of those with low levels of generalized anxiety symptoms did. Low levels as opposed to high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms predicted a twice as high likelihood to perceive harmonious relationships with both their parents and best friends. Nevertheless, adolescents with low and high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms exhibited similar trends in relationship development. Overall, our findings indicate that generalized anxiety symptoms are not deterministic markers for relationship difficulties as there were plenty of adolescents with high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms that experienced no relationship difficulties across adolescence.

12.
J Res Adolesc ; 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921030

RESUMO

Parent-child relationships change during adolescence. Furthermore, parents and adolescents perceive parenting differently. We examined the changes in perceptions of parental practices in fathers, mothers, and adolescents during adolescence. Furthermore, we investigated if fathers', mothers', and adolescents' perceptions converge during adolescence. Following 497 families across six waves (ages 13-18), we investigated the development of parental support and behavioral control using mother and father self-reports, and adolescent reports for mothers and fathers. We found curvilinear decrease for support and control. Parent-adolescent convergence emerged over the 6 years: those with higher intercepts had a steeper decrease, whereas correlations among parent and adolescent reports increased. This multi-informant study sheds light on the development of parent-adolescent convergence on perceptions of parenting.

13.
Acad Pediatr ; 18(6): 655-661, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of adolescent sleep disturbances and their relation to psychosocial difficulties and health risk behaviors with the use of data from a province-wide health survey (n = 16,781). METHODS: Psychosocial difficulties were measured with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Additional assessments included self-reported sleep disturbances, suicidality, and health risk behaviors including current use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs, physical inactivity, and compulsive use of multimedia. We used multilevel analyses to investigate the relationhips, including differences, between boys and girls, as well as the mediating role of emotional problems. RESULTS: Just under 20% of adolescents reported sleep disturbances in the previous month. These sleep disturbances were associated with psychosocial problems (odds ratio [OR], 6.42; P < .001), suicidality (OR, 3.90-4.14; P < .001), and all health risk behaviors (OR, 1.62-2.66; P < .001), but not with physical inactivity. We found moderation by gender for the relations between sleep and suicide attempts (OR, 0.38; P < .002) and between sleep and cannabis use (OR, 0.52; P = .002), indicating attenuated relationships in girls compared with boys. Emotional problems partially mediated the relationships between sleep disturbances and multimedia use. CONCLUSIONS: This study reiterates the high prevalence of sleep disturbances during adolescence. These sleep disturbances were strongly related to psychosocial problems and a wide range of health risk behaviors. Although the direction of causality cannot be inferred, this study emphasizes the need for awareness of impaired sleep in adolescents. Moreover, the gender differences in associated suicide attempts and cannabis use call for further research into tailored intervention strategies.

14.
Child Dev ; 89(3): 823-836, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516472

RESUMO

This multimethod multisample longitudinal study examined how neurological substrates associated with goal directedness and information seeking are related to adolescents' identity. Self-reported data on goal-directedness were collected across three biannual waves in Study 1. Identity was measured one wave later. Study 1 design and measurements were repeated in Study 2 and extended with structural brain data (nucleus accumbens [NAcc] and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume [PFC]), collected across three biannual waves. Study 1 included 497 adolescents (Mage T1  = 13.03 years) and Study 2 included 131 adolescents (Mage T1  = 14.69 years). Using latent growth curve models, goal directedness, NAcc, and PFC volume predicted a stronger identity one wave later. These findings provide crucial new insights in the underlying neurobiological architecture of identity.

15.
J Res Adolesc ; 28(1): 169-185, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460364

RESUMO

This study longitudinally investigated transmission of conflict management styles across inter-parental, adolescent-parent, adolescent-friend, and adolescent-partner relationships. During four waves, 799 middle-to-late adolescents (Mage-t1  = 15.80; 54% boys) and their parents completed the Conflict Resolution Style Inventory. Cross-lagged path analyses indicated transmission of adolescent conflict management styles in relationships with parents to relationships with friends and romantic partners: Positive problem solving and conflict engagement utilized by adolescents in conflicts with parents were significantly, positively related to, respectively, adolescent positive problem solving and conflict engagement in relationships with friends 1 year later and relationships with partners 2 years later. Thus, the study showed that the way adolescents manage conflicts with parents predicts how they handle conflicts later in relationships outside the family.

16.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(4): 1487-1501, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157324

RESUMO

This study examined the impact of the middle school transition on general anxiety trajectories from middle childhood to middle adolescence, as well as how youths' individual vulnerability and exposure to contextual stressors were associated with anxiety trajectories. Participants were 631 youth (47% boys, M age = 7.96 years at Time 1), followed for 7 successive years from second to eighth grade. Teachers reported on youths' individual vulnerability to anxiety (anxious solitude) in second grade; youth reported on their anxiety in second to eighth grade and aspects of their social contexts particularly relevant to the school transition (school hassles, peer victimization, parent-child relationship quality, and friendship quality) in sixth to eighth grade. The results revealed two subgroups that showed either strongly increasing (5%) or decreasing (14%) levels of anxiety across the transition and two subgroups with fairly stable levels of either high (11%) or low (70%) anxiety over time. Youth in the latter two subgroups could be distinguished based on their individual vulnerability to anxiety, whereas youth with increasing anxiety reported more contextual stressors and less contextual support than youth with decreasing anxiety. In sum, findings suggest that the middle school transition has the potential to alter developmental trajectories of anxiety for some youth, for better or for worse.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Individualidade , Relações Pais-Filho , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Bullying , Criança , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
17.
Dev Psychol ; 53(11): 2103-2112, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094973

RESUMO

A central assumption of identity theory is that adolescents reconsider current identity commitments and explore identity alternatives before they make new commitments in various identity domains (Erikson, 1968; Marcia, 1966). Yet, little empirical evidence is available on how commitment and exploration dynamics of identity formation affect each other across adolescence at the within-person level. Therefore, the current study (N = 494, Mage Time 1 = 13.3 years) examined reciprocal within-person longitudinal linkages between adolescents' identity exploration and identity commitment making in the interpersonal and educational identity domains. For this purpose, we constructed a multilevel type cross-lagged panel model from early to late adolescence (i.e., across 5 successive years). Results supported Erikson's (1968) hypothesis that adolescents reconsider current identity commitments and explore alternatives before they make strong commitments within the interpersonal identity domain across early to late adolescence. Within the educational identity domain, increasing identity commitment level and commitment fluctuations predicted less identity reconsideration over time. Our findings support identity theory, but indicate that the processes of identity formation might differ depending on the identity domain. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Psicologia do Adolescente , Incerteza , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Identificação (Psicologia) , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Identificação Social , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Child Dev ; 88(6): 1823-1833, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849587

RESUMO

This study examined reciprocal associations between adolescents' self-concept clarity (SCC) and their relationship quality with parents and best friends in a five-wave longitudinal study from age 13 to 18 years. In all, 497 adolescents (57% boys) reported on their SCC and all informants (i.e., adolescents, both parents, and adolescents' best friends) reported on support and negative interaction. Within-person cross-lagged analyses provided systematic evidence for both parent effects and child effects, with the direction of effects being strongly dependent on the relational context. For example, higher maternal support predicted higher adolescent SCC, supporting a parent effects perspective, whereas higher SCC predicted lower paternal negative interaction, supporting a child effects perspective. Peer effects on adolescent SCC were not consistently found across adolescent and best friend reports.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Amigos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Relações Pais-Filho , Grupo Associado , Autoimagem , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
19.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2017(156): 87-104, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581188

RESUMO

We examined cross-cultural differences in (1) sibling power balance and (2) the associations between sibling power balance and internalizing and externalizing problems in three separate cross-cultural studies (early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence). The early childhood samples consisted of 123 Turkish and 128 Dutch mothers (mean age for children was 4.9 years). In the late childhood samples, self-report data were collected from 124 Indian and 129 Dutch children (mean age 10.9 years). In the adolescent samples self-report data were collected from 165 ethnic Moroccan and 165 ethnic Dutch adolescents (mean age 15.2 years). In all studies, questionnaire data on sibling power imbalance and internalizing and externalizing problems were collected. Results showed only one significant cross-cultural difference in sibling power imbalance: The Indian sample reported more sibling power imbalance than the Dutch. Links between sibling power imbalance and problem behavior were highly similar between the different cultural samples. The only significant difference was a stronger impact of sibling power imbalance on externalizing problems for the Dutch compared to the Turkish sample. Concluding, few cross-cultural differences were found in sibling power imbalance. Across cultures and age groups, more sibling power imbalance was linked to more internalizing and externalizing problems.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Poder (Psicologia) , Relações entre Irmãos/etnologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/etnologia , Turquia/etnologia
20.
J Youth Adolesc ; 46(8): 1772-1788, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28044242

RESUMO

The separation-individuation, evolutionary, maturational, and expectancy violation-realignment perspectives propose that the relationship between parents and adolescents deteriorate as adolescents become independent. This study examines the extent to which the development of adolescents' perceived relationship with their parents is consistent with the four perspectives. A latent transition analysis was performed in a two-cohort five-wave longitudinal study design covering ages 12-16 (n = 919, 49.2% female) and 16-20 (n = 392, 56.6% female). Generally, from 12 to 16 year adolescents moved away from parental authority and perceived increasing conflicts with their parents, whereas from 16 to 20 years adolescents perceived independence and improved their relationships with parents. Hereby, we also identified substantial patterns of individual differences. Together, these general and individual patterns provide fine-grained insights in relationship quality development.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
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