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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 697-705, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causative agents for the current national outbreak of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have not been established. Detection of toxicants in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with EVALI can provide direct information on exposure within the lung. METHODS: BAL fluids were collected from 51 patients with EVALI in 16 states and from 99 healthy participants who were part of an ongoing study of smoking involving nonsmokers, exclusive users of e-cigarettes or vaping products, and exclusive cigarette smokers that was initiated in 2015. Using the BAL fluid, we performed isotope dilution mass spectrometry to measure several priority toxicants: vitamin E acetate, plant oils, medium-chain triglyceride oil, coconut oil, petroleum distillates, and diluent terpenes. RESULTS: State and local health departments assigned EVALI case status as confirmed for 25 patients and as probable for 26 patients. Vitamin E acetate was identified in BAL fluid obtained from 48 of 51 case patients (94%) in 16 states but not in such fluid obtained from the healthy comparator group. No other priority toxicants were found in BAL fluid from the case patients or the comparator group, except for coconut oil and limonene, which were found in 1 patient each. Among the case patients for whom laboratory or epidemiologic data were available, 47 of 50 (94%) had detectable tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites in BAL fluid or had reported vaping THC products in the 90 days before the onset of illness. Nicotine or its metabolites were detected in 30 of 47 of the case patients (64%). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E acetate was associated with EVALI in a convenience sample of 51 patients in 16 states across the United States. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vitamina E/análise , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros , Óleo de Coco/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Limoneno/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 505: 1172-1176, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715861

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticles having a rod-like morphology are regularly investigated as potential nano-therapeutic materials owing to their interesting optical properties, facile surface modification, tunable aspect ratios, and low cytotoxicity. Gold nanorods are historically prepared starting from HAuCl4 in the presence of ascorbic acid, silver nitrate, and the growth directing surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). While CTAB drives a rod-like morphology, it is known to be cytotoxic. This inherent toxicity is often addressed by removing or masking the native CTAB surfactant present on the nanorod surface. In the current study we have investigated a less toxic alternative surfactant, dodecylethyldimethylammonium bromide (C12EDMAB), as a possible growth-directing agent. Monodisperse gold nanorods having various lengths have been grown in the presence of C12EDMAB. SEM data suggests that the quantity of C12EDMAB on the rod's surface is much higher than that of CTAB. Toxicity assays were performed on HEp-2 and A549 cells showing lower toxicity at select concentrations for C12EDMAB coated rods.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanotubos/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Tensoativos/química , Células A549 , Sobrevivência Celular , Cetrimônio , Compostos de Cetrimônio/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
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