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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 813: 152436, 2022 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971686

RESUMO

Environmental contamination by plastics and its negative effect on biodiversity have been well-documented in several types of organisms, especially in marine environments. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the impacts of plastic on other organisms such as aquatic insects, which predominantly inhabit freshwaters. It is widely known that these organisms are sensitive to environmental change, especially by contamination. Therefore, this study aimed at testing the hypothesis that aquatic insects are impacted by plastic contamination. We made a systematic search for international papers related to plastics and aquatic insects in databases such as Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus. We obtained 1217 studies of which 40 discussed the impacts of contamination by plastics on aquatic insects. We identified two main impacts: the first one is caused by the use of black macroplastic to protect crops from contact with the soil in agriculture. These black macroplastics attract tons of adult aquatic insects (terrestrial stage) that mistake the plastic surface for water because they select oviposition sites through phototaxis or polarotaxis. The second one comes from water contamination that can originate from the inadequate disposal of plastics, which harms young aquatic insects (aquatic phase) when they feed, reproduce, and construct shelters. Our results show the negative impacts of plastics on both larvae and adult aquatic insects. Despite the large knowledge gap regarding the impacts of plastic on aquatic insects, the evidence above is sufficient to consider these organisms important in global discussions regarding the impacts of plastic on biodiversity.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Insetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluição da Água
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 752, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709469

RESUMO

Building dams for hydroelectric use causes several negative effects on the aquatic fauna with special attention to fish communities. In fact, among other impacts, dams act as a barrier for migratory fish, causing discontinuities in rivers and not allowing fish to move to the headwaters to breed and back to the lower portions of rivers, to grow. For more than 300 years, fishways have been used to minimize the impact of dams. Here, we assess the worldwide knowledge about fishways, identifying the temporal and spatial pattern and the situation of Brazil in this global pattern. For this, we conducted scientometric research on the Web of Science repository with the following words: weir, fish, facilities, ladder, pass, dam, fish ladder, fish pass, fishway, hydropower, Petromyzon, and salmon between 1985 and 2019. Initially, we obtained 1282 articles. After a selection, 324 articles aimed to describe fishway efficiency and the relationship with the fish fauna remained. Most of the articles on dams, fishways, and fish are from North America and Europe. Among the articles in South America, most are from Brazil. Nonetheless, information on the topic is incipient in Brazil, since the country has one of the biggest hydropower in the world and 42 scientific articles about fishways published in the international scientific database. Ecology is the area of knowledge with most articles, with continuous growth in the last 10 years. Studies in the field of ecology are strategical, as this field can integrate different areas of knowledge to test the efficiency of fishways in fish conservation and may be able to answer the question: "Are fishways an ecological trap?" Research focusing on this question is important to understand the efficiency of fishways to better evaluate solutions to minimize the negative effects of dams on fish and increase the effectiveness of fishways.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Animais , Brasil , Europa (Continente) , Peixes
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112155, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610107

RESUMO

Spatial distribution of Butyltins (BTs) in surface sediments and gastropod tissues were quantified, with samples taken from an estuarine system of the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. The imposex incidence was also assessed using Thaisella coronata (Gastropoda, Mollusca). The sediment sampling was carried out at 19 sites and T. coronata in 6 of those. The highest BTs levels were detected in sediments of a Marine Extractive Reserve (27.1 ng Sn g-1) and in an urban area (19.8 ng Sn g-1). In T. coronata tissues, BTs levels ranged from <5 to 142 ng Sn g-1. Imposex incidence ranged from 0% to 100% and VDSII (penile papillae) was registered in gastropods from 5 out of 6 sampled sites. The results suggest that BTs concentrations are related to sampled area use, but also to the local hydrodynamics, highlighting the importance of an effective control in the use of TBT-based antifouling paints in the Eastern Amazon.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho , Compostos de Trialquitina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Masculino , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Ecol Evol ; 10(21): 12024-12035, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209267

RESUMO

The identification of the mechanisms underlying patterns of species co-occurrence is a way to identify which process(es) (niche, neutral, or both) structure metacommunities. The current paper had the goal of identifying patterns of co-occurrence in Neotropical stream fish and determining which processes structure the fish metacommunity, and identifying any gradients underlying this structure. Results indicated that the metacommunity formed by the species pool was structured by a pattern of nested co-occurrence (hyperdispersed species loss) and a mass-effect mechanism. However, a set of core species, displaying a Clementsian pattern, was structured by a species-sorting mechanism. Both, hyperdispersed species loss and the Clementsian patterns point to a discrete set of communities within the metacommunity. These communities could be isolated by the water physicochemical conditions or morphological characteristics of the stream channel.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19777, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188230

RESUMO

In community ecology, it is important to understand the distribution of communities along environmental and spatial gradients. However, it is common for the residuals of models investigating those relationships to be very high (> 50%). It is believed that species' intrinsic characteristics such as rarity can contribute to large residuals. The objective of this study is to test the relationship among communities and environmental and spatial predictors by evaluating the relative contribution of common and rare species to the explanatory power of models. Our hypothesis is that the residual of partition the variation of community matrix (varpart) models will decrease as rare species get removed. We used several environmental variables and spatial filters as varpart model predictors of fish and Zygoptera (Insecta: Odonata) communities in 109 and 141 Amazonian streams, respectively. We built a repetition structure, in which we gradually removed common and rare species independently. After the repetitions and removal of species, our hypothesis was not corroborated. In all scenarios, removing up to 50% of rare species did not reduce model residuals. Common species are important and rare species are irrelevant for understanding the relationships among communities and environmental and spatial gradients using varpart. Therefore, our findings suggest that studies using varpart with single sampling events that do not detect rare species can efficiently assess general distributional patterns of communities along environmental and spatial gradients. However, when the objectives concern conservation of biodiversity and functional diversity, rare species must be carefully assessed by other complementary methods, since they are not well represented in varpart models.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Odonatos/classificação , Odonatos/genética , Animais , Rios
6.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115241, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755795

RESUMO

Pollution by plastics is a global problem, in particular through the contamination of aquatic environments and biodiversity. Although plastic contamination is well documented in the aquatic fauna of the oceans and large rivers of the world, there are few data on the organisms of headwater streams, especially in tropical regions. In the present study, we evaluated the contamination of small fish by plastics in Amazonian streams. For this, we evaluated the shape and size, and the abundance of plastics in the gastrointestinal tracts and gills of 14 fish species from 12 streams in eastern Brazilian Amazon. We used a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) to compare the levels of contamination among species and between organs. Only one individual of the 68 evaluated (a small catfish Mastiglanis cf. asopos) contained no plastic particles, and no difference was found in the contamination of the gills and digestive tract. However, Hemigrammus unilineatus presented less contamination of both the gills and the digestive tract than the other species, while Polycentrus schomburgkii had less plastic in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas Crenicichla regani and Pimelodella gerii both had a larger quantity of plastic adhered to their gills in comparison with the other species. Nanoplastics and microplastics adhered most to the gills, while plastic fibers were the most common type of material overall. This is the first study to analyze plastic contamination in fish from Amazonian streams, and in addition to revealing high levels of contamination, some species were shown to possibly be more susceptible than others. This reinforces the need for further, more systematic research into the biological and behavioral factors that may contribute to the greater vulnerability of some fish species to contamination by plastics. Amazonian stream fish show contamination by plastics. The species respond differently. The smaller the particle, the easier it is to adhere to the gills.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceanos e Mares , Rios
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 194, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086640

RESUMO

Since early studies about aquatic ecology, it has been found that changes in environmental conditions alter aquatic insect communities. Based on this, the combined study of environmental conditions and aquatic insect communities has become an important tool to monitor and manage freshwater systems. However, there is no consensus about which environmental predictors and facets of diversity are more useful for environmental monitoring. The objective of this work was to conduct a scientometric analysis to identify the main environmental predictors and biological groups used to monitor and manage lotic freshwater systems. We conducted a scientometric study on the Web of Science platform using the following words: stream, river, aquatic insect, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Heteroptera, Chironomidae, bioindicator, environmental change, anthropic, and land use. Although most of the environmental predictors employed are local, intrinsic of freshwater systems using local environmental and associated landscape variables is a better strategy to predict aquatic insect communities. The facets of diversity most used are composition and richness of species and genera, which are not efficient at measuring the loss of ecosystem services and extinction of phylogenetic lineages. Although very important, these functional and phylogenetic facets are poorly explored for this purpose. Even though tropical regions are the most diverse globally and are experiencing major losses of native vegetation, these ecosystems are the least studied, a knowledge gap that needs addressing to better understand the effect of anthropogenic activities on the diversity of aquatic insects.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Insetos , Animais , Filogenia , Rios
8.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 20(3): e20190932, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131934

RESUMO

Abstract: The distribution of aquatic insects of the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) can be influenced by factors such as water quality, habitat integrity and biogeography. The present study evaluated the structure of EPT assemblages in streams in the Cerrado, a global biodiversity hotspot. Samples were collected from 20 streams in two protected areas: Parque Estadual do Mirador (10 streams) and Parque Nacional da Chapada das Mesas (10 streams). A total of 1987 specimens were collected, representing 46 taxa of EPT. The two study areas did not differ significantly in taxonomic richness of EPT genera (t = -1.119, p = 0.279) and abundance of individuals (t = 0.268, p = 0.791) but did differ in genus composition (Pseudo-F = 2.088, R2 = 0.103, p = 0.015) and environmental variables (Pseudo-F = 2,282, R2 = 0.112, p = 0.014). None of the tested environmental variables were correlated with the community but a spatial filter captured an effect of the spatial distribution of streams. The region of the study is located in MATOPIBA, which is the last agricultural frontier of the Cerrado. Therefore, it is important that there is police and monitoring so that the "Parque Estadual do Mirador" and the "Parque Nacional da Chapada das Mesas" continue to play their role in conserving biodiversity in the future.


Resumo: A distribuição de insetos aquáticos das ordens Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera e Trichoptera (EPT) pode ser influenciada por fatores como qualidade da água, integridade do habitat e biogeografia. O presente estudo avaliou a estrutura das assembleias do EPT em riachos do Cerrado, um hotspot de biodiversidade global. Foram coletadas amostras em 20 riachos em duas áreas protegidas: Parque Estadual do Mirador (10 riachos) e Parque Nacional da Chapada das Mesas (10 riachos). Um total de 1987 espécimes foram coletados, representando 46 táxons de EPT. As duas áreas de estudo não diferiram significativamente na riqueza taxonômica dos gêneros EPT (t= -1,119; p= 0,279) e abundância de indivíduos (t= 0,268; p= 0,791), mas diferiram na composição do gênero (Pseudo-F= 2,088, R2= 0,103; p= 0,015) e variáveis ambientais (Pseudo-F= 2,282; R2= 0,112; p= 0,014). Nenhuma das variáveis ambientais testadas foi correlacionada com a comunidade, mas um filtro espacial capturou um efeito da distribuição espacial dos riachos. A região do estudo está localizada em MATOPIBA, que é a última fronteira agrícola do Cerrado. Portanto, é importante que exista fiscalização e monitoramento para que o "Parque Estadual do Mirador" e o "Parque Nacional da Chapada das Mesas" continuem desempenhando seu papel na conservação da biodiversidade no futuro.

9.
PeerJ ; 7: e6472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119064

RESUMO

Background: We identified and classified damselfly (Zygoptera) and dragonfly (Anisoptera) metacommunities in Brazilian Amazonia, relating species distribution patterns to known biological gradients and biogeographical history. We expected a random distribution of both Zygoptera and Anisoptera within interfluves. At the Amazonian scale, we expected Anisoptera metacommunities to be randomly distributed due to their higher dispersal ability and large environmental tolerance. In contrast, we expected Zygoptera communities to exhibit a Clementsian pattern, limited by the large Amazonia rivers due to their low dispersal ability. Methods: We used a dataset of 58 first-to-third order well-sampled streamlets in four Amazonian interfluves and applied an extension of the Elements of Metacommunity Structure (EMS) framework, in which we order Zygoptera and Anisoptera metacommunities by known spatial and biogeographic predictors. Results: At the Amazonian scale, both Zygoptera and Anisoptera presented a Clementsian pattern, driven by the same environmental and biogeographical predictors, namely biogeographic region (interfluve), annual mean temperature, habitat integrity and annual precipitation. At the interfluve scale, results were less consistent and only partially support our hypothesis. Zygoptera metacommunities at Guiana and Anisoptera metacommunities at Tapajós were classified as random, suggesting that neutral processes gain importance at smaller spatial scales. Discussion: Our findings were consistent with previous studies showing that environmental gradients and major rivers limit the distribution of Odonata communities, supporting that larger Amazonian rivers act as barriers for the dispersal of this group. In addition, the importance of habitat integrity indicates that intactness of riparian vegetation is an important filter shaping metacommunity structure of Amazonian stream Odonata.

10.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 19(4): e20190734, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038867

RESUMO

Abstract: Environmental changes are worrying in a scenario with large knowledge gaps on species diversity and distribution. Many species may become extinct before they are known to science. Considering this scenario, the present study aims to evaluate the known distribution of the species recorded for Maranhão state in Brazilian northeast region and discuss knowledge gaps about Odonata indicating the priority areas for faunistic inventories. Using primary and secondary data together, we present convex minimum polygons of the distribution of all the species registered for the state. In addition, we created maps with the richness of species and number of records of Odonata in the Maranhão state. In primary data sample 269 specimens, represented by 17 genera and 30 species were collected. Of the 30 species collected, 17 are new records for the state of Maranhão; of these, 35.29% are geographically widespread species, occurring in practically all regions of Brazil. Considering the records in the literature, there was a 68% increase in the number of Odonata species known for Maranhão. The most unexplored region is the Cerrado of the state of Maranhão. Furthermore, the transition regions between Cerrado and Amazônia and between Cerrado and Caatinga are also unknown. All these areas are a priority for faunistic inventories.


Resumo: As mudanças ambientais são preocupantes em um cenário com muitas lacunas de conhecimento sobre a distribuição das espécies. Várias espécies podem ser extintas antes mesmo de serem conhecidas pela ciência. Considerando este cenário, o presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a distribuição conhecida das espécies de Odonata registradas para o Maranhão, na região nordeste do Brasil e discutir sobre as lacunas de conhecimento sobre Odonata, indicando áreas prioritárias para inventários faunísticos. Usando os dados primários e secundários juntos, nós apresentamos polígonos mínimos convexos da distribuição de todas as espécies registradas para o estado neste estudo. Além disso, criamos mapas com a riqueza de espécies e número de registros de Odonata no Maranhão. Para os dados primários foram coletados 269 indivíduos, representando 17 gêneros e 30 espécies. Das 30 espécies amostradas, 17 são novos registros para o Maranhão; dessas, 35,29% são espécies com ampla distribuição geográfica, ocorrendo em praticamente todas as regiões do Brasil. Considerando os registros na literatura, houve um aumento de 68% no número de espécies conhecidas para o Maranhão. A região mais desconhecida é o Cerrado do Maranhão. Outrossim, a região de transição Cerrado e Amazônia, e a transição entre Cerrado e Caatinga são também desconhecidas. Todas essas áreas são prioritárias para inventários faunísticos.

11.
Ecol Evol ; 7(9): 3190-3200, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480018

RESUMO

An important aspect of conservation is to understand the founding elements and characteristics of metacommunities in natural environments, and the consequences of anthropogenic disturbance on these patterns. In natural Amazonian environments, the interfluves of the major rivers play an important role in the formation of areas of endemism through the historical isolation of species and the speciation process. We evaluated elements of metacommunity structure for Zygoptera (Insecta: Odonata) sampled in 93 Amazonian streams distributed in two distinct biogeographic regions (areas of endemism). Of sampled streams, 43 were considered to have experienced negligible anthropogenic impacts, and 50 were considered impacted by anthropogenic activities. Our hypothesis was that preserved ("negligible impact") streams would present a Clementsian pattern, forming clusters of distinct species, reflecting the biogeographic pattern of the two regions, and that anthropogenic streams would present random patterns of metacommunity, due to the loss of more sensitive species and dominance of more tolerant species, which have higher dispersal ability and environmental tolerance. In negligible impact streams, the Clementsian pattern reflected a strong biogeographic pattern, which we discuss considering the areas of endemism of Amazonian rivers. As for communities in human-impacted streams, a biotic homogenization was evident, in which rare species were suppressed and the most common species had become hyper-dominant. Understanding the mechanisms that trigger changes in metacommunities is an important issue for conservation, because they can help create mitigation measures for the impacts of anthropogenic activities on biological communities, and so should be expanded to studies using other taxonomic groups in both tropical and temperate systems, and, wherever possible, at multiple spatial scales.

12.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0176066, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441412

RESUMO

Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013. We found with our results that bird species richness is higher in the rainy season and lower during the dry season, indicating a strong influence of seasonality, a pattern also found for environmental heterogeneity. Richness was explained by local environmental factors, while species composition was explained by environmental and spatial factors. The environmental factors were more important in explaining variations in composition. Climate change predictions have currently pointed out frequent drought events and a rise in global temperature by 2050, which would lead to changes in species behavior and to increasing desertification in some regions, including the Caatinga. In addition, the high deforestation rates and the low level of representativeness of the Caatinga in the conservation units negatively affects bird communities. This scenario has demonstrated how climatic factors affect individuals, and, therefore, should be the starting point for conservation initiatives to be developed in xeric environments.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Clima Tropical , Animais , Brasil , Florestas , Estações do Ano
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