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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 194, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086640

RESUMO

Since early studies about aquatic ecology, it has been found that changes in environmental conditions alter aquatic insect communities. Based on this, the combined study of environmental conditions and aquatic insect communities has become an important tool to monitor and manage freshwater systems. However, there is no consensus about which environmental predictors and facets of diversity are more useful for environmental monitoring. The objective of this work was to conduct a scientometric analysis to identify the main environmental predictors and biological groups used to monitor and manage lotic freshwater systems. We conducted a scientometric study on the Web of Science platform using the following words: stream, river, aquatic insect, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Heteroptera, Chironomidae, bioindicator, environmental change, anthropic, and land use. Although most of the environmental predictors employed are local, intrinsic of freshwater systems using local environmental and associated landscape variables is a better strategy to predict aquatic insect communities. The facets of diversity most used are composition and richness of species and genera, which are not efficient at measuring the loss of ecosystem services and extinction of phylogenetic lineages. Although very important, these functional and phylogenetic facets are poorly explored for this purpose. Even though tropical regions are the most diverse globally and are experiencing major losses of native vegetation, these ecosystems are the least studied, a knowledge gap that needs addressing to better understand the effect of anthropogenic activities on the diversity of aquatic insects.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Insetos , Animais , Filogenia , Rios
2.
PeerJ ; 7: e6472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119064

RESUMO

Background: We identified and classified damselfly (Zygoptera) and dragonfly (Anisoptera) metacommunities in Brazilian Amazonia, relating species distribution patterns to known biological gradients and biogeographical history. We expected a random distribution of both Zygoptera and Anisoptera within interfluves. At the Amazonian scale, we expected Anisoptera metacommunities to be randomly distributed due to their higher dispersal ability and large environmental tolerance. In contrast, we expected Zygoptera communities to exhibit a Clementsian pattern, limited by the large Amazonia rivers due to their low dispersal ability. Methods: We used a dataset of 58 first-to-third order well-sampled streamlets in four Amazonian interfluves and applied an extension of the Elements of Metacommunity Structure (EMS) framework, in which we order Zygoptera and Anisoptera metacommunities by known spatial and biogeographic predictors. Results: At the Amazonian scale, both Zygoptera and Anisoptera presented a Clementsian pattern, driven by the same environmental and biogeographical predictors, namely biogeographic region (interfluve), annual mean temperature, habitat integrity and annual precipitation. At the interfluve scale, results were less consistent and only partially support our hypothesis. Zygoptera metacommunities at Guiana and Anisoptera metacommunities at Tapajós were classified as random, suggesting that neutral processes gain importance at smaller spatial scales. Discussion: Our findings were consistent with previous studies showing that environmental gradients and major rivers limit the distribution of Odonata communities, supporting that larger Amazonian rivers act as barriers for the dispersal of this group. In addition, the importance of habitat integrity indicates that intactness of riparian vegetation is an important filter shaping metacommunity structure of Amazonian stream Odonata.

3.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 19(4): e20190734, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1038867

RESUMO

Abstract: Environmental changes are worrying in a scenario with large knowledge gaps on species diversity and distribution. Many species may become extinct before they are known to science. Considering this scenario, the present study aims to evaluate the known distribution of the species recorded for Maranhão state in Brazilian northeast region and discuss knowledge gaps about Odonata indicating the priority areas for faunistic inventories. Using primary and secondary data together, we present convex minimum polygons of the distribution of all the species registered for the state. In addition, we created maps with the richness of species and number of records of Odonata in the Maranhão state. In primary data sample 269 specimens, represented by 17 genera and 30 species were collected. Of the 30 species collected, 17 are new records for the state of Maranhão; of these, 35.29% are geographically widespread species, occurring in practically all regions of Brazil. Considering the records in the literature, there was a 68% increase in the number of Odonata species known for Maranhão. The most unexplored region is the Cerrado of the state of Maranhão. Furthermore, the transition regions between Cerrado and Amazônia and between Cerrado and Caatinga are also unknown. All these areas are a priority for faunistic inventories.


Resumo: As mudanças ambientais são preocupantes em um cenário com muitas lacunas de conhecimento sobre a distribuição das espécies. Várias espécies podem ser extintas antes mesmo de serem conhecidas pela ciência. Considerando este cenário, o presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a distribuição conhecida das espécies de Odonata registradas para o Maranhão, na região nordeste do Brasil e discutir sobre as lacunas de conhecimento sobre Odonata, indicando áreas prioritárias para inventários faunísticos. Usando os dados primários e secundários juntos, nós apresentamos polígonos mínimos convexos da distribuição de todas as espécies registradas para o estado neste estudo. Além disso, criamos mapas com a riqueza de espécies e número de registros de Odonata no Maranhão. Para os dados primários foram coletados 269 indivíduos, representando 17 gêneros e 30 espécies. Das 30 espécies amostradas, 17 são novos registros para o Maranhão; dessas, 35,29% são espécies com ampla distribuição geográfica, ocorrendo em praticamente todas as regiões do Brasil. Considerando os registros na literatura, houve um aumento de 68% no número de espécies conhecidas para o Maranhão. A região mais desconhecida é o Cerrado do Maranhão. Outrossim, a região de transição Cerrado e Amazônia, e a transição entre Cerrado e Caatinga são também desconhecidas. Todas essas áreas são prioritárias para inventários faunísticos.

4.
Ecol Evol ; 7(9): 3190-3200, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480018

RESUMO

An important aspect of conservation is to understand the founding elements and characteristics of metacommunities in natural environments, and the consequences of anthropogenic disturbance on these patterns. In natural Amazonian environments, the interfluves of the major rivers play an important role in the formation of areas of endemism through the historical isolation of species and the speciation process. We evaluated elements of metacommunity structure for Zygoptera (Insecta: Odonata) sampled in 93 Amazonian streams distributed in two distinct biogeographic regions (areas of endemism). Of sampled streams, 43 were considered to have experienced negligible anthropogenic impacts, and 50 were considered impacted by anthropogenic activities. Our hypothesis was that preserved ("negligible impact") streams would present a Clementsian pattern, forming clusters of distinct species, reflecting the biogeographic pattern of the two regions, and that anthropogenic streams would present random patterns of metacommunity, due to the loss of more sensitive species and dominance of more tolerant species, which have higher dispersal ability and environmental tolerance. In negligible impact streams, the Clementsian pattern reflected a strong biogeographic pattern, which we discuss considering the areas of endemism of Amazonian rivers. As for communities in human-impacted streams, a biotic homogenization was evident, in which rare species were suppressed and the most common species had become hyper-dominant. Understanding the mechanisms that trigger changes in metacommunities is an important issue for conservation, because they can help create mitigation measures for the impacts of anthropogenic activities on biological communities, and so should be expanded to studies using other taxonomic groups in both tropical and temperate systems, and, wherever possible, at multiple spatial scales.

5.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0176066, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441412

RESUMO

Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013. We found with our results that bird species richness is higher in the rainy season and lower during the dry season, indicating a strong influence of seasonality, a pattern also found for environmental heterogeneity. Richness was explained by local environmental factors, while species composition was explained by environmental and spatial factors. The environmental factors were more important in explaining variations in composition. Climate change predictions have currently pointed out frequent drought events and a rise in global temperature by 2050, which would lead to changes in species behavior and to increasing desertification in some regions, including the Caatinga. In addition, the high deforestation rates and the low level of representativeness of the Caatinga in the conservation units negatively affects bird communities. This scenario has demonstrated how climatic factors affect individuals, and, therefore, should be the starting point for conservation initiatives to be developed in xeric environments.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Clima Tropical , Animais , Brasil , Florestas , Estações do Ano
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