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1.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(4): 602-610, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453803

RESUMO

Self-efficacy is the confidence in one's own abilities to avoid smoking in situations that can trigger desire. It is considered an important predictor of relapses. In Argentina there is no valid instrument to evaluate it. The objective of this article was to adapt and validate a Spanish version (in local Argentinean language) of the Self-Efficacy/Temptation Scale. The transcultural adaptation of the scale was carried out: translation, review by a committee of experts, reverse translation, new review and test of the questionnaire. Reliability (reproducibility, stability and internal consistency) and validity were then evaluated. We performed a factor analysis of main components with Varimax rotation with data from a sample of 200 smokers. A culturally and linguistically adapted version of the instrument was obtained, with inter-observer reliability of Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.90 and stability of ICC = 0.77. The internal consistency analysis yielded a global Crombach a = 0.93 and 0.85 for versions of 20 and 9 items, respectively. In the domain of Positive Affections a = 0.82 and a = 0.89; Negative Affections a = 0.89 and a = 0.90 and for Craving a = 0.84 and a = 0.75, also respectively for the two versions. In the exploratory factor analysis, three factors were identified that explained 95% of the variance of the questionnaire in its extensive version and 69% in its short version. A reliable and valid Argentinean version of the Self-Efficacy/Temptation Scale was obtained, to be applied to smokers.


Assuntos
Autoeficácia , Traduções , Argentina , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Oncogene ; 39(4): 814-832, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558800

RESUMO

Fusion proteins involving the BRAF serine/threonine kinase occur in many cancers. The oncogenic potential of BRAF fusions has been attributed to the loss of critical N-terminal domains that mediate BRAF autoinhibition. We used whole-exome and RNA sequencing in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme to identify a rearrangement between TTYH3, encoding a membrane-resident, calcium-activated chloride channel, and BRAF intron 1, resulting in a TTYH3-BRAF fusion protein that retained all features essential for BRAF autoinhibition. Accordingly, the BRAF moiety of the fusion protein alone, which represents full-length BRAF without the amino acids encoded by exon 1 (BRAFΔE1), did not induce MEK/ERK phosphorylation or transformation. Likewise, neither the TTYH3 moiety of the fusion protein nor full-length TTYH3 provoked ERK pathway activity or transformation. In contrast, TTYH3-BRAF displayed increased MEK phosphorylation potential and transforming activity, which were caused by TTYH3-mediated tethering of near-full-length BRAF to the (endo)membrane system. Consistent with this mechanism, a synthetic approach, in which BRAFΔE1 was tethered to the membrane by fusing it to the cytoplasmic tail of CD8 also induced transformation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that TTYH3-BRAF signals largely independent of a functional RAS binding domain, but requires an intact BRAF dimer interface and activation loop phosphorylation sites. Cells expressing TTYH3-BRAF exhibited increased MEK/ERK signaling, which was blocked by clinically achievable concentrations of sorafenib, trametinib, and the paradox breaker PLX8394. These data provide the first example of a fully autoinhibited BRAF protein whose oncogenic potential is dictated by a distinct fusion partner and not by a structural change in BRAF itself.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/farmacologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Feminino , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 10(40): 32-38, 30 de septiembre 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1024651

RESUMO

El consumo de tabaco, alcohol y otras drogas comienza generalmente en la adolescencia. En Argentina, sucede a edades cada vez más tempranas. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar factores sociales y personales predictores del inicio del consumo en adolescentes del país. MÉTODOS: En 2014 se realizó una encuesta anónima autoadministrada en estudiantes de primer año del secundario en 33 escuelas públicas y privadas de Buenos Aires, Córdoba y Tucumán, que se repitió en los mismos alumnos en 2015. Incluyó aspectos sociodemográficos, personales, consumo de tabaco en familiares y amigos, y consumo personal de tabaco, alcohol, marihuana y paco o cocaína. Mediante regresión logística multinivel con intercepto aleatorio según escuela, se determinó la asociación entre las variables independientes y el inicio del consumo de cada sustancia durante el seguimiento. RESULTADOS: En 2014 respondieron 3172 alumnos, de los cuales 2018 (64%) completaron la segunda encuesta. En 2015 hubo 16,4% de incidencia de consumo de tabaco, 49,8% de consumo de alcohol y 10,8% de drogas ilícitas. Ser mujer y tener un índice de búsqueda de sensaciones alto fueron predictores del consumo de tabaco y alcohol, y haber fumado, bebido, tener amigos que consumen y mayor edad fueron predictores del consumo de drogas ilícitas. CONCLUSIONES: Es importante identificar a los alumnos con un índice de búsqueda de sensaciones alto, que es el factor de riesgo común al inicio del consumo de todas las sustancias


Assuntos
Tabaco , Adolescente , Bebidas Alcoólicas
4.
J Med Chem ; 62(8): 3886-3897, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977659

RESUMO

Despite the clinical success of BRAF inhibitors like vemurafenib in treating metastatic melanoma, resistance has emerged through "paradoxical MEK/ERK signaling" where transactivation of one protomer occurs as a result of drug inhibition of the other partner in the activated dimer. The importance of the dimerization interface in the signaling potential of wild-type BRAF in cells expressing oncogenic Ras has recently been demonstrated and proposed as a site of therapeutic intervention in targeting cancers resistant to adenosine triphosphate competitive drugs. The proof of concept for a structure-guided approach targeting the dimerization interface is described through the design and synthesis of macrocyclic peptides that bind with high affinity to BRAF and that block paradoxical signaling in malignant melanoma cells occurring through this drug target. The lead compounds identified are type-IV kinase inhibitors and represent an ideal framework for conversion into next-generation BRAF inhibitors through macrocyclic drug discovery.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Dimerização , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 80(1): 69-76, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the association between exposure to alcohol in movies and alcohol use transitions among Latin American adolescents. METHOD: A school-based longitudinal study involving 33 secondary schools in Argentina and 57 in Mexico was performed. The baseline sample included 1,504 never drinker adolescents in Argentina and 5,264 in Mexico (mean age = 12.5 years), of whom 1,055 and 3,540, respectively, completed a follow-up survey a year and a half later. Exposure to the 500 popular contemporary films was assessed by querying adolescents on 50 randomly selected titles. Films were content-coded for alcohol and exposure estimated from films seen. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted relative risk (aRR) for the following outcomes, net covariates, at follow-up: use of alcohol (having ever drank), current drinking (drinking in the past 30 days), ever binge drinking (≥ 4 drinks [females] or 5 for males). RESULTS: At follow-up, respective adolescent drinking rates for Mexico and Argentina were 31% and 36% for use of alcohol, 18% and 27% for current drinking, and 8% and 19% for ever binge drinking. Greater exposure to alcohol in movies was independently associated with trying alcohol (aRR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.17, 1.43]), current drinking (aRR = 1.22, 95% CI [1.03, 1.44]), and binge drinking (aRR = 1.71, 95% CI [1.30, 2.25]) in Mexican adolescents, whereas in Argentina, movie alcohol exposure was associated only with trying alcohol (aRR = 1.25, 95% CI [1.02, 1.53]). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to alcohol in movies predicted underage drinking transitions in these Latin American adolescents, replicating prior results for U.S. and European cohorts.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Filmes Cinematográficos/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Oncogene ; 38(8): 1324-1339, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659267

RESUMO

Copy number gains, point mutations and epigenetic silencing events are increasingly observed in genes encoding elements of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling axis in human breast cancer. The three Raf kinases A-Raf, B-Raf, and Raf-1 have an important role as gatekeepers in ERK pathway activation and are often dysregulated by somatic alterations of their genes or by the aberrant activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and Ras-GTPases. B-Raf represents the most potent Raf isoform and a critical effector downstream of RTKs and RAS proteins. Aberrant RTK signaling is mimicked by the polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT), which activates various oncogenic signaling pathways, incl. the RAS/ERK axis, in a similar manner as RTKs in human breast cancer. Mammary epithelial cell directed expression of PyMT in mice by the MMTV-PyMT transgene induces mammary hyperplasia progressing over adenoma to metastatic breast cancer with an almost complete penetrance. To understand the functional role of B-Raf in this model for luminal type B breast cancer, we crossed MMTV-PyMT mice with animals that either lack B-Raf expression in the mammary gland or express the signaling impaired B-RafAVKA mutant. The AVKA mutation prevents phosphorylation of T599 and S602 in the B-Raf activation loop and thereby activation of the kinase by upstream signals. We demonstrate for the first time that B-Raf expression and activation is important for tumor initiation in vivo as well as for lung metastasis. Isogenic tumor cell lines generated from conditional Braf knock-out or knock-in mice displayed a reduction in EGF-induced ERK pathway activity as well as in proliferation and invasive growth in three-dimensional matrigel cultures. Our results suggest that B-Raf, which has been hardly studied in the context of breast cancer, represents a critical effector of the PyMT oncoprotein and invite for an assessment of its functional role in human breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas A-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/deficiência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/genética
7.
Rev Asoc Med Argent ; 131(1): 24-31, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294003

RESUMO

Tobacco use is the primary preventable cause of death and disability in the world. To combat the tobacco epidemic, most countries have signed and ratified the World Health Organzation's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Article 13 of this treaty requires implementation of a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Implementation guidelines for Article 13 recognize that the depiction of tobacco use in commercially-produced films promotes tobacco use amongst young people. In this article we review the relationship between the tobacco industry and the movie industry over the past 100 years; the cross sectional and longitudinal studies that demonstrate a causal relationship between exposure to movie smoking depictions and youth smoking initiation; and the policy interventions recommended by the WHO to limit youth exposure to tobacco in movies.

8.
Salud Publica Mex ; 60(4): 423-431, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of a standard measure of smoking susceptibility for predicting cigarette and e-cigarette use in a sample of early adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A school-based longitudinal survey was conducted in 2014-16 among secondary students. We analyzed students who were never smokers of regular cigarettes or e-cigarettes at baseline and who completed both surveys. The main independent variable was smoking susceptibility. Multilevel logistic regression models were used, adjusting for sociodemographic and personal variables, social network use of cigarettes and exposure to advertising. RESULTS: In the adjusted analysis, smoking susceptibility independently predicted cigarette initiation (Argentina: AOR 2.28; 95%CI 1.66-3.14; Mexico: AOR 2.07; 95%CI 1.74-2.45) and current smoking (Argentina: AOR 3.61; 95%CI 2.48-5.24; Mexico: AOR 1.69; 95%CI 1.29-2.22); however, it only predicted e-cigarette initiation in Mexico (Mexico: AOR 1.29; 95%CI 1.02-1.63). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking susceptibility was a valid measure to predict future cigarette smoking in this sample.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Fumar/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Publicidade , Argentina/epidemiologia , Previsões , Humanos , Intenção , Modelos Logísticos , México/epidemiologia , Infuência dos Pares , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/psicologia , Rede Social
9.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(4): 423-431, Jul.-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-979158

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To assess the validity of a standard measure of smoking susceptibility for predicting cigarette and e-cigarette use in a sample of early adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Materials and methods A school-based longitudinal survey was conducted in 2014-16 among secondary students. We analyzed students who were never smokers of regular cigarettes or e-cigarettes at baseline and who completed both surveys. The main independent variable was smoking susceptibility. Multilevel logistic regression models were used, adjusting for sociodemographic and personal variables, social network use of cigarettes and exposure to advertising. Results In the adjusted analysis, smoking susceptibility independently predicted cigarette initiation (Argentina: AOR 2.28; 95%CI 1.66-3.14; Mexico: AOR 2.07; 95%CI 1.74-2.45) and current smoking (Argentina: AOR 3.61; 95%CI 2.48-5.24; Mexico: AOR 1.69; 95%CI 1.29-2.22); however, it only predicted e-cigarette initiation in Mexico (Mexico: AOR 1.29; 95%CI 1.02-1.63). Conclusion Smoking susceptibility was a valid measure to predict future cigarette smoking in this sample.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la validez de una medida estándar de susceptibilidad para predecir el consumo de cigarros convencionales y electrónicos en una muestra de adolescentes de Argentina y México. Material y métodos Entre 2014 y 2016 se realizó una encuesta longitudinal en alumnos de secundarias. Se analizaron los alumnos no fumadores y que no habían probado cigarrillos electrónicos en la encuesta basal y que completaron ambas encuestas. La variable independiente principal era la susceptibilidad al consumo de cigarros. Se efectuó una regresión logística multinivel, ajustando por variables sociodemográficas y personales, consumo en el círculo social íntimo y exposición a la publicidad. Resultados En el análisis ajustado, la susceptibilidad al consumo predijo de manera independiente el inicio del consumo de cigarros convencionales (Argentina: RMA2.28; IC95%1.66-3.14; México: RMA2.07; IC95%1.74-2.45) y su consumo actual (Argentina: RMA3.61; IC95%2.48-5.24; México: RMA1.69; IC95%1.29-2.22). Sin embargo, sólo predijo el inicio del consumo de cigarros electrónicos en México (México: ORA 1.29; IC95%1.02-1.63). Conclusión Esta medida es válida para predecir el futuro consumo de cigarros en esta muestra.

10.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 131(1): 24-31, mar. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-973095

RESUMO

El consumo de tabaco es la primera causa de mortalidad prevenible en el mundo. Para combatir esta epidemia, los países miembros de la Organización Mundial de la Salud han firmado, y la mayoría de ellos ratificado, el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco. El artículo 13 de este tratado regula toda forma de publicidad, promoción y patrocinio del tabaco. Las guías para la implementación de este artículo reconocen que la presencia de tabaco en el cine es una forma de promoción de los productos del tabaco dirigida principalmente a los jóvenes. En esta revisión describimos la relación entre la industria del cine y la del tabaco en los últimos 100 años, los estudios de corte transversal y longitudinales que demuestran cómo la exposición a tabaco en el cine induce a los jóvenes a iniciarse en el tabaquismo, y las políticas públicas recomendadas para evitar la presencia de tabaco en el cine, al menos en las películas para niños y adolescentes.


Tobacco use is the primary preventable cause of death and disability in the world. To combat the tobacco epidemic, most countries have signed and ratified the World Health Organzation’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Article 13 of this treaty requires implementation of a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Implementation guidelines for Article 13 recognize that the depiction of tobacco use in commercially-produced films promotes tobacco use amongst young people. In this article we review the relationship between the tobacco industry and the movie industry over the past 100 years; the cross sectional and longitudinal studies that demonstrate a causal relationship between exposure to movie smoking depictions and youth smoking initiation; and the policy interventions recommended by the WHO to limit youth exposure to tobacco in movies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Filmes Cinematográficos , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Argentina
11.
Addict Behav ; 80: 150-153, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407686

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In a previous cross-sectional study of early adolescents, we developed a marketing receptivity index (MRI) that integrates point-of-sale (PoS) marketing exposures, brand recall, and ownership of branded merchandise. The MRI had independent, positive associations with smoking susceptibility among never smokers and with current smoking behavior. The current longitudinal study assessed the MRI's predictive validity among adolescents who have never smoked cigarettes METHODS: Data come from a longitudinal, school-based survey of 33 secondary schools in Argentina. Students who had never smoked at baseline were followed up approximately 17months later (n=1700). Questions assessed: PoS marketing exposure by querying frequency of going to stores where tobacco is commonly sold; cued recall of brand names for 3 cigarette packages from dominant brands but with the brand name removed; and ownership of branded merchandise. A four-level MRI was derived: 1.low PoS marketing exposure only; 2. high PoS exposure or recall of 1 brand; 3. recall of 2 or more brands; and 4. ownership of branded merchandise. Logistic regression models regressed smoking initiation by follow up survey on the MRI, each of its components, and students' willingness to try a brand, adjusting for sociodemographics, social network smoking, and sensation seeking. RESULTS: The MRI had an independent positive association with smoking initiation. When analyzed separately, each MRI component was associated with outcomes except branded merchandise ownership. CONCLUSIONS: The MRI and its components were associated with smoking initiation, except for branded merchandise ownership, which may better predict smoking progression than initiation. The MRI appears valid and useful for future studies.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Marketing , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Argentina/epidemiologia , Criança , Emblemas e Insígnias , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Embalagem de Produtos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Salud Publica Mex ; 59(1): 76-83, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28423113

RESUMO

Objective:: To examine and compare overall prevalence and time trends in tobacco and alcohol portrayals and brand appearances in youth-rated US and nationally-produced films that were the most successful in Argentina and Mexico from 2004-2012. Materials and methods:: Top-grossing nationally produced films from Argentina (n=73), Mexico (n=85) and the US (n=643) were content analyzed. Logistic regression was used to determine differences between Mexican, Argentine and US produced films. Linear regression models assessed significant cross-country differences in the mean number of tobacco and alcohol seconds. Results:: Films from Mexico and Argentina were more likely than US films to contain tobacco, (OR=4.2; p<0.001) and (OR=7.2; p<0.001). Alcohol was present in 93% of Argentine, 83% in Mexican and 83% US films. Conclusions:: Smoking and alcohol were highly prevalent in nationally produced films. They may have a significant impact and should be targeted by policies to reduce youth exposure to portrayals of risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Filmes Cinematográficos/tendências , Fumar , Adolescente , Argentina , Humanos , México , Filmes Cinematográficos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(2): 155-159, abr. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1038361

RESUMO

El consumo de tabaco, alcohol y otras drogas comienza a temprana edad. Es importante identificar los factores de riesgo asociados al inicio. En 2014, se encuestaron estudiantes de primer año del secundario en Buenos Aires, Córdoba y Tucumán. Respondieron 3172 alumnos (42% de mujeres); edad media de 12,8 años. El 10% había fumado; el 32% había consumido alcohol; el 17% había tenido consumo excesivo durante el último mes, y 8% había consumido, al menos, una droga ilícita en su vida. El índice de búsqueda de emociones alto se asoció al consumo de tabaco (OR 4,25; IC 95%: 2,2-8,1), alcohol (OR 5,56; IC 95%: 3,73-8,31) y marihuana / paco / cocaína (OR 11,73; IC 95%: 5,81-23,69). Tener amigos que consumían tabaco / alcohol se asoció al consumo de tabaco (OR 12,6; IC 95%: 7,8-20,5) y alcohol (OR 5,17; IC 95%: 4,15-6,40). Tener padres que imponían pocas restricciones en el uso de medios se asoció al consumo de tabaco (OR 3,7; IC 95%: 2,1-6,5) y percibir un bajo control y soporte parental (OR 3,02; IC 95%: 1,40-6,52) se asoció al consumo de marihuana/paco/cocaína.


Tobacco, alcohol and drug use starts at an early age. It is important to identify risk factors associated with initiation. In 2014, a survey was conducted among students attending first year of secondary schools in Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Tucumán. A total of 3172 students completed the survey (42% were girls); their mean age was 12.8 years old. Findings showed that 10% had smoked; 32% had consumed alcohol; 17% had a heavy drinking episode in the past month; and 8% had used at least one illegal drug once in their lifetime. A high sensation seeking index was associated with the use of tobacco (odds ratio [OR]: 4.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-8.1), alcohol (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 3.73-8.31), and marijuana, coca paste or cocaine, (OR: 11.73, 95% CI: 5.81-23.69). Having friends who smoke or drink was associated with tobacco (OR: 12.6, 95% CI: 7.8-20.5) and alcohol use (OR: 5.17, 95% CI: 4.15-6.40). Having permissive parents in terms of media use was associated with tobacco use (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.1-6.5), and perceiving a low parental support and control (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.40-6.52) was associated with marijuana, coca paste and cocaine use


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Saúde da População Urbana , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
14.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 115(2): 155-158, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28318181

RESUMO

Tobacco, alcohol and drug use starts at an early age. It is important to identify risk factors associated with initiation. In 2014, a survey was conducted among students attending first year of secondary schools in Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Tucumán. A total of 3172 students completed the survey (42% were girls); their mean age was 12.8 years old. Findings showed that 10% had smoked; 32% had consumed alcohol; 17% had a heavy drinking episode in the past month; and 8% had used at least one illegal drug once in their lifetime. A high sensation seeking index was associated with the use of tobacco (odds ratio [OR]: 4.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-8.1), alcohol (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 3.73-8.31), and marijuana, coca paste or cocaine, (OR: 11.73, 95% CI: 5.81-23.69). Having friends who smoke or drink was associated with tobacco (OR: 12.6, 95% CI: 7.8-20.5) and alcohol use (OR: 5.17, 95% CI: 4.15-6.40). Having permissive parents in terms of media use was associated with tobacco use (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.1-6.5), and perceiving a low parental support and control (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.40-6.52) was associated with marijuana, coca paste and cocaine use.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Saúde da População Urbana
15.
J Smok Cessat ; 12(1): 38-42, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following cessation interventions, self-reported smoking abstinence with biochemical verification is the "gold standard" for defining outcomes. Because obtaining biochemical verification is challenging in community studies, we compared self-reported cessation among smokers completing treatment to the smoking status reported by each participant's spouse or proxy. METHOD: Participants were smokers who had reported quitting 12 months after a cessation intervention. Participants had either attended a smoking cessation clinic or they were patients seen by physicians who had recently participated in a cessation-training program. Proxies living with these participants were interviewed by telephone to ask about their partner's smoking status. We compared the participants' responses to those from their spouses. RESULTS: At 12 months, 346 of 1423 baseline smokers had quit; 161/346 reported non-smokers were called and 140 proxies were interviewed. The participants averaged 51 years of age, 69% were women. At baseline, the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 20.1 (SD = 9.9) and the average number of quit attempts was 2.4 (SD = 1.2). Cessation methods used were medical advice (21%) and/or pharmacotherapy (79%). Of the 140 spouses interviewed, only 10 (7.1%) reported that their partners were currently smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Proxy-reported data on smoking status could be used to validate self-report.

16.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(1): 76-83, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-846039

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective: To examine and compare overall prevalence and time trends in tobacco and alcohol portrayals and brand appearances in youth-rated US and nationally-produced films that were the most successful in Argentina and Mexico from 2004-2012. Materials and methods: Top-grossing nationally produced films from Argentina (n=73), Mexico (n=85) and the US (n=643) were content analyzed. Logistic regression was used to determine differences between Mexican, Argentine and US produced films. Linear regression models assessed significant cross-country differences in the mean number of tobacco and alcohol seconds. Results: Films from Mexico and Argentina were more likely than US films to contain tobacco, (OR=4.2; p<0.001) and (OR=7.2; p<0.001). Alcohol was present in 93% of Argentine, 83% in Mexican and 83% US films. Conclusions: Smoking and alcohol were highly prevalent in nationally produced films. They may have a significant impact and should be targeted by policies to reduce youth exposure to portrayals of risk behaviors.


Resumen: Objetivo: Este estudio evalúa la representación en el tiempo de contenidos de tabaco y alcohol en las películas para adolescentes más populares en Argentina y México de 2004 a 2012. Material y métodos: Se analizaron las películas localmente más taquilleras producidas en Argentina (n=73), México (n=85) y EE.UU. (n=643). Se realizaron modelos de regresión logística para determinar diferencias entre películas mexicanas, argentinas y norteamericanas en variables dicotómicas, y de regresión lineal para evaluar las diferencias significativas entre países para variables continuas. Resultados: Las películas mexicanas y argentinas muestran mayor contenido de tabaco en comparación con las norteamericanas (OR=4.2; p<0.000) y (OR=7.2; p<0.000, respectivamente). El alcohol estuvo presente en 93% de películas argentinas, y en 83% tanto de las mexicanas como de las norteamericanas. Conclusión: Los resultados observados muestran tendencias que pueden tener un impacto significativo en la exposición de conductas de riesgo en jóvenes, y por ello son relevantes en la política pública.

17.
J Pediatr ; 180: 222-228, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether exposure to movie smoking is associated with cigarette smoking among Argentinian adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A school-based longitudinal study involving 33 secondary schools in Argentina was performed. The sample included 2502 never smokers (average age at entry = 12.5 years), 1700 (67.9%) of whom completed follow-up surveys 17 months later. Exposure to the top 100 highest-grossing films for each year between 2009 and 2013 was assessed by content-coding films for tobacco and then by asking adolescents whether they had seen each of 50 titles, randomly selected from the larger pool, then parsing exposure into tertiles. Logistic regression models estimated aOR for the following transitions: nonsusceptible to susceptible never smoker, never smoker to ever smoker, and never smoker to current smoking (last 30 days). RESULTS: At follow-up, 34.4% of nonsusceptible never smokers became susceptible, 24.1% reported having tried smoking, and 9.4% were current smokers. Most exposure to movie smoking was from US-produced films (average 60.3 minutes compared with only 3.4 minutes from Argentine films). Greater exposure to smoking in movies was significantly associated with increased odds of becoming susceptible (aORfirst vs third tertile 1.77, 95% CI 1.30-2.41), of trying smoking (aORfirst vs third tertile 1.54, 1.14-2.08), and marginally associated with current smoking (AORfirst vs third tertile 1.54, 0.99-2.40). Exposure to smoking in US- or Argentine-produced films had similar associations. CONCLUSION: In Argentina, exposure to smoking in the movies predicted future smoking transitions among early adolescents, with most exposure coming from viewing US movies.


Assuntos
Filmes Cinematográficos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Argentina , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
19.
Oncotarget ; 7(18): 26628-52, 2016 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27034005

RESUMO

B-Raf represents a critical physiological regulator of the Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK-pathway and a pharmacological target of growing clinical relevance, in particular in oncology. To understand how B-Raf itself is regulated, we combined mass spectrometry with genetic approaches to map its interactome in MCF-10A cells as well as in B-Raf deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and B-Raf/Raf-1 double deficient DT40 lymphoma cells complemented with wildtype or mutant B-Raf expression vectors. Using a multi-protease digestion approach, we identified a novel ubiquitination site and provide a detailed B-Raf phospho-map. Importantly, we identify two evolutionary conserved phosphorylation clusters around T401 and S419 in the B-Raf hinge region. SILAC labelling and genetic/biochemical follow-up revealed that these clusters are phosphorylated in the contexts of oncogenic Ras, sorafenib induced Raf dimerization and in the background of the V600E mutation. We further show that the vemurafenib sensitive phosphorylation of the T401 cluster occurs in trans within a Raf dimer. Substitution of the Ser/Thr-residues of this cluster by alanine residues enhances the transforming potential of B-Raf, indicating that these phosphorylation sites suppress its signaling output. Moreover, several B-Raf phosphorylation sites, including T401 and S419, are somatically mutated in tumors, further illustrating the importance of phosphorylation for the regulation of this kinase.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Animais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/química , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
20.
EMBO J ; 35(2): 143-61, 2016 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657898

RESUMO

Despite being mutated in cancer and RASopathies, the role of the activation segment (AS) has not been addressed for B-Raf signaling in vivo. Here, we generated a conditional knock-in mouse allowing the expression of the B-Raf(AVKA) mutant in which the AS phosphoacceptor sites T599 and S602 are replaced by alanine residues. Surprisingly, despite producing a kinase-impaired protein, the Braf(AVKA) allele does not phenocopy the lethality of Braf-knockout or paradoxically acting knock-in alleles. However, Braf(AVKA) mice display abnormalities in the hematopoietic system, a distinct facial morphology, reduced ERK pathway activity in the brain, and an abnormal gait. This phenotype suggests that maximum B-Raf activity is required for the proper development, function, and maintenance of certain cell populations. By establishing conditional murine embryonic fibroblast cultures, we further show that MEK/ERK phosphorylation and the immediate early gene response toward growth factors are impaired in the presence of B-Raf(AVKA). Importantly, alanine substitution of T599/S602 impairs the transformation potential of oncogenic non-V600E B-Raf mutants and a fusion protein, suggesting that blocking their phosphorylation could represent an alternative strategy to ATP-competitive inhibitors.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Ativação Enzimática/genética , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Feminino , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
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