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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(10): 1095-1106, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent emphasis on reduced duration and/or intensity of antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) irrespective of indication for PCI may fail to account for the substantial risk of subsequent nontarget lesion events in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to examine the effect of more potent antiplatelet therapy on the basis of the timing and etiology of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiovascular death following PCI for ACS. METHODS: In the TRITON-TIMI 38 study (Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 38), which randomized patients to prasugrel or clopidogrel, 12,844 patients with ACS received at least 1 stent. MI and cardiovascular death were categorized as: 1) procedural (related to revascularization); 2) definite or probable stent thrombosis (ST); or 3) spontaneous (non-ST or non-procedure-related). Median follow-up was 14.5 months. RESULTS: Among the first events occurring within 30 days, 584 (69.0%) were procedural, 126 (14.9%) ST-related, and 136 (16.1%) spontaneous. After 30 days, 22 (4.7%) were procedural, 63 (13.5%) were ST-related, and 383 (81.8%) spontaneous. Prasugrel significantly reduced the incidence of MI or cardiovascular death for ST-related (1.0% vs. 2.1%; p < 0.001) and spontaneous events (3.9% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.012), with a directionally consistent numerical reduction for procedural events (4.4% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.078). Prasugrel increased spontaneous, but not procedural, major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term potent antithrombotic therapy reduces de novo (spontaneous) atherothrombotic events in addition to preventing complications associated with stenting of the culprit lesion following ACS. In patients undergoing PCI for ACS, spontaneous events predominate after 30 days, with the later-phase cardiovascular benefit of potent dual antiplatelet therapy driven largely by reducing de novo atherothrombotic ischemic events. (Comparison of Prasugrel [CS-747] and Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndrome Subjects Who Are to Undergo Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; NCT00097591).

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(4): 422-434, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000955

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), a new drug class approved for treatment of diabetes, have been shown to possess a favorable metabolic profile and to significantly reduce atherosclerotic events, hospitalization for heart failure, cardiovascular and total mortality, and progression of chronic kidney disease. Although initially considered to be only glucose-lowering agents, the effects of SGLT2i have expanded far beyond that, and their use is now being studied in the treatment of heart failure and chronic kidney disease, even in patients without diabetes. It is therefore critical for cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists, and primary care physicians to be familiar with this drug class. This first part of this 2-part review provides an overview of the current understanding of the mechanisms of the cardio-metabolic-renal benefits of SGLT2i. The second part summarizes the recent clinical trials of SGLT2i.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(4): 435-447, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000956

RESUMO

Changes in the regulatory guidelines by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medical Agency requiring large-scale trials that study the cardiovascular safety of new glucose-lowering drugs have improved our understanding of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Unexpectedly, these trials demonstrated that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This second part of this 2-part review summarizes the findings of recent clinical trials and their clinical implications and describes ongoing trials and future areas of research.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 304: 185-191, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for stroke and atrial fibrillation. Therefore, the risk/benefit profile of the oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban stratified by diabetes is of clinical interest. METHODS: 21,105 patients enrolled in ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 were stratified into 2 pre-specified groups: without (N = 13,481) and with diabetes (N = 7,624). RESULTS: On average, patients with diabetes were younger, and had a higher body mass index, CHA2DS2-VASc score and baseline endogenous Factor Xa activity. After multivariate adjustments, patients with diabetes had a similar rate of stroke and systemic embolism compared to those without diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.24; p = 0.28). However, the risk of major bleeding was significantly higher in patients with diabetes (HRadj 1.28; 95% CI 1.14-1.44; p < 0.001). The treatment effect of edoxaban (vs warfarin) was not modified by diabetes (all p-interactions > 0.05), a finding supported by the preserved edoxaban concentrations and inhibition of Factor Xa regardless of diabetes. The HRs of stroke and systemic embolism in patients receiving the higher-dose edoxaban regimen vs warfarin were 0.93 and 0.84 (p-interaction = 0.54) in those with and without diabetes respectively. The higher-dose edoxaban regimen reduced major bleeding (by 19-21%) and cardiovascular death (by 7-17%) regardless of diabetes (p-interactions = 0.81 and 0.33 respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetes in ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 had higher bleeding risk, but after adjustment similar stroke risk, compared to those without diabetes. The higher-dose edoxaban regimen had similar efficacy compared to warfarin, while reducing bleeding and cardiovascular mortality, irrespective of diabetes.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(2): 222-232, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948652

RESUMO

Atrial dysfunction has been widely considered a marker or consequence of other cardiac conditions rather than the cause itself. Here, we propose the term atrial failure as a clinically relevant entity, defined as any atrial dysfunction causing impaired heart performance, symptoms, and worsening quality of life or life expectancy. Aspects of the etiology, mechanisms, and consequences of atrial failure are discussed. Recent advances in cardiac electrophysiology and imaging have improved our understanding of the highly complex atrial anatomy and function, underlying the paramount importance of the atria in optimal heart performance. It is time to reappraise the concept of the failing atrium as a primary cause or aggravating factor of the symptoms in many of our patients. The concept of atrial failure may foster basic and translational research to gain a better understanding of how to identify and manage atrial dysfunction.

7.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(5): 661-669, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898965

RESUMO

An elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with an increased risk of ischemic events among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, but the association between WBC count and bleeding in ACS patients is not well established. The aim of this analysis was to assess and compare the association between WBC count and the occurrence of short- and long-term bleeding and ischemic events. This was a post hoc analysis of the ATLAS ACS2-TIMI 51 trial. A subset of patients had a WBC count measurement at baseline (n = 14,231, 91.6%). Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to determine if there is an association between WBC count at baseline and a composite outcome of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major and minor bleeds at 30 days and 1 year. Variables with a p <0.2 in the univariate analysis were included as potential parameters in the backward selection process A similar multivariable model was constructed to assess the association between WBC count and a composite ischemic endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. An increased risk of bleeding per a 1 × 109/L increase in WBC at baseline was observed at 30 days (Adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.08 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.17, p = 0.019) but not at 1 year (Adjusted HR 1.02 95% CI 0.97 to 1.08, p = 0.409). Additionally, an increased risk of ischemia per a 1 × 109/L increase in WBC at baseline was observed at 30 days (Adjusted HR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.12, p = 0.002) and at 1 year (Adjusted HR 1.05 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08, p = 0.001 at 1 year). In conclusion, a higher WBC count at baseline was associated with an increased risk of the composite bleeding endpoint by 30 days but not at 1 year. The association between WBC count and the risk of the composite ischemic endpoint was significant at 30 days and 1 year.

8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825471

RESUMO

Importance: In PIONEER-HF, among stabilized patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), the in-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan was well tolerated and led to improved outcomes compared with enalapril. However, there are limited data comparing the strategies of in-hospital vs postdischarge initiation of sacubitril/valsartan. Objective: To describe changes in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in patients recently hospitalized for ADHF and switching from taking enalapril to taking sacubitril/valsartan after discharge and compare clinical outcomes for patients randomized to receive in-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan vs in-hospital initiation of enalapril who later switched to taking sacubitril/valsartan during an open-label extension phase. Interventions: Sacubitril/valsartan titrated to 97/103 mg twice daily. Design, Setting, and Participants: The PIONEER-HF trial was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial conducted at 129 US sites between May 2016 and May 2018 that compared the in-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan vs enalapril (titrated to target dose, 10 mg twice daily) for 8 weeks among patients admitted for ADHF with reduced ejection fraction and hemodynamic stability. All patients were to continue in a 4-week, open-label study of sacubitril/valsartan; of 881 patients enrolled in PIONEER-HF, 832 (94%) continued in the open-label study. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in NT-proBNP levels from week 8 to 12 as well as the exploratory composite of heart failure rehospitalization or cardiovascular death from randomization through week 12. Results: Of 881 participants, 226 (27.7%) were women, 487 (58.5%) were white, 297 (35.7%) were black, 15 (1.8%) were Asian, and 73 (8.8%) were of Hispanic ethnicity; the mean (SD) age was 61 (14) years. For patients who continued to take sacubitril/valsartan, NT-proBNP levels declined -17.2% (95% CI, -3.2 to -29.1) from week 8 to 12. The NT-proBNP levels declined to a greater extent for those switching from taking enalapril to sacubitril/valsartan after the week 8 visit (-37.4%; 95% CI, -28.1 to -45.6; P < .001; comparing changes in 2 groups). Over the entire 12 weeks of follow-up, patients that began taking sacubitril/valsartan in the hospital had a lower hazard for the composite outcome compared with patients that initiated enalapril in the hospital and then had a delayed initiation of sacubitril/valsartan 8 weeks later (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI 0.49-0.97). Conclusions and Relevance: Switching patients' treatment from enalapril to sacubitril/valsartan at 8 weeks after randomization led to a further 37% reduction in NT-proBNP levels in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and a recent hospitalization for ADHF. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02554890.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811715

RESUMO

AIMS: PEGASUS-TIMI 54 demonstrated that long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticagrelor reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), with an acceptable increase in bleeding, in patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI). While much of the discussion around prolonged DAPT has been focused on stented patients, patients with prior MI without prior coronary stenting comprise a clinically important subgroup. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a pre-specified analysis from PEGASUS-TIMI 54, which randomized 21 162 patients with prior MI (1-3 years) and additional high-risk features to ticagrelor 60 mg, 90 mg, or placebo twice daily in addition to aspirin. A total of 4199 patients had no history of coronary stenting at baseline. The primary efficacy outcome (MACE) was the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke. Patients without history of coronary stenting had higher baseline risk of MACE [13.2% vs. 8.0%, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.73, in the placebo arm]. The relative risk reduction in MACE with ticagrelor (pooled doses) was similar in patients without (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.99) and with prior stenting (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96; P for interaction = 0.76). CONCLUSION: Long-term ticagrelor reduces thrombotic events in patients with prior MI regardless of whether they had prior coronary stenting. These data highlight the benefits of DAPT in prevention of spontaneous atherothrombotic events and indicate that long-term ticagrelor may be considered in high-risk patients with prior MI even if they have not been treated with stenting. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01225562.

10.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(12): e006231, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The VANISH trial (Valsartan for Attenuating Disease Evolution in Early Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy) targeted young sarcomeric gene mutation carriers with early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) to test whether valsartan can modify disease progression. We describe the baseline characteristics of the VANISH cohort and compare to previous trials evaluating angiotensin receptor blockers. METHODS: Applying a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 178 participants with nonobstructive HCM (age, 23.3±10.1 years; 61% men) were randomized in the primary cohort and 34 (age, 16.5±4.9 years; 50% men) in the exploratory cohort of sarcomeric mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy. RESULTS: In the primary cohort, maximal left ventricular wall thickness was 17±4 mm for adults and Z score 7.0±4.5 for children. Nineteen percent had late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance. Mean peak oxygen consumption was 33 mL/kg per minute, and 92% of participants were New York Heart Association functional class I. New York Heart Association class II was associated with older age, MYH7 variants, and more prominent imaging abnormalities. Six previous trials of angiotensin receptor blockers in HCM enrolled a median of 24 patients (range, 19-133) with mean age of 51.2 years; 42% of patients were in New York Heart Association class ≥II, and sarcomeric mutations were not required. CONCLUSIONS: The VANISH cohort is much larger, younger, less heterogeneous, and has less advanced disease than prior angiotensin receptor blocker trials in HCM. Participants had relatively normal functional capacity and mild HCM features. New York Heart Association functional class II symptoms were associated with older age, more prominent imaging abnormalities, and MYH7 variants, suggesting both phenotype and genotype contribute to disease manifestations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01912534.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(24): 3013-3022, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains disputed whether women are at excess risk of adverse outcomes versus men after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) or whether differences are explained by discordant risk factors. OBJECTIVES: A sex-specific analysis of cardiovascular outcomes after NSTEACS across trials conducted by the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group was performed to determine the impact of sex on cardiovascular outcomes in this dataset. METHODS: Ten TIMI trials were identified that enrolled >2,500 patients with NSTEACS within 30 days of hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of sex with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) after adjusting for relevant risk factors in individual trials; point estimates were then combined by using random effects models. Individual components of the composite outcome and all-cause mortality were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among 68,730 patients with NSTEACS, 19,827 (29%) were women. Women were older and more frequently had hypertension, diabetes, prior heart failure, and renal impairment than men. Before considering relevant confounders, women were at similar risk of MACE compared with men (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99 to 1.09; p = 0.16) but at higher risk of all-cause death (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.24; p = 0.03). After adjustment for baseline differences, risks of MACE (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.98; p < 0.01) and all-cause death (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.90; p < 0.0001) were lower among women compared with men. CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for cardiovascular risk factors, women enrolled in clinical trials were at lower risk of MACE than men after NSTEACS. Women, however, remain undertreated with many evidence-based therapies.

12.
J Card Fail ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is common and occurs at an earlier age among human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV+) individuals, but the mechanisms and consequences of DD among HIV+ individuals are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Characterization of Heart Function on Antiretroviral Therapy (CHART) study was a multicenter cross-sectional case-control study of treated and virally suppressed HIV+ individuals with (DD+) and without DD (DD-). All patients had normal ejection fraction (>50%), no significant valvular disease, and no history of coronary revascularization or persistent atrial fibrillation. Overall, 94 DD+ and 101 DD- patients were included. DD+ patients were older with higher body mass index (BMI) and more likely to have hypertension, renal dysfunction, and dyslipidemia. Groups were similar with respect to sex, race, CD4 count, and HIV RNA copies. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (median 36 [23, 85] vs 26 [12, 49] pg/mL, P < .01) and high-sensitivity troponin I (3.6 [2.6, 5.1] vs 2.5 [1.8, 3.5] pg/mL, P < .01) were higher among DD+ patients. The latter had similar left atrial size, but increased stiffness (conduit strain: 23.5 [17.5, 36.9] vs 30.0 [22.9, 37.0], P < .01) and impaired relaxation (reservoir strain: 39.7 [32.0, 58.0] vs 45.9 [37.0, 60.6], P = .04). On cardiac magnetic resonance, the prevalence of focal fibrosis was higher among DD+ patients (19.0% vs 5.3%, P < .01). DD+ patients demonstrated higher levels of carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (P = .04), and trends toward higher interleukin-6 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels (P ≤ .08). Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire physical limitation (87.1±21.4 vs 93.1±18.1, P = .01) and symptom frequency scores were lower among DD+ patients (86.0±21.5 vs 92.5±16.8, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary HIV+ population receiving antiretroviral therapy, DD was associated with multiple alterations in cardiac structure and function, including myocardial fibrosis and left atrial abnormalities, and worse quality of life. Further studies are needed to assess longitudinal changes in these parameters and their potential as therapeutic targets to prevent progressive cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in HIV.

13.
Cell Metab ; 30(5): 847-849, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693879

RESUMO

In a randomized trial of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin markedly reduced mortality and worsening heart failure (McMurray et al., 2019). Remarkably, these benefits seemed to be similar in people with and without diabetes. These data usher in a new paradigm in the treatment of heart failure.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(12): 1571-1579, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777160

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study aimed to assess the association between left atrial (LA) structure and function and the risk for cardiovascular (CV) death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization in a population with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective echocardiographic substudy of the Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in AF-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48 (ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48) study, 971 patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The associations between LA structure (LA volume index [LAVi]) and function (LA emptying fraction [LAEF] and LA expansion index [LAEi]) and risk for the composite endpoint of CV death or HF hospitalization, and its components, were assessed. Over a median follow-up of 2.5 years, 142 patients (14.6%) experienced CV death or HF hospitalization. Higher LAVi and lower LAEF and LAEi were each associated with a higher unadjusted risk for the composite outcome and its components. After adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic confounders, only measures of impaired LA function were predictive of the composite outcome (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 standard deviation [SD] decrease in LAEF: 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.67 [P = 0.005]; HR per 1 SD decrease in LAEi: 1.34; 95% CI 1.06-1.69 [P = 0.012]). These findings were similar regardless of left ventricular ejection fraction, history of HF or whether patients were in AF or sinus rhythm at the time of the echocardiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF, LA dysfunction was significantly associated with an increased risk for CV death or HF hospitalization and was more predictive of these outcomes than LA size. These parameters may help to identify AF patients at greatest risk for the development of HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00781391.

15.
Circulation ; 140(22): 1792-1801, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous scales exist for the classification of major bleeding events. Limited data compare the most commonly used bleeding scales within a single at-risk cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation. Here, we analyze bleeding outcomes according to the ISTH (International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis), TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction), GUSTO (Global Usage of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries), and BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) bleeding scales in the ENGAGE AF (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation)-TIMI 48 trial (NCT00781391) of edoxaban versus warfarin. METHODS: A total of 21 105 patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke (CHADS2 score ≥2) were enrolled in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial comparing warfarin with a higher- (60/30 mg daily) or lower- (30/15 mg daily) dose edoxaban regimen. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Bleeding events occurring among on-treatment patients were examined. Annualized event rates were calculated by the ISTH, TIMI, GUSTO, and BARC scales and compared across treatment arms. Cox proportional hazards for a first bleeding event of each type were calculated for higher-dose edoxaban regimen vs warfarin and lower-dose edoxaban regimen versus warfarin. RESULTS: A total of 10 311 bleeding events were reported. In a comparison of the most severe events in each scale, ISTH major bleeding was the most common (n=1289), followed by TIMI major (n=548), GUSTO severe/life-threatening (n=347), and BARC 3c+5 (n=276) bleeding. Lower bleeding risk with edoxaban compared with warfarin was seen regardless of bleeding scale (higher-dose edoxaban regimen range: hazard ratio [HR], 0.47 [95% CI, 0.35-0.62] for BARC 3c+5 versus HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.71-0.91] for ISTH major; lower-dose edoxaban regimen range: HR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.23-0.45] for BARC 3c+5 versus HR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.41-0.55] for ISTH major). Furthermore, a gradient of more pronounced risk reduction with edoxaban was observed with greater severity of first bleeding event (higher-dose edoxaban regimen: HR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.35-0.62] for BARC 3c+5 bleeds versus HR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.81-0.91] for any BARC bleed; lower-dose edoxaban regimen: HR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.23-0.45] for BARC 3c+5 bleeds versus HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.63-0.72] for any BARC bleed). The direction of this trend was consistent for both gastrointestinal bleeding and nongastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke, there was a >4-fold difference in the frequency of the most severe bleeding events across commonly used bleeding scales. Furthermore, the relative safety of edoxaban compared with warfarin tended to increase with greater severity of bleeding. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00781391.

16.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1569-1577, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing heart failure. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in patients with T2DM. We aimed to develop and validate a practical clinical risk score for HHF in patients with T2DM and assess whether this score can identify high-risk patients with T2DM who have the greatest reduction in risk for HHF with a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor. METHODS: We developed a clinical risk score for HHF in 8212 patients with T2DM in the placebo arm of SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53). Candidate variables were assessed using multivariable Cox regression, and independent clinical risk indicators achieving statistical significance of P<0.001 were included in the risk score. We externally validated the score in 8578 patients with T2DM in the placebo arm of DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58). The relative and absolute risk reductions in HHF with the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin were assessed by baseline HHF risk. RESULTS: Five clinical variables were independent risk predictors of HHF: prior heart failure, history of atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. A simple integer-based score (0-7 points) using these predictors identified a >20-fold gradient of HHF risk (P for trend <0.001) in both the derivation and validation cohorts, with C indices of 0.81 and 0.78, respectively. Although relative risk reductions with dapagliflozin were similar for patients across the risk scores (25%-34%), absolute risk reductions were greater in those at higher baseline risk (1-sided P for trend=0.04), with high-risk (2 points) and very-high-risk (≥3 points) patients having 1.5% and 2.7% absolute reductions in Kaplan-Meier estimates of HHF risk at 4 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Risk stratification using a novel clinical risk score for HHF in patients with T2DM identifies patients at higher risk for HHF who derive greater absolute benefit from sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01107886 and NCT01730534.

17.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(4): 298-302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377223

RESUMO

The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic proportions. T2DM frequently causes macrovascular and/or microvascular pathologic changes and thereby increases the risks for the development of myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, renal failure, and reduced survival. This article describes the important interactions between T2DM, heart failure, and renal dysfunction, forming vicious circles. The interruption of these circles represents important therapeutic goals.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(8): 1057-1068, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy reduces the risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with prior acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The role of biomarkers in identifying subsets of patients who may derive greater clinical benefit with ezetimibe is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the role of established CV biomarkers in assessing likely benefit with ezetimibe added to statin therapy in post-ACS patients. METHODS: In a pre-specified nested analysis within a randomized, double-blind trial of ezetimibe/simvastatin versus placebo/simvastatin (IMPROVE-IT [Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial]), high-sensitivity troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, growth-differentiation factor-15, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured in 7,195 patients stabilized (1 month post-randomization) after ACS. A multimarker approach based on biomarker values was used to examine the risk of recurrent CV events and clinical benefit with ezetimibe. RESULTS: Elevated levels of each biomarker were independently associated with higher risks of CV death/myocardial infarction/stroke and CV death/heart failure (ptrend < 0.001 for each). There was a pattern of greater absolute risk reduction in CV death/myocardial infarction/stroke with the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy in patients at higher risk on the basis of biomarker levels. High-risk patients (≥3 biomarkers "positive"; n = 1,437) had an absolute risk difference of -7.3% (95% confidence interval: -13.8% to -0.8%; p = 0.02) with ezetimibe, and intermediate-risk patients (1 to 2 biomarkers positive; n = 3,842) had an absolute risk difference of -4.4% (95% confidence interval: -9.7% to 0.8%), translating into numbers needed to treat at 7 years of 14 and 23, respectively. Low-risk patients (0 biomarkers positive; n = 1,916) did not appear to benefit from the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy. CONCLUSIONS: A biomarker-based strategy identifies a gradient of risk among patients post-ACS, offering the potential to identify higher-risk patients with a correspondingly high absolute benefit from the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy.

19.
Circulation ; 140(12): 1004-1014, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metformin is first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus, although its effects on the cardiovascular system are unproved. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis, patients in SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) with baseline biomarker samples (n=12 156) were classified as ever versus never taking metformin during the trial period. Associations between metformin exposure and outcomes were estimated with inverse probability of treatment weighting Cox modeling for the composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke, as well as cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, with biomarkers included as covariates. Additional sensitivity analyses included propensity score matching and Cox multivariable models. RESULTS: Of the 12 156 patients with baseline biomarker samples, 8971 (74%) had metformin exposure, 1611 (13%) had prior heart failure, and 1332 (11%) had at least moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤45 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2). Metformin use was associated with no difference in risk for the composite end point (hazard ratio for inverse probability of treatment weighting, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.76-1.11]) but lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for inverse probability of treatment weighting, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.59-0.95]). There was no significant relationship between metformin use and these end points in patients with prior heart failure or moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of 12 156 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk, metformin use was associated with lower rates of all-cause mortality, including after adjustment for clinical variables and biomarkers, but not lower rates of the composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. This association was most apparent in patients without prior heart failure or moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01107886.

20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461115
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