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1.
Lancet ; 398(10300): 583-598, 2021 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tirzepatide is a novel dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and GLP-1 receptor agonist under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide versus titrated insulin degludec in people with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin with or without SGLT2 inhibitors. METHODS: In this open-label, parallel-group, multicentre (122 sites), multinational (13 countries), phase 3 study, eligible participants (aged ≥18 years) had a baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7·0-10·5%, body-mass index of at least 25 kg/m2, stable weight, and were insulin-naive and treated with metformin alone or in combination with an SGLT2 inhibitor for at least 3 months before screening. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1), using an interactive web-response system, to once-weekly subcutaneous injection of tirzepatide (5, 10, or 15 mg) or once-daily subcutaneous injection of titrated insulin degludec, and were stratified by country, HbA1c, and concomitant use of oral antihyperglycaemic medications. Tirzepatide was initially given at 2·5 mg and the dose was escalated by 2·5 mg every 4 weeks until the assigned dose was reached. Insulin degludec was initially given at 10 U per day and was titrated once weekly to a fasting self-monitored blood glucose of less than 5·0 mmol/L (<90 mg/dL), following a treat-to-target algorithm, for 52 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was non-inferiority of tirzepatide 10 mg or 15 mg, or both, versus insulin degludec in mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 52. Key secondary efficacy endpoints were non-inferiority of tirzepatide 5 mg versus insulin degludec in mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 52, superiority of all doses of tirzepatide versus insulin degludec in mean change from baseline in HbA1c and bodyweight, and the proportion of participants achieving HbA1c of less than 7·0% (<53 mmol/mol) at week 52. We used a boundary of 0·3% to establish non-inferiority in HbA1c difference between treatments. Efficacy and safety analyses were assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population (all participants who received at least one dose of study drug). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03882970, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and Nov 15, 2019, we assessed 1947 participants for eligibility, 1444 of whom were randomly assigned to treatment. The modified intention-to-treat population was 1437 participants from the tirzepatide 5 mg (n=358), tirzepatide 10 mg (n=360), tirzepatide 15 mg (n=359), and insulin degludec (n=360) groups. From a mean baseline HbA1c of 8·17% (SD 0·91), the reductions in HbA1c at week 52 were 1·93% (SE 0·05) for tirzepatide 5 mg, 2·20% (0·05) for tirzepatide 10 mg, and 2·37% (0·05) for tirzepatide 15 mg, and 1·34% (0·05) for insulin degludec. The non-inferiority margin of 0·3% was met. The estimated treatment difference (ETD) versus insulin degludec ranged from -0·59% to -1·04% for tirzepatide (p<0·0001 for all tirzepatide doses). The proportion of participants achieving a HbA1c of less than 7·0% (<53 mmol/mol) at week 52 was greater (p<0·0001) in all three tirzepatide groups (82%-93%) versus insulin degludec (61%). At week 52, from a baseline of 94·3 kg (SD 20·1), all three tirzepatide doses decreased bodyweight (-7·5 kg to -12·9 kg), whereas insulin degludec increased bodyweight by 2·3 kg. The ETD versus insulin degludec ranged from -9·8 kg to -15·2 kg for tirzepatide (p<0·0001 for all tirzepatide doses). The most common adverse events in tirzepatide-treated participants were mild to moderate gastrointestinal events that decreased over time. A higher incidence of nausea (12-24%), diarrhoea (15-17%), decreased appetite (6-12%), and vomiting (6-10%) was reported in participants treated with tirzepatide than in those treated with insulin degludec (2%, 4%, 1%, and 1%, respectively). Hypoglycaemia (<54 mg/dL or severe) was reported in five (1%), four (1%), and eight (2%) participants on tirzepatide 5, 10, and 15 mg, respectively, versus 26 (7%) on insulin degludec. Treatment discontinuation due to an adverse event was more common in the tirzepatide groups than in the insulin degludec group. Five participants died during the study; none of the deaths were considered by the investigators to be related to the study treatment. INTERPRETATION: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide (5, 10, and 15 mg) was superior to titrated insulin degludec, with greater reductions in HbA1c and bodyweight at week 52 and a lower risk of hypoglycaemia. Tirzepatide showed a similar safety profile to that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): 388-396, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236115

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Novel dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (RA) tirzepatide demonstrated substantially greater glucose control and weight loss (WL) compared with selective GLP-1RA dulaglutide. OBJECTIVE: Explore mechanisms of glucose control by tirzepatide. DESIGN: Post hoc analyses of fasting biomarkers and multiple linear regression analysis. SETTING: Forty-seven sites in 4 countries. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and sixteen subjects with type 2 diabetes. INTERVENTIONS: Tirzepatide (1, 5, 10, 15 mg), dulaglutide (1.5 mg), placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Analyze biomarkers of beta-cell function and insulin resistance (IR) and evaluate WL contributions to IR improvements at 26 weeks. RESULTS: Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) 2-B significantly increased with dulaglutide and tirzepatide 5, 10, and 15 mg compared with placebo (P ≤ .02). Proinsulin/insulin and proinsulin/C-peptide ratios significantly decreased with tirzepatide 10 and 15 mg compared with placebo and dulaglutide (P ≤ .007). Tirzepatide 10 and 15 mg significantly decreased fasting insulin (P ≤ .033) and tirzepatide 10 mg significantly decreased HOMA2-IR (P = .004) compared with placebo and dulaglutide. Markers of improved insulin sensitivity (IS) adiponectin, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-2 significantly increased by 1 or more doses of tirzepatide (P < .05). To determine whether improvements in IR were directly attributable to WL, multiple linear regression analysis with potential confounding variables age, sex, metformin, triglycerides, and glycated hemoglobin A1c was conducted. WL significantly (P ≤ .028) explained only 13% and 21% of improvement in HOMA2-IR with tirzepatide 10 and 15 mg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tirzepatide improved markers of IS and beta-cell function to a greater extent than dulaglutide. IS effects of tirzepatide were only partly attributable to WL, suggesting dual receptor agonism confers distinct mechanisms of glycemic control.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 43(6): 1352-1355, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of tirzepatide, a dual agonist of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors, on biomarkers of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with T2DM received either once weekly tirzepatide (1, 5, 10, or 15 mg), dulaglutide (1.5 mg), or placebo for 26 weeks. Changes from baseline in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), keratin-18 (K-18), procollagen III (Pro-C3), and adiponectin were analyzed in a modified intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: Significant (P < 0.05) reductions from baseline in ALT (all groups), AST (all groups except tirzepatide 10 mg), K-18 (tirzepatide 5, 10, 15 mg), and Pro-C3 (tirzepatide 15 mg) were observed at 26 weeks. Decreases with tirzepatide were significant compared with placebo for K-18 (10 mg) and Pro-C3 (15 mg) and with dulaglutide for ALT (10, 15 mg). Adiponectin significantly increased from baseline with tirzepatide compared with placebo (10, 15 mg). CONCLUSIONS: In post hoc analyses, higher tirzepatide doses significantly decreased NASH-related biomarkers and increased adiponectin in patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/farmacologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/agonistas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(6): 938-946, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984598

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of tirzepatide treatment using three different dose-escalation regimens in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive either once-weekly subcutaneous tirzepatide or placebo. The tirzepatide dose groups and dose-escalation regimens were: 12 mg (4 mg weeks 0-3; 8 mg weeks 4-7; 12 mg weeks 8-11), 15 mg-1 (2.5 mg weeks 0-1; 5 mg weeks 2-3; 10 mg weeks 4-7; 15 mg weeks 8-11) and 15 mg-2 (2.5 mg weeks 0-3; 7.5 mg weeks 4-7; 15 mg weeks 8-11). The primary objective was to compare tirzepatide with placebo in HbA1c change from baseline at 12 weeks. RESULTS: Overall, 111 patients were randomized: placebo, 26; tirzepatide 12 mg, 29; tirzepatide 15 mg-1, 28; tirzepatide 15 mg-2, 28. The mean age was 57.4 years, HbA1c 8.4% and body mass index 31.9 kg/m2 . At week 12, absolute HbA1c change from baseline (SE) was greater in the tirzepatide treatment groups compared with placebo (placebo, +0.2% [0.21]; 12 mg, -1.7% [0.19]; 15 mg-1, -2.0% [0.20]; 15 mg-2, -1.8% [0.19]). The incidence of nausea was: placebo, 7.7%; 12 mg group, 24.1%; 15 mg-1 group, 39.3%; 15 mg-2 group, 35.7%. Three patients discontinued the treatment because of adverse events, one from each of the placebo, 12 mg and 15 mg-1 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Tirzepatide treatment for 12 weeks resulted in clinically significant reductions in HbA1c. This suggests that lower starting doses and smaller dose increments are associated with a more favourable side effect profile.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico , Hipoglicemiantes , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/uso terapêutico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
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