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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028615

RESUMO

This paper reflects concerns that funding and attention should be expanded from the important focus on those suffering and dying from COVID-19, and the safety and resources of healthcare professionals, to address wider questions on the (unequal) health and well-being impacts of COVID-19 and associated response measures. While immediate priorities such as those outlined in the WHO research agenda are undoubtedly important, additional urgent questions must be addressed. These include questions focused on (1) the non-virus impacts of preparing health and social care systems to cope with COVID-19 and (2) the health effects mediated by the educational, economic and social injuries sustained during the pandemic. Long-term, sustained and co-ordinated interdisciplinary research funding will be needed to address the long-lasting impacts of COVID-19 and its response measures.

2.
Eur J Public Health ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Special education provides an array of support that can advantageously meet special education needs (SEN) of children with autism. This report maps autism and SEN policies, and tension of international legislation in Malta, Cyprus, Luxembourg and Slovenia. METHODS: A policy path analysis was performed using a scoping review as fundamental methodological framework. RESULTS: Education for children with SEN developed from limited education towards segregation, and further to integration, and inclusion in mainstream education. International policy has greatly influenced the education systems under study. The rights to education and to have SEN addressed have been adopted in all countries. Inclusion is seen to be gradually incorporated by Malta, Cyprus and Luxembourg-closely following values of international documents through concise SEN policies. Slovenia's education system remains segregated, indicating potential tension. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that mainstream schools offer SEN services until no longer feasible for the child in the majority of investigated countries. Inclusion has become a guiding principle for most education systems under study. Finally, small states either commit to the implementation of inclusion or delay it and attempt to improve the education system for children with SEN in different ways.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1330, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have explored how features of the neighbourhood environment can be related to cognitive health in later life. Yet few have focused on low- and middle-income countries and compared the results across different settings. The aim of this study is to investigate the cross-sectional associations between neighbourhood amenities and dementia in older people from high-, middle- and low-income countries. METHODS: This study was based on two population-based cohort studies of people aged≥65: the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II (CFAS II) in UK (N = 4955) and a subset of the 10/66 study in China, Dominican Republic and Mexico (N = 3386). In both cohorts, dementia was assessed using the Geriatric Mental State-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (GMS-AGECAT) algorithm. The 10/66 dementia diagnostic algorithm was also used as an additional criterion in the 10/66 study. Publicly accessible databases, Google Maps and Open Street Map, were used to obtain geographic information system data on distance to neighbourhood amenities, including lifestyle (cafés, libraries, movie theatres, parks), daily life (post offices, convenience stores), healthcare (hospitals, pharmacies) and percentages of local green and blue spaces within 400 and 800 m of participants' residences. Multilevel logistic regression was used to investigate the associations between these environmental features and dementia adjusting for sociodemographic factors and self-rated health. RESULTS: Living far from daily life amenities was associated with higher odds of dementia in both CFAS II (1.47; 95% CI: 0.96, 2.24) and the 10/66 study (1.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.04), while living far from lifestyle (1.50; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.99) and healthcare amenities (1.32; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.87) was associated with higher odds of dementia only in the 10/66 study. A high availability of local green and blue spaces was not associated with dementia in either cohort yet living far from public parks was associated with lower odds of dementia in CFAS II (0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: The different relationships across cohorts may indicate a varying role for local amenities in diverse settings. Future research may investigate mechanisms related to these differences and social, cultural and historical influences on the interaction between neighbourhood amenities and older people.

4.
Med Decis Making ; : 272989X20946758, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions, which aim to prevent diabetes/cardiovascular disease (CVD), have not included dementia. Lifestyle interventions decrease dementia risk and extend life expectancy, leading to competing effects on health care costs. We aim to demonstrate the feasibility of including dementia in a public health cost-effectiveness analysis and quantify the overall impacts accounting for these competing effects. METHODS: The School for Public Health Research (SPHR) diabetes prevention model describes individuals' risk of type 2 diabetes, microvascular outcomes, CVD, congestive heart failure, cancer, osteoarthritis, depression, and mortality in England. In version 3.1, we adapted the model to include dementia using published data from primary care databases, health surveys, and trials of dementia to describe dementia incidence, diagnosis, and disease progression. We estimate the impact of dementia on lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained of the National Health Service diabetes prevention program (NHS DPP) from an NHS/personal social services perspective with 3 scenarios: 1) no dementia, 2) dementia only, and 3) reduced dementia risk. Subgroup, parameter, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The lifetime cost savings of the NHS DPP per patient were £145 in the no-dementia scenario, £121 in the dementia-only scenario, and £167 in the reduced dementia risk scenario. The QALY gains increased by 0.0006 in dementia only and 0.0134 in reduced dementia risk. Dementia did not alter the recommendation that the NHS/DPP is cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Including dementia into a model of lifestyle interventions was feasible but did not change policy recommendations or modify health economic outcomes. The impact on health economic outcomes was largest where a direct impact on dementia incidence was assumed, particularly in elderly populations.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(3): 1157-1167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), are common among patients with stroke, a known risk factor for dementia. However, whether these conditions further increase the risk of post-stroke dementia remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether prior ASCVD is associated with increased risk of dementia among stroke patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink with linkage to hospital data. Patients with first-ever stroke between 2006 and 2017 were followed up to 10 years. We used multi-variable Cox regression models to examine the associations of prior ASCVD with dementia and the impact of prior ASCVD onset and duration. RESULTS: Among 63,959 patients, 7,265 cases (11.4%) developed post-stroke dementia during a median of 3.6-year follow-up. The hazard ratio (HR) of dementia adjusted for demographics and lifestyle was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12-1.25) for ASCVD, 1.16 (1.10-1.23) for CHD, and 1.25 (1.13-1.37) for PAD. The HRs additionally adjusted for multimorbidity and medications were 1.07 (1.00-1.13), 1.04 (0.98-1.11), and 1.11 (1.00-1.22), respectively. Based on the fully adjusted estimates, there was no linear relationship between the age of ASCVD onset and post-stroke dementia (all p-trend >0.05). The adjusted risk of dementia was not increased with the duration of pre-stroke ASCVD (all p-trend >0.05). CONCLUSION: Stroke patients with prior ASCVD are more likely to develop subsequent dementia. After full adjustment for confounding, however, the risk of post-stroke dementia is attenuated, with only a slight increase with prior ASCVD.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925063

RESUMO

In the past decade a large body of evidence has accumulated on risk factors for dementia, primarily from Europe and North America. Drawing on recent integrative reviews and a consensus workshop, the International Research Network on Dementia Prevention developed a consensus statement on priorities for future research. Significant gaps in geographical location, representativeness, diversity, duration, mechanisms, and research on combinations of risk factors were identified. Future research to inform dementia risk reduction should fill gaps in the evidence base, take a life-course, multi-domain approach, and inform population health approaches that improve the brain-health of whole communities.

7.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(9): 950-958, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766675

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for dementia, and nonenzymatic glycosylation of macromolecules results in formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). We determined the variation in AGE formation in brains from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study population-representative neuropathology cohort. AGEs were measured on temporal neocortex by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and cell-type specific expression on neurons, astrocytes and endothelium was detected by immunohistochemistry and assessed semiquantitatively. Fifteen percent of the cohort had self-reported diabetes, which was not significantly associated with dementia status at death or neuropathology measures. AGEs were expressed on neurons, astrocytes and endothelium and overall expression showed a positively skewed distribution in the population. AGE measures were not significantly associated with dementia. AGE measured by ELISA increased with Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neurofibrillary tangle score (p = 0.03) and Thal Aß phase (p = 0.04), while AGE expression on neurons (and astrocytes), detected immunohistochemically, increased with increasing Braak tangle stage (p < 0.001), CERAD tangle score (p = 0.002), and neuritic plaques (p = 0.01). Measures of AGE did not show significant associations with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microinfarcts or neuroinflammation. In conclusion, AGE expression increases with Alzheimer's neuropathology, particular later stages but is not independently associated with dementia. AGE formation is likely to be important for impaired brain cell function in aging and Alzheimer's.

9.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 267, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic medication use is linked with increased cognitive decline, dementia, falls and mortality, and their use should be limited in older people. Here we estimate the prevalence of anticholinergic use in England's older population in 1991 and 2011, and describe changes in use by participant's age, sex, cognition and disability. METHODS: We compared data from participants aged 65+ years from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (CFAS I and II), collected during 1990-1993 (N = 7635) and 2008-2011 (N = 7762). We estimated the prevalence of potent anticholinergic use (Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden [ACB] score = 3) and average anticholinergic burden (sum of ACB scores), using inverse probability weights standardised to the 2011 UK population. These were stratified by age, sex, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental ADL (IADL) disability. RESULTS: Prevalence of potent anticholinergic use increased from 5.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 5.2-6.3%) of the older population in 1990-93 to 9.9% (9.3-10.7%) in 2008-11, adjusted odds ratio of 1.90 (95% CI 1.67-2.16). People with clinically significant cognitive impairment (MMSE [Mini Mental State Examination] 21 or less) were the heaviest users of potent anticholinergics in CFAS II (16.5% [95% CI 12.0-22.3%]). Large increases in the prevalence of the use medication with 'any' anticholinergic activity were seen in older people with clinically significant cognitive impairment (53.3% in CFAS I to 71.5% in CFAS II). CONCLUSIONS: Use of potent anticholinergic medications nearly doubled in England's older population over 20 years with some of the greatest increases amongst those particularly vulnerable to anticholinergic side-effects.

10.
Res Dev Disabil ; 105: 103734, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This report maps autism and special education needs (SEN) policies, alongside teacher responsibilities in the education of children with SEN in Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia. METHODS AND PROCEDURE: A policy path analysis using a scoping review as an underlying methodological framework was performed. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The end of communism and accession to the European Union were critical for the countries under study. They passed crucial policies after international policies and adopted a three-stream approach towards providing education: (1) special schools; (2) special classes in mainstream schools; or (3) mainstream classes. Special schools remain for children that cannot participate in mainstream schools. Teachers are given high levels of responsibility. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Changes in international guidance greatly impacted Austria, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The education systems aim for inclusion, though segregation remains for children that cannot thrive in mainstream schools. Teachers are pivotal in the education of children with SEN, more so than with typical children.

11.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 91: 104112, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined how the relationship between education and latelife cognitive impairment (defined as a Mini Mental State Examination score below 24) is influenced by age, sex, ethnicity, and Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE*4). METHODS: Participants were 30,785 dementia-free individuals aged 55-103 years, from 18 longitudinal cohort studies, with an average follow-up ranging between 2 and 10 years. Pooled hazard ratios were obtained from multilevel parametric survival analyses predicting cognitive impairment (CI) from education and its interactions with baseline age, sex, APOE*4 and ethnicity. In separate models, education was treated as continuous (years) and categorical, with participants assigned to one of four education completion levels: Incomplete Elementary; Elementary; Middle; and High School. RESULTS: Compared to Elementary, Middle (HR = 0.645, P = 0.004) and High School (HR = 0.472, P < 0.001) education were related to reduced CI risk. The decreased risk of CI associated with Middle education weakened with older baseline age (HR = 1.029, P = 0.056) and was stronger in women than men (HR = 1.309, P = 0.001). The association between High School and lowered CI risk, however, was not moderated by sex or baseline age, but was stronger in Asians than Whites (HR = 1.047, P = 0.044), and significant among Asian (HR = 0.34, P < 0.001) and Black (HR = 0.382, P = 0.016), but not White, APOE*4 carriers. CONCLUSION: High School completion may reduce risk of CI associated with advancing age and APOE*4. The observed ethnoregional differences in this effect are potentially due to variations in social, economic, and political outcomes associated with educational attainment, in combination with neurobiological and genetic differences, and warrant further study.

12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current evidence for higher physical activity and better cognitive function and lower risk of dementia is strong but not conclusive. More robust evidence is needed to inform public-health policy. We provide further insight into discrepancies observed across studies, reporting on habitual inactivity including that during work. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional and prospective relationships of physical inactivity during leisure and occupation time, with cognitive performance using a validated physical-activity index in a cohort of 8585 men and women aged 40-79 years at baseline (1993-1997) for different domains using a range of cognitive measures. Cognitive testing was conducted between 2006 and 2011 (including a pilot phase 2004-2006). Associations were examined using multinomial logistic-regression adjusting for socio-demographic and health variables as well total habitual physical activity. RESULTS: Inactivity during work was inversely associated with poor cognitive performance (bottom 10th percentile of a composite cognition score): odds ratio (OR) = 0.68 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54, 0.86], P = 0.001. Results were similar cross-sectionally: OR = 0.65 (95% CI 0.45, 0.93), P = 0.02. Manual workers had increased risk of poor performance compared with those with an occupation classified as inactive. Inactivity during leisure time was associated with increased risk of poor performance in the cross-sectional analyses only. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between inactivity and cognition is strongly confounded by education, social class and occupation. Physical activity during leisure may be protective for cognition, but work-related physical activity is not protective. A greater understanding of the mechanisms and confounding underlying these paradoxical findings is needed.

13.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the long-term effect of the use of drugs with anticholinergic activity on cognitive function remains unclear. METHODS: we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between anticholinergic drugs and risk of dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitive decline in the older population. We identified studies published between January 2002 and April 2018 with ≥12 weeks follow-up between strongly anticholinergic drug exposure and the study outcome measurement. We pooled adjusted odds ratios (OR) for studies reporting any, and at least short-term (90+ days) or long-term (365+ days) anticholinergic use for dementia and MCI outcomes, and standardised mean differences (SMD) in global cognition test scores for cognitive decline outcomes. Statistical heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistic and risk of bias using ROBINS-I. RESULTS: twenty-six studies (including 621,548 participants) met our inclusion criteria. 'Any' anticholinergic use was associated with incident dementia (OR 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.32, I2 = 86%). Short-term and long-term use were also associated with incident dementia (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.17-1.29, I2 = 2%; and OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.22-1.85, I2 = 90%). 'Any' anticholinergic use was associated with cognitive decline (SMD 0.15; 95% CI 0.09-0.21, I2 = 3%) but showed no statistically significant difference for MCI (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.97-1.59, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSIONS: anticholinergic drug use is associated with increased dementia incidence and cognitive decline in observational studies. However, a causal link cannot yet be inferred, as studies were observational with considerable risk of bias. Stronger evidence from high-quality studies is needed to guide the management of long-term use.

14.
Gerontologist ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With the emergence of healthy aging as a key societal issue in recent decades, technology has often been proposed as a solution to the challenges faced by aging societies. From a public health perspective, however, aging-related technologies have been inconsistently conceptualized and ill-defined. By examining how relevant concepts in "technology for aging" have been developed to date, we hope to identify gaps and begin clarifying the topic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a scoping review according to PRISMA-ScR, drawing on PubMed and Embase. We selected articles that directly reported concepts of technology for aging, or from which such concepts could be inferred. RESULTS: We identified 43 articles, most of which were narrative reviews (n = 31). Concepts of technology for aging were presented in diverse ways with some overlap. Most studies provided some terminology (n = 36), but with little conceptual uniformity. Conceptual discourse was often focused on the aging agenda; while technological aspects were poorly defined. A conceptual framework from a public health perspective was derived from 8 articles-it showed that technology strategies do not take a population approach. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: While the potential of "technology for aging" is vast, its real capacity to deliver a desirable life for older people remains underdeveloped. Clearer concepts and realistic goals at population level are lacking. Efficient investment must be made throughout the social system, and technology needs to be integrated via macro-level practices.

15.
Australas J Ageing ; 39(2): 99-100, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686907
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(4): 1609-1626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections may be associated with dementia, but the temporality of any relationship remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To summarize existing literature on the association between common bacterial infections and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline in longitudinal studies. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search of 10 databases of published and grey literature from inception to 18 March 2019 using search terms for common bacterial infections, dementia, cognitive decline, and longitudinal study designs. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, data extraction, risk of bias and overall quality assessment. Data were summarized through a narrative synthesis as high heterogeneity precluded a meta-analysis. RESULTS: We identified 3,488 studies. 9 met the eligibility criteria; 6 were conducted in the United States and 3 in Taiwan. 7 studies reported on dementia and 2 investigated cognitive decline. Multiple infections were assessed in two studies. All studies found sepsis (n = 6), pneumonia (n = 3), urinary tract infection (n = 1), and cellulitis (n = 1) increased dementia risk (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.02-1.19) to (OR 2.60; 95% CI 1.84-3.66). The range of effect estimates was similar when limited to three studies with no domains at high risk of bias. However, the overall quality of evidence was rated very low. Studies on cognitive decline found no association with infection but had low power. CONCLUSION: Our review suggests common bacterial infections may be associated with an increased risk of subsequent dementia, after adjustment for multiple confounders, but further high-quality, large-scale longitudinal studies, across different healthcare settings, are recommended to further explore this association.

17.
Neurology ; 95(5): e519-e531, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in the incidence of dementia between 1988 and 2015. METHODS: This analysis was performed in aggregated data from individuals >65 years of age in 7 population-based cohort studies in the United States and Europe from the Alzheimer Cohort Consortium. First, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates for all-cause dementia, and then defined nonoverlapping 5-year epochs within each study to determine trends in incidence. Estimates of change per 10-year interval were pooled and results are presented combined and stratified by sex. RESULTS: Of 49,202 individuals, 4,253 (8.6%) developed dementia. The incidence rate of dementia increased with age, similarly for women and men, ranging from about 4 per 1,000 person-years in individuals aged 65-69 years to 65 per 1,000 person-years for those aged 85-89 years. The incidence rate of dementia declined by 13% per calendar decade (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%-19%), consistently across studies, and somewhat more pronouncedly in men than in women (24% [95% CI 14%-32%] vs 8% [0%-15%]). CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of dementia in Europe and North America has declined by 13% per decade over the past 25 years, consistently across studies. Incidence is similar for men and women, although declines were somewhat more profound in men. These observations call for sustained efforts to finding the causes for this decline, as well as determining their validity in geographically and ethnically diverse populations.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(7): 567, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562678
19.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(10): 1448-1456, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573915

RESUMO

In the last two decades, there has been in-depth investigation into understanding the pathogenesis, epidemiological profiling, and clinical characterization of dementia. However, these investigations have not led to successful interventions to prevent, delay, or reverse the pathological processes underlying dementia. Recent findings of a decrease in dementia risk in high-income countries such as the UK, USA and the Netherlands highlight that dementia, at least in some cases, is preventable. This article includes a synthesis of current knowledge on dementia epidemiology, biological underpinnings, risk factors, and current prevention programs, with the aim to set the path for research, funding, and policy initiatives to address the global public health challenge of how to prevent dementia or reduce risk within the framework of population-based studies. We advocate for development of novel approaches for intelligent data synthesis that go well beyond single approaches to enable powerful risk stratification analyses. An integrated approach is needed where researchers, funders, policymakers, and stakeholders contribute to and work together to formulate effective strategies for the global monitoring and development of population-based risk reduction, treatment, and prevention programs for dementia.

20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(4): e002117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399256

RESUMO

Although people are living longer, there is no discernible pattern about the quality of life in an increasing lifespan. This restricts our capacity to predict and prepare for the consequences of population ageing. Accordingly, we propose a population ageing indicator that combines demographic and disability prevalence data through a characteristics approach and explore different scenarios to account for uncertainty in life quality projections. Our results, available for 186 countries, show that countries that rank older under conventional chronological ageing measures may rank younger under our qualitative measure. Additionally, we find substantial differences in our projections depending on different health assumptions, demonstrating the risk of using ageing indicators that make implicit assumptions about health characteristics.

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