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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489532

RESUMO

Identification of individuals at high risk of dementia has usually focused attention on the clinical concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which captures an intermediate state between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. In many countries age specific risk of dementia has declined, but whether this is also the case for subclinical cognitive impairment is unknown. This has important implications for prevention, planning and policy. Here we describe subclinical cognitive impairment and mild dementia prevalence changes, in the UK, over 2 decades. The Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies have examined the full spectrum of cognition, from normal to dementia, in representative populations of people aged ≥ 65 years in the UK over the last 2 decades 7635 participants were interviewed in CFAS I in Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham in 1991, with 1457 being diagnostically assessed. In the same geographical areas, the CFAS II investigators interviewed 7796 individuals in 2011. Using established criteria, the population was categorised into seven groups: no cognitive impairment, Mild cognitive Impairment (defined using consensus criteria), other cognitive impairment no dementia without functional impairment, OCIND with functional impairment, cognitive impairment (MMSE < 24 and no functional impairment), mild dementia (MMSE < 24 with functional impairment, not captured by CFAS dementia criteria), and CFAS dementia criteria. Multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for age and sex, was used to estimate the prevalence of impairment in both studies. Results were standardized to the age-sex specific UK and global population. There is a clear increase in the prevalence of other cognitive Impairment no Dementia (without functional impairment), with the purer MCI remaining stable. In the UK, mild dementia is estimated to fall from 520,704 cases (5.7%, 95% CI 3.8, 8.1) in 1991 to 315,142 (3.0%, 95% CI 2.4, 3.8) in 2011, cognitive impairment, has fallen from 1,225,984 (13.5%, 95% CI 10.1, 17.5) to 654,436 (6.3%, 95% CI 5.4, 7.3) cases. Using additional categories which reflect the continuum of cognitive decline and impairment in populations we see that the mildest dementia declines, but that there is stability in estimates of those who meet MCI criteria. Increases were found in the Other Cognitive Impairment no Dementia group. The decline observed in severe impairment thus seems to have resulted in larger proportions of the population in milder forms, seen alongside physical illnesses.

2.
Brain Pathol ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376286

RESUMO

Limbic-predominant age-related TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) encephalopathy with hippocampal sclerosis pathology (LATE-NC + HS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe hippocampal CA1 neuron loss and TDP-43-pathology, leading to cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Polymorphisms in GRN, TMEM106B and ABCC9 are proposed as LATE-NC + HS risk factors in brain bank collections. To replicate these results in independent population-representative cohorts, hippocampal sections from brains donated to three such studies (Cambridge City over 75-Cohort [CC75C], Cognitive Function and Ageing Study [CFAS], and Vantaa 85+ Study) were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (n = 744) and anti-pTDP-43 (n = 713), and evaluated for LATE-NC + HS and TDP-43 pathology. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in GRN rs5848, TMEM106B rs1990622 and ABCC9 rs704178 were determined. LATE-NC + HS (n = 58) was significantly associated with the GRN rs5848 genotype (χ2 (2) = 20.61, P < 0.001) and T-allele (χ2 (1) = 21.04, P < 0.001), and TMEM106B rs1990622 genotype (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.001) and A-allele (χ2 (1) = 25.75, P < 0.001). No differences in ABCC9 rs704178 genotype or allele frequency were found between LATE-NC + HS and non-LATE-NC + HS neuropathology cases. Dentate gyrus TDP-43 pathology associated with GRN and TMEM106B variations, but the association with TMEM106B nullified when LATE-NC + HS cases were excluded. Our results indicate that GRN and TMEM106B are associated with severe loss of CA1 neurons in the aging brain, while ABCC9 was not confirmed as a genetic risk factor for LATE-NC + HS. The association between TMEM106B and LATE-NC + HS may be independent of dentate TDP-43 pathology.

3.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429312

RESUMO

Background: Loneliness and cognitive impairment are both commonly experienced by older old people, but evidence for the association between these has been inconsistent. Moreover, most evidence has been cross-sectional in nature and largely based on studies with relatively young later life age groups rather than 'the oldest old'. We aimed to test the potential impact of loneliness amongst older old people on their cognitive function over a 20-year period. Method: Data were drawn from wave 3 to wave 10 of the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C) study. The impact of loneliness on transition between normal and impaired cognitive states was examined by multi-state modelling. The associations between loneliness changes and cognitive function decline were tested by using generalized estimating equation (GEE) with an independent working correlation structure. Missing data were imputed by using multiple imputation chained equations. Results: At wave 3, 713 participants were interviewed, of whom 657 (92%) had Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) assessments. Of individuals who had an MMSE score, approximately one quarter reported feeling lonely, and another 16% felt slightly lonely. The prevalence of feeling lonely or slightly lonely varied between waves. Results from multi-state modelling indicated that loneliness was not related to cognitive function transitions, and results from the GEE model showed that loneliness was not significantly associated with cognitive function decline after adjusting for cohort effects, follow-up time, sex, education, and interaction terms for sex, education and time. Conclusions: Loneliness did not exert long-term harmful effects on cognitive function in the oldest old.

4.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 122, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unmet need for mental health services remains high in the United States and is disproportionately concentrated in some groups. The scale and nature of these disparities have not been fully elucidated and bear further scrutiny. As such, in this study, we examine the demographic, socioeconomic, and health correlates of unmet need for mental health treatment as well as the reasons for unmet need. METHODS: We draw upon the National Survey for Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002 to 16 for adults aged 18 and over in the United States (n = 579,017). Using multivariable logistic regression, we simultaneously model the demographic, socioeconomic, and health correlates of unmet need for mental health treatment from 2002 to 16. We also analyse the reasons for unmet need expressed by these populations, reasons which include cost, perceived stigma, minimisation of symptoms, low perceived effectiveness of treatment, and structural barriers. RESULTS: Major characteristics associated with increased odds of unmet need include past year substance abuse or dependence (other than hallucinogens and sedatives), fair, poor, or very poor health, being female, and an educational attainment of college or higher. With respect to reasons for unmet need, cost was most often cited, followed by perceived stigma, structural barriers, and minimisation. Characteristics associated with increased odds of indicating cost as a reason for unmet need include: being uninsured or aged 26-35. Minimisation and low perceived effectiveness are mentioned by high-income persons as reasons for unmet need. College-educated persons and women had higher odds of citing structural barriers as a reason for unmet need. CONCLUSIONS: The correlates and causes of unmet need highlight the intersectionality of individual health needs with implications on addressing inequities in mental health policy and practice.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283791

RESUMO

Late onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia for which about 30 susceptibility loci have been reported. The aim of the current study is to identify novel genes associated with Alzheimer's disease using the largest up-to-date reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, the most accurate imputation software and a novel gene-based analysis approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 million genotypes from 17,008 Alzheimer's cases and 37,154 controls. In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected three novel gene-wide significant loci PPARGC1A (p = 2.2 × 10-6), RORA (p = 7.4 × 10-7) and ZNF423 (p = 2.1 × 10-6). PPARGC1A and RORA are involved in circadian rhythm; circadian disturbances are one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. PPARGC1A is additionally linked to energy metabolism and the generation of amyloid beta plaques. RORA is involved in a variety of functions apart from circadian rhythm, such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. The ZNF423 gene resides in an Alzheimer's disease-specific protein network and is likely involved with centrosomes and DNA damage repair.

7.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(7): 961-984, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327392

RESUMO

The incidence of stroke and dementia are diverging across the world, rising for those in low- and middle-income countries and falling in those in high-income countries. This suggests that whatever factors cause these trends are potentially modifiable. At the population level, neurological disorders as a group account for the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years globally (10%). Among neurological disorders, stroke (42%) and dementia (10%) dominate. Stroke and dementia confer risks for each other and share some of the same, largely modifiable, risk and protective factors. In principle, 90% of strokes and 35% of dementias have been estimated to be preventable. Because a stroke doubles the chance of developing dementia and stroke is more common than dementia, more than a third of dementias could be prevented by preventing stroke. Developments at the pathological, pathophysiological, and clinical level also point to new directions. Growing understanding of brain pathophysiology has unveiled the reciprocal interaction of cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration identifying new therapeutic targets to include protection of the endothelium, the blood-brain barrier, and other components of the neurovascular unit. In addition, targeting amyloid angiopathy aspects of inflammation and genetic manipulation hold new testable promise. In the meantime, accumulating evidence suggests that whole populations experiencing improved education, and lower vascular risk factor profiles (e.g., reduced prevalence of smoking) and vascular disease, including stroke, have better cognitive function and lower dementia rates. At the individual levels, trials have demonstrated that anticoagulation of atrial fibrillation can reduce the risk of dementia by 48% and that systolic blood pressure lower than 140 mmHg may be better for the brain. Based on these considerations, the World Stroke Organization has issued a proclamation, endorsed by all the major international organizations focused on global brain and cardiovascular health, calling for the joint prevention of stroke and dementia. This article summarizes the evidence for translation into action.

8.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.

9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 70(s1): S11-S14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306133
11.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e026927, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Between 2012 and 2017 dementia case finding was routinely carried out on people aged 75 years and over with unplanned admissions to acute hospitals across England. The assumption was that this would lead to better planning of care and treatment for patients with dementia following discharge from hospital. However, little is known about the experiences of patients and carers or the impacts on other health services. This study explored the impact of dementia case finding on older people and their families and on their use of services. DESIGN: Thematic content analysis was conducted on qualitative interview data and costs associated with service use were estimated. Measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, the EuroQol quality of life scale and a modified Client Service Receipt Inventory. SETTING: Four counties in the East of England. PARTICIPANTS: People aged ≥75 years who had been identified by case finding during an unplanned hospital admission as warranting further investigation of possible dementia and their family carers. RESULTS: We carried out 28 interviews, including 19 joint patient-carer(s), 5 patient only and 4 family carer interviews. Most patients and carers were unaware that memory assessments had taken place, with many families not being informed or involved in the process. Participants had a variety of views on memory testing in hospital and had concerns about how hospitals carried out assessments and communicated results. Overall, case finding did not lead to general practitioner (GP) follow-up after discharge home or lead to referral for further investigation. Few services were initiated because of dementia case finding in hospital. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that dementia case finding may not lead to increased GP follow-up or service provision for patients after discharge from hospital. There is a need for a more evidence-based approach to the initiation of mandatory initiatives such as case finding that inevitably consume stretched human and financial resources.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e024645, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to examine the impact of loneliness on health and social care service use in the oldest old over a 7-year follow-up. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: UK population-based cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 713 people aged 80 years or older were interviewed at wave 3 of the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort Study. Of these, 665 provided data on loneliness. During 7 years' follow-up, 480 participants left the study, of which 389 due to death. 162 still in the study answered the loneliness question. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of health and social care services, assessed at each wave from wave 3 to wave 5. RESULTS: At wave 3, of 665 participants who had data on loneliness, about 60% did not feel lonely, 16% felt slightly lonely and 25% felt lonely. Being slightly lonely at wave 3 was associated with a shorter time since last seeing a general practitioner (ß=-0.5, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.2); when examining the association between time-varying loneliness and health and social care usage, being lonely was associated with three times greater likelihood of having contact with community nurses and using meals on wheels services (community nurse contact: incidence rate ratio (IRR)=3.4, 95% CI: 1.4 to 8.7; meals on wheels service use: IRR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.6). No associations between loneliness and other health and social care services use were found. CONCLUSION: Loneliness was a significant risk factor for certain types of health and social care utilisations, independently of participants' health conditions, in the oldest old. Study findings have several implications, including the need for awareness-raising and prevention of loneliness to be priorities for public health policy and practice.

13.
Fam Pract ; 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It can be challenging for general practitioners to support their oldest old patients through the complex process of relocation. OBJECTIVE: To provide a typology of the experiences of moving in very old age that is clinically useful for practitioners navigating very old people's relocation. METHODS: Qualitative analysis of data from a mixed-methods UK population-based longitudinal study, Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C), from Year 21 follow-up onwards. Interviews with participants aged ≥95 years old and proxy informants (Year 21: 44/48, 92%, subsequent attrition all deaths). Thematic analysis of qualitative data available from 26/32 participants who moved before they died. RESULTS: Individuals who moved voluntarily in with family experienced gratitude, and those who moved into sheltered house or care homes voluntarily had no regrets. One voluntary move into care was experienced with regret, loss and increased isolation as it severed life-long community ties. Regret and loss were key experiences for those making involuntary moves into care, but acceptance, relief and appreciation of increased company were also observed. The key experience of family members was trauma. Establishing connections with people or place ahead of moving, for example through previous respite care, eased moving. A checklist for practitioners based on the resulting typology of relocation is proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the sample moved into residential care. This study highlights the importance of connections to locality, people and place along with good family relationships as the key facilitators of a healthy transition into care for the oldest old. The proposed checklist may have clinical utility.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Mediterranean countries, adherence to a traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) is associated with better cognitive function and reduced dementia risk. It is unclear if similar benefits exist in non-Mediterranean regions. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine associations between MedDiet adherence and cognitive function in an older UK population and to investigate whether associations differed between individuals with high compared with low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We conducted an analysis in 8009 older individuals with dietary data at Health Check 1 (1993-1997) and cognitive function data at Health Check 3 (2006-2011) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk). Associations were explored between MedDiet adherence and global and domain-specific cognitive test scores and risk of poor cognitive performance in the entire cohort, and when stratified according to CVD risk status. RESULTS: Higher MedDiet adherence defined by the Pyramid MedDiet score was associated with better global cognition (ß ± SE = -0.012 ± 0.002; P < 0.001), verbal episodic memory (ß ± SE = -0.009 ± 0.002; P < 0.001), and simple processing speed (ß ± SE = -0.002 ± 0.001; P = 0.013). Lower risk of poor verbal episodic memory (OR: 0.784; 95% CI: 0.641, 0.959; P = 0.018), complex processing speed (OR: 0.739; 95% CI: 0.601, 0.907; P = 0.004), and prospective memory (OR: 0.841; 95% CI: 0.724, 0.977; P = 0.023) was also observed for the highest compared with the lowest Pyramid MedDiet tertiles. The effect of a 1-point increase in Pyramid score on global cognitive function was equivalent to 1.7 fewer years of cognitive aging. MedDiet adherence defined by the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) score (mapped through the use of both binary and continuous scoring) showed similar, albeit less consistent, associations. In stratified analyses, associations were evident in individuals at higher CVD risk only (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to the MedDiet is associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of poor cognition in older UK adults. This evidence underpins the development of interventions to enhance MedDiet adherence, particularly in individuals at higher CVD risk, aiming to reduce the risk of age-related cognitive decline in non-Mediterranean populations.

15.
Brain ; 142(6): 1503-1527, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039256

RESUMO

We describe a recently recognized disease entity, limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE). LATE neuropathological change (LATE-NC) is defined by a stereotypical TDP-43 proteinopathy in older adults, with or without coexisting hippocampal sclerosis pathology. LATE-NC is a common TDP-43 proteinopathy, associated with an amnestic dementia syndrome that mimicked Alzheimer's-type dementia in retrospective autopsy studies. LATE is distinguished from frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology based on its epidemiology (LATE generally affects older subjects), and relatively restricted neuroanatomical distribution of TDP-43 proteinopathy. In community-based autopsy cohorts, ∼25% of brains had sufficient burden of LATE-NC to be associated with discernible cognitive impairment. Many subjects with LATE-NC have comorbid brain pathologies, often including amyloid-ß plaques and tauopathy. Given that the 'oldest-old' are at greatest risk for LATE-NC, and subjects of advanced age constitute a rapidly growing demographic group in many countries, LATE has an expanding but under-recognized impact on public health. For these reasons, a working group was convened to develop diagnostic criteria for LATE, aiming both to stimulate research and to promote awareness of this pathway to dementia. We report consensus-based recommendations including guidelines for diagnosis and staging of LATE-NC. For routine autopsy workup of LATE-NC, an anatomically-based preliminary staging scheme is proposed with TDP-43 immunohistochemistry on tissue from three brain areas, reflecting a hierarchical pattern of brain involvement: amygdala, hippocampus, and middle frontal gyrus. LATE-NC appears to affect the medial temporal lobe structures preferentially, but other areas also are impacted. Neuroimaging studies demonstrated that subjects with LATE-NC also had atrophy in the medial temporal lobes, frontal cortex, and other brain regions. Genetic studies have thus far indicated five genes with risk alleles for LATE-NC: GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, KCNMB2, and APOE. The discovery of these genetic risk variants indicate that LATE shares pathogenetic mechanisms with both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease, but also suggests disease-specific underlying mechanisms. Large gaps remain in our understanding of LATE. For advances in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, there is an urgent need for research focused on LATE, including in vitro and animal models. An obstacle to clinical progress is lack of diagnostic tools, such as biofluid or neuroimaging biomarkers, for ante-mortem detection of LATE. Development of a disease biomarker would augment observational studies seeking to further define the risk factors, natural history, and clinical features of LATE, as well as eventual subject recruitment for targeted therapies in clinical trials.

16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(7): 1228-1236, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111865

RESUMO

Previous estimates of whether long-term exposure to benzodiazepines increases dementia risk are conflicting and are compromised by the difficulty of controlling for confounders and by reverse causation. We investigated how estimates for the association between benzodiazepine use and later dementia incidence varied based on study design choices, using a case-control study nested within the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink. A total of 40,770 dementia cases diagnosed between April 2006 and July 2015 were matched on age, sex, available data history, and deprivation to 283,933 control subjects. Benzodiazepines and Z-drug prescriptions were ascertained in a drug-exposure period 4-20 years before dementia diagnosis. Estimates varied with the inclusion of new or prevalent users, with the timing of covariate ascertainment, and with varying time between exposure and outcome. There was no association between any new prescription of benzodiazepines and dementia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.07), whereas an inverse association was observed among prevalent users (adjusted OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.95), although this was likely induced by unintentional adjustment for colliders. By considering the choice of confounders and timing of exposure and covariate measurement, our findings overall are consistent with no causal effect of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs on dementia incidence.

17.
Mol Autism ; 10: 7, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858963

RESUMO

Background: Autism prevalence in the West is approximately 1% of school age children. Autism prevalence in China has been reported to be lower than in the West. This is likely due to at least two reasons: (1) most studies in China only included the special school population, overlooking the mainstream school population; and (2) most studies in China have not used contemporary screening and diagnostic methods. To address this, we tested total autism prevalence (mainstream and special schools) in Jilin City, and mainstream school autism prevalence in Jiamusi and Shenzhen cities. Methods: The study included a three-step process: (1) screening; (2) clinical assessment of 'screen positives' plus controls; and (3) research diagnostic assessment of those meeting clinical threshold for concerns at step 2. Prevalence estimates per 10,000 children aged 6-10 years old were weighted for study design using diagnostic criteria applied at the research assessment stage. Results: In Jilin City, 77 cases of autism were identified from a total population of 7258, equating to a prevalence of 108 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 89, 130). In Shenzhen City: 21,420 children were screened and 35 cases of autism were identified, resulting in a mainstream prevalence of 42 per 10,000 (95% CI 20-89). In Jiamusi City, 16,358 children were screened, with 10 autism cases being identified, with a mainstream prevalence of 19 per 10,000 (95% CI 10-38). Conclusions: Results from Jilin City, where both mainstream and special school data were available, revealed a similar prevalence of autism in China to the West, at around 1%. Results from Shenzhen and Jiamusi cities, where only mainstream data were available, prevalence is also in line with Western estimates. In all three cities, new cases of autism were identified by the study in mainstream schools, reflecting current under-diagnosis. Non-significant variation across different cities is seen indicating the need to explore potential variation of autism across diverse Chinese regions with large sample sizes to achieve a fully robust national picture.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 2942-2952, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802284

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The risk for dementia among subjects who are obese with normal metabolic profiles, or called metabolically healthy obese (MHO), remains uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between late-life metabolic health and obesity status and risk of incident dementia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The National Health Insurance System, Republic of Korea. PATIENTS: A total of 12,296,863 adults >50 years old who underwent health examinations from 2009 to 2012 without baseline history of dementia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident overall dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD). RESULTS: Among subjects ≥60 years old, 363,932 (6.4%) developed dementia during a median follow-up of 65 months (interquartile range 51 to 74 months). The MHO group showed the lowest incidence of overall dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 0.85; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.86] and AD (HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.88), but not VaD, compared with the metabolically healthy nonobese group. All components of metabolic syndrome except obesity significantly elevated the risk of dementia, and these associations were more pronounced in VaD. In particular, being underweight dramatically increased the risk of dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The MHO phenotype in late life demonstrated lower risk of overall dementia and AD but not VaD. Additional studies in other populations are warranted to elucidate current results and may predict individuals most at risk for developing dementia.

19.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 62: 98-104, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772279

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to demographic change, an increase in the frequency of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is expected in the future and, thus, the identification of modifiable risk factors is urgently needed. We aimed to examine the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with incident PD. METHODS: In 13 of the 23 centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a total of 734 incident cases of PD were identified between 1992 and 2012 with a mean follow-up of 12 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We modelled anthropometric variables as continuous and categorical exposures and performed subgroup analyses by potential effect modifiers including sex and smoking. RESULTS: We found no association between BMI, WC and incident PD, neither among men nor among women. Among never and former smokers, BMI and waist circumference were also not associated with PD risk. For male smokers, however, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between BMI and PD risk (HR 0.51, 95%CI: 0.30, 0.84) and the opposite for women, i.e. a significant direct association of BMI (HR 1.79, 95%CI: 1.04, 3.08) and waist circumference (HR 1.64, 95%CI: 1.03, 2.61) with risk of PD. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed no association between excess weight and PD risk but a possible interaction between anthropometry, sex and smoking.

20.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 81: 222-233, 2019 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living alone may be associated with greater risk for social isolation and loneliness. Living alone, social isolation, loneliness, and limited engagement in social activity have all been associated with poorer cognitive function in later life. Hence, if individuals who live alone are also at greater risk of isolation and loneliness, this may exacerbate poor cognitive function. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether people living alone are more at risk of social isolation, feelings of loneliness, and limited social activity, and to examine the associations between living alone and cognitive function in later life. METHOD: Baseline (N = 2197) and two-year follow-up (N = 1498) data from community-dwelling participants, age ≥65 years, without cognitive impairment or depression at baseline from CFAS-Wales were used. Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between living arrangement and cognitive function at baseline and two-year follow-up. RESULTS: People living alone were more isolated from family and experienced more emotional loneliness than those living with others, but were not more isolated from friends, did not experience more social loneliness, and were more likely to engage in regular social activity. Living alone was not associated with poorer cognitive function at baseline or two-year follow-up. DISCUSSION: These findings have positive implications and suggest that people who live alone in later life are not at greater risk of poor cognitive function at baseline or two-year follow-up. Social isolation may be more associated with poor cognitive function.

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