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1.
J Aging Health ; : 898264319878095, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592706

RESUMO

Objective: Studies of "healthy" cognitive aging often focus on a limited set of measures that decline with age. The current study argues that defining and supporting healthy cognition requires understanding diverse cognitive performance across the lifespan. Method: Data from the Cambridge Centre for Aging and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) cohort was examined across a range of cognitive domains. Performance was related to lifestyle including education, social engagement, and enrichment activities. Results: Results indicate variable relationships between cognition and age (positive, negative, or no relationship). Principal components analysis indicated maintained cognitive diversity across the adult lifespan, and that cognition-lifestyle relationships differed by age and domain. Discussion: Our findings support a view of normal cognitive aging as a lifelong developmental process with diverse relationships between cognition, lifestyle, and age. This reinforces the need for large-scale studies of cognitive aging to include a wider range of both ages and cognitive tasks.

2.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a leading cause of disability, with older people particularly susceptible to poor outcomes. AIMS: To investigate whether the prevalence of depression and antidepressant use have changed across two decades in older people. METHOD: The Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (CFAS I and CFAS II) are two English population-based cohort studies of older people aged ≥65 years, with baseline measurements for each cohort conducted two decades apart (between 1990 and 1993 and between 2008 and 2011). Depression was assessed by the Geriatric Mental State examination and diagnosed with the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer-Assisted Taxonomy algorithm. RESULTS: In CFAS I, 7635 people aged ≥65 years were interviewed, of whom 1457 were diagnostically assessed. In CFAS II, 7762 people were interviewed and diagnostically assessed. Age-standardised depression prevalence in CFAS II was 6.8% (95% CI 6.3-7.5%), representing a non-significant decline from CFAS I (risk ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.64-1.07, P = 0.14). At the time of CFAS II, 10.7% of the population (95% CI 10.0-11.5%) were taking antidepressant medication, more than twice that of CFAS I (risk ratio 2.79, 95% CI 1.96-3.97, P < 0.0001). Among care home residents, depression prevalence was unchanged, but the use of antidepressants increased from 7.4% (95% CI 3.8-13.8%) to 29.2% (95% CI 22.6-36.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial increase in the proportion of the population reporting taking antidepressant medication is seen across two decades for people aged ≥65 years. However there was no evidence for a change in age-specific prevalence of depression. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None.

3.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489532

RESUMO

Identification of individuals at high risk of dementia has usually focused attention on the clinical concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which captures an intermediate state between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. In many countries age specific risk of dementia has declined, but whether this is also the case for subclinical cognitive impairment is unknown. This has important implications for prevention, planning and policy. Here we describe subclinical cognitive impairment and mild dementia prevalence changes, in the UK, over 2 decades. The Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies have examined the full spectrum of cognition, from normal to dementia, in representative populations of people aged ≥ 65 years in the UK over the last 2 decades 7635 participants were interviewed in CFAS I in Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham in 1991, with 1457 being diagnostically assessed. In the same geographical areas, the CFAS II investigators interviewed 7796 individuals in 2011. Using established criteria, the population was categorised into seven groups: no cognitive impairment, Mild cognitive Impairment (defined using consensus criteria), other cognitive impairment no dementia without functional impairment, OCIND with functional impairment, cognitive impairment (MMSE < 24 and no functional impairment), mild dementia (MMSE < 24 with functional impairment, not captured by CFAS dementia criteria), and CFAS dementia criteria. Multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for age and sex, was used to estimate the prevalence of impairment in both studies. Results were standardized to the age-sex specific UK and global population. There is a clear increase in the prevalence of other cognitive Impairment no Dementia (without functional impairment), with the purer MCI remaining stable. In the UK, mild dementia is estimated to fall from 520,704 cases (5.7%, 95% CI 3.8, 8.1) in 1991 to 315,142 (3.0%, 95% CI 2.4, 3.8) in 2011, cognitive impairment, has fallen from 1,225,984 (13.5%, 95% CI 10.1, 17.5) to 654,436 (6.3%, 95% CI 5.4, 7.3) cases. Using additional categories which reflect the continuum of cognitive decline and impairment in populations we see that the mildest dementia declines, but that there is stability in estimates of those who meet MCI criteria. Increases were found in the Other Cognitive Impairment no Dementia group. The decline observed in severe impairment thus seems to have resulted in larger proportions of the population in milder forms, seen alongside physical illnesses.

4.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019871915, 2019 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543058

RESUMO

The incidence of stroke and dementia are diverging across the world, rising for those in low-and middle-income countries and falling in those in high-income countries. This suggests that whatever factors cause these trends are potentially modifiable. At the population level, neurological disorders as a group account for the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years globally (10%). Among neurological disorders, stroke (42%) and dementia (10%) dominate. Stroke and dementia confer risks for each other and share some of the same, largely modifiable, risk and protective factors. In principle, 90% of strokes and 35% of dementias have been estimated to be preventable. Because a stroke doubles the chance of developing dementia and stroke is more common than dementia, more than a third of dementias could be prevented by preventing stroke. Developments at the pathological, pathophysiological, and clinical level also point to new directions. Growing understanding of brain pathophysiology has unveiled the reciprocal interaction of cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration identifying new therapeutic targets to include protection of the endothelium, the blood-brain barrier, and other components of the neurovascular unit. In addition, targeting amyloid angiopathy aspects of inflammation and genetic manipulation hold new testable promise. In the meantime, accumulating evidence suggests that whole populations experiencing improved education, and lower vascular risk factor profiles (e.g., reduced prevalence of smoking) and vascular disease, including stroke, have better cognitive function and lower dementia rates. At the individual levels, trials have demonstrated that anticoagulation of atrial fibrillation can reduce the risk of dementia by 48% and that systolic blood pressure lower than 140 mmHg may be better for the brain. Based on these considerations, the World Stroke Organization has issued a proclamation, endorsed by all the major international organizations focused on global brain and cardiovascular health, calling for the joint prevention of stroke and dementia. This article summarizes the evidence for translation into action. © 2019 the Alzheimer's Association and the World Stroke Organisation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030874, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515431

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global burden of dementia is rising, emphasising the urgent need to develop effective approaches to risk reduction. Recent evidence suggests that common bacterial infections may increase the risk of dementia, however the magnitude and timing of the association as well as the patient groups affected remains unclear. We will review existing evidence of the association between common bacterial infections and incident cognitive decline or dementia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a comprehensive search of published and grey literature from inception to 18 March 2019. The following electronic databases will be searched; MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global health, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Open Grey and the British Library of Electronic Theses databases. There will be no restrictions on the date, language or geographical location of the studies. We will include longitudinal studies with a common clinically symptomatic bacterial infection as an exposure and incident cognitive decline or dementia as an outcome. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias will be performed independently by two researchers. We will assess the risk of bias using the Cochrane collaboration approach. The overall quality of the studies will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations criteria. We will explore the heterogeneity of relevant studies and, if feasible, a meta-analysis will be performed, otherwise we will present a narrative synthesis. We will group the results by exposure and outcome definitions and differences will be described by subgroups and outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be required as this is a systematic review of existing research in the public domain. Results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international meetings and conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018119294.

6.
Ageing Res Rev ; : 100962, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trial and observational evidence is conflicting in terms of the association of blood lipids, atherosclerosis and statin use with dementia and cognitive impairment in the general population. It is uncertain whether the associations occur in stroke patients, who are at known higher risk of cognitive decline. This systematic review was to synthesize the evidence for these associations among stroke patients. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and trial registries were searched. We included randomized controlled trials or observational cohort studies conducted among patients with stroke and reported on the association of blood lipids, atherosclerosis or statin use with dementia or cognitive impairment. Meta-analysis of was conducted separately for crude and maximally adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: Of 18,026 records retrieved, 56 studies (one RCT and 55 cohort studies) comprising 38,423 stroke patients were included. For coronary heart disease, the pooled OR of dementia and cognitive impairment was 1.32 (95%CI 1.10-1.58, n = 15 studies, I2 = 0%) and 1.23 (95%CI 0.99-1.54, n = 14, I2 = 26.9%), respectively. Peripheral artery disease was associated with dementia (OR 3.59, 95%CI 1.47-8.76, n = 2, I2 = 0%) and cognitive impairment (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.09-6.69, n = 1). For carotid stenosis, the pooled OR of dementia and cognitive impairment was 2.67 (95%CI 0.83-8.62, n = 3, I2 = 77.9%) and 3.34 (95%CI 0.79-14.1, n = 4, I2 = 96.6%), respectively. For post-stroke statin use, the pooled OR of dementia and cognitive impairment was 0.89 (95%CI 0.65-1.21, n = 1) and 0.56 (95%CI 0.46-0.69, n = 3, I2 = 0%), respectively. No association was observed for hypercholesterolemia. These results were mostly consistent with adjusted ORs or HRs, which were reported from limited evidence. CONCLUSION: Atherosclerosis may be associated with an increased risk of post-stroke dementia. Post-stroke statin use was associated with decreased risk of cognitive impairment. To confirm whether or not statins confer advantages in the post-stroke population in terms of preventing cognitive decline over and above their known effectiveness in reducing risk of further vascular events, further stroke trials including cognitive assessment and observational analyses adjusted for key confounders, focusing on key subgroups or statin use patterns are required.

7.
Brain Pathol ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376286

RESUMO

Limbic-predominant age-related TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) encephalopathy with hippocampal sclerosis pathology (LATE-NC + HS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe hippocampal CA1 neuron loss and TDP-43-pathology, leading to cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Polymorphisms in GRN, TMEM106B and ABCC9 are proposed as LATE-NC + HS risk factors in brain bank collections. To replicate these results in independent population-representative cohorts, hippocampal sections from brains donated to three such studies (Cambridge City over 75-Cohort [CC75C], Cognitive Function and Ageing Study [CFAS], and Vantaa 85+ Study) were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (n = 744) and anti-pTDP-43 (n = 713), and evaluated for LATE-NC + HS and TDP-43 pathology. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in GRN rs5848, TMEM106B rs1990622 and ABCC9 rs704178 were determined. LATE-NC + HS (n = 58) was significantly associated with the GRN rs5848 genotype (χ2 (2) = 20.61, P < 0.001) and T-allele (χ2 (1) = 21.04, P < 0.001), and TMEM106B rs1990622 genotype (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.001) and A-allele (χ2 (1) = 25.75, P < 0.001). No differences in ABCC9 rs704178 genotype or allele frequency were found between LATE-NC + HS and non-LATE-NC + HS neuropathology cases. Dentate gyrus TDP-43 pathology associated with GRN and TMEM106B variations, but the association with TMEM106B nullified when LATE-NC + HS cases were excluded. Our results indicate that GRN and TMEM106B are associated with severe loss of CA1 neurons in the aging brain, while ABCC9 was not confirmed as a genetic risk factor for LATE-NC + HS. The association between TMEM106B and LATE-NC + HS may be independent of dentate TDP-43 pathology.

9.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429312

RESUMO

Background: Loneliness and cognitive impairment are both commonly experienced by older old people, but evidence for the association between these has been inconsistent. Moreover, most evidence has been cross-sectional in nature and largely based on studies with relatively young later life age groups rather than 'the oldest old'. We aimed to test the potential impact of loneliness amongst older old people on their cognitive function over a 20-year period. Method: Data were drawn from wave 3 to wave 10 of the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C) study. The impact of loneliness on transition between normal and impaired cognitive states was examined by multi-state modelling. The associations between loneliness changes and cognitive function decline were tested by using generalized estimating equation (GEE) with an independent working correlation structure. Missing data were imputed by using multiple imputation chained equations. Results: At wave 3, 713 participants were interviewed, of whom 657 (92%) had Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) assessments. Of individuals who had an MMSE score, approximately one quarter reported feeling lonely, and another 16% felt slightly lonely. The prevalence of feeling lonely or slightly lonely varied between waves. Results from multi-state modelling indicated that loneliness was not related to cognitive function transitions, and results from the GEE model showed that loneliness was not significantly associated with cognitive function decline after adjusting for cohort effects, follow-up time, sex, education, and interaction terms for sex, education and time. Conclusions: Loneliness did not exert long-term harmful effects on cognitive function in the oldest old.

10.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 122, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unmet need for mental health services remains high in the United States and is disproportionately concentrated in some groups. The scale and nature of these disparities have not been fully elucidated and bear further scrutiny. As such, in this study, we examine the demographic, socioeconomic, and health correlates of unmet need for mental health treatment as well as the reasons for unmet need. METHODS: We draw upon the National Survey for Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002 to 16 for adults aged 18 and over in the United States (n = 579,017). Using multivariable logistic regression, we simultaneously model the demographic, socioeconomic, and health correlates of unmet need for mental health treatment from 2002 to 16. We also analyse the reasons for unmet need expressed by these populations, reasons which include cost, perceived stigma, minimisation of symptoms, low perceived effectiveness of treatment, and structural barriers. RESULTS: Major characteristics associated with increased odds of unmet need include past year substance abuse or dependence (other than hallucinogens and sedatives), fair, poor, or very poor health, being female, and an educational attainment of college or higher. With respect to reasons for unmet need, cost was most often cited, followed by perceived stigma, structural barriers, and minimisation. Characteristics associated with increased odds of indicating cost as a reason for unmet need include: being uninsured or aged 26-35. Minimisation and low perceived effectiveness are mentioned by high-income persons as reasons for unmet need. College-educated persons and women had higher odds of citing structural barriers as a reason for unmet need. CONCLUSIONS: The correlates and causes of unmet need highlight the intersectionality of individual health needs with implications on addressing inequities in mental health policy and practice.

11.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(7): 961-984, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327392

RESUMO

The incidence of stroke and dementia are diverging across the world, rising for those in low- and middle-income countries and falling in those in high-income countries. This suggests that whatever factors cause these trends are potentially modifiable. At the population level, neurological disorders as a group account for the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years globally (10%). Among neurological disorders, stroke (42%) and dementia (10%) dominate. Stroke and dementia confer risks for each other and share some of the same, largely modifiable, risk and protective factors. In principle, 90% of strokes and 35% of dementias have been estimated to be preventable. Because a stroke doubles the chance of developing dementia and stroke is more common than dementia, more than a third of dementias could be prevented by preventing stroke. Developments at the pathological, pathophysiological, and clinical level also point to new directions. Growing understanding of brain pathophysiology has unveiled the reciprocal interaction of cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration identifying new therapeutic targets to include protection of the endothelium, the blood-brain barrier, and other components of the neurovascular unit. In addition, targeting amyloid angiopathy aspects of inflammation and genetic manipulation hold new testable promise. In the meantime, accumulating evidence suggests that whole populations experiencing improved education, and lower vascular risk factor profiles (e.g., reduced prevalence of smoking) and vascular disease, including stroke, have better cognitive function and lower dementia rates. At the individual levels, trials have demonstrated that anticoagulation of atrial fibrillation can reduce the risk of dementia by 48% and that systolic blood pressure lower than 140 mmHg may be better for the brain. Based on these considerations, the World Stroke Organization has issued a proclamation, endorsed by all the major international organizations focused on global brain and cardiovascular health, calling for the joint prevention of stroke and dementia. This article summarizes the evidence for translation into action.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283791

RESUMO

Late onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia for which about 30 susceptibility loci have been reported. The aim of the current study is to identify novel genes associated with Alzheimer's disease using the largest up-to-date reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, the most accurate imputation software and a novel gene-based analysis approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 million genotypes from 17,008 Alzheimer's cases and 37,154 controls. In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected three novel gene-wide significant loci PPARGC1A (p = 2.2 × 10-6), RORA (p = 7.4 × 10-7) and ZNF423 (p = 2.1 × 10-6). PPARGC1A and RORA are involved in circadian rhythm; circadian disturbances are one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. PPARGC1A is additionally linked to energy metabolism and the generation of amyloid beta plaques. RORA is involved in a variety of functions apart from circadian rhythm, such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. The ZNF423 gene resides in an Alzheimer's disease-specific protein network and is likely involved with centrosomes and DNA damage repair.

13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 70(s1): S11-S14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306133
15.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.

16.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e024645, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to examine the impact of loneliness on health and social care service use in the oldest old over a 7-year follow-up. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: UK population-based cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 713 people aged 80 years or older were interviewed at wave 3 of the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort Study. Of these, 665 provided data on loneliness. During 7 years' follow-up, 480 participants left the study, of which 389 due to death. 162 still in the study answered the loneliness question. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of health and social care services, assessed at each wave from wave 3 to wave 5. RESULTS: At wave 3, of 665 participants who had data on loneliness, about 60% did not feel lonely, 16% felt slightly lonely and 25% felt lonely. Being slightly lonely at wave 3 was associated with a shorter time since last seeing a general practitioner (ß=-0.5, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.2); when examining the association between time-varying loneliness and health and social care usage, being lonely was associated with three times greater likelihood of having contact with community nurses and using meals on wheels services (community nurse contact: incidence rate ratio (IRR)=3.4, 95% CI: 1.4 to 8.7; meals on wheels service use: IRR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.6). No associations between loneliness and other health and social care services use were found. CONCLUSION: Loneliness was a significant risk factor for certain types of health and social care utilisations, independently of participants' health conditions, in the oldest old. Study findings have several implications, including the need for awareness-raising and prevention of loneliness to be priorities for public health policy and practice.

17.
Fam Pract ; 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It can be challenging for general practitioners to support their oldest old patients through the complex process of relocation. OBJECTIVE: To provide a typology of the experiences of moving in very old age that is clinically useful for practitioners navigating very old people's relocation. METHODS: Qualitative analysis of data from a mixed-methods UK population-based longitudinal study, Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C), from Year 21 follow-up onwards. Interviews with participants aged ≥95 years old and proxy informants (Year 21: 44/48, 92%, subsequent attrition all deaths). Thematic analysis of qualitative data available from 26/32 participants who moved before they died. RESULTS: Individuals who moved voluntarily in with family experienced gratitude, and those who moved into sheltered house or care homes voluntarily had no regrets. One voluntary move into care was experienced with regret, loss and increased isolation as it severed life-long community ties. Regret and loss were key experiences for those making involuntary moves into care, but acceptance, relief and appreciation of increased company were also observed. The key experience of family members was trauma. Establishing connections with people or place ahead of moving, for example through previous respite care, eased moving. A checklist for practitioners based on the resulting typology of relocation is proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the sample moved into residential care. This study highlights the importance of connections to locality, people and place along with good family relationships as the key facilitators of a healthy transition into care for the oldest old. The proposed checklist may have clinical utility.

18.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e026927, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Between 2012 and 2017 dementia case finding was routinely carried out on people aged 75 years and over with unplanned admissions to acute hospitals across England. The assumption was that this would lead to better planning of care and treatment for patients with dementia following discharge from hospital. However, little is known about the experiences of patients and carers or the impacts on other health services. This study explored the impact of dementia case finding on older people and their families and on their use of services. DESIGN: Thematic content analysis was conducted on qualitative interview data and costs associated with service use were estimated. Measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, the EuroQol quality of life scale and a modified Client Service Receipt Inventory. SETTING: Four counties in the East of England. PARTICIPANTS: People aged ≥75 years who had been identified by case finding during an unplanned hospital admission as warranting further investigation of possible dementia and their family carers. RESULTS: We carried out 28 interviews, including 19 joint patient-carer(s), 5 patient only and 4 family carer interviews. Most patients and carers were unaware that memory assessments had taken place, with many families not being informed or involved in the process. Participants had a variety of views on memory testing in hospital and had concerns about how hospitals carried out assessments and communicated results. Overall, case finding did not lead to general practitioner (GP) follow-up after discharge home or lead to referral for further investigation. Few services were initiated because of dementia case finding in hospital. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that dementia case finding may not lead to increased GP follow-up or service provision for patients after discharge from hospital. There is a need for a more evidence-based approach to the initiation of mandatory initiatives such as case finding that inevitably consume stretched human and financial resources.

19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 938-948, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Mediterranean countries, adherence to a traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) is associated with better cognitive function and reduced dementia risk. It is unclear if similar benefits exist in non-Mediterranean regions. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine associations between MedDiet adherence and cognitive function in an older UK population and to investigate whether associations differed between individuals with high compared with low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We conducted an analysis in 8009 older individuals with dietary data at Health Check 1 (1993-1997) and cognitive function data at Health Check 3 (2006-2011) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk). Associations were explored between MedDiet adherence and global and domain-specific cognitive test scores and risk of poor cognitive performance in the entire cohort, and when stratified according to CVD risk status. RESULTS: Higher MedDiet adherence defined by the Pyramid MedDiet score was associated with better global cognition (ß ± SE = -0.012 ± 0.002; P < 0.001), verbal episodic memory (ß ± SE = -0.009 ± 0.002; P < 0.001), and simple processing speed (ß ± SE = -0.002 ± 0.001; P = 0.013). Lower risk of poor verbal episodic memory (OR: 0.784; 95% CI: 0.641, 0.959; P = 0.018), complex processing speed (OR: 0.739; 95% CI: 0.601, 0.907; P = 0.004), and prospective memory (OR: 0.841; 95% CI: 0.724, 0.977; P = 0.023) was also observed for the highest compared with the lowest Pyramid MedDiet tertiles. The effect of a 1-point increase in Pyramid score on global cognitive function was equivalent to 1.7 fewer years of cognitive aging. MedDiet adherence defined by the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) score (mapped through the use of both binary and continuous scoring) showed similar, albeit less consistent, associations. In stratified analyses, associations were evident in individuals at higher CVD risk only (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to the MedDiet is associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of poor cognition in older UK adults. This evidence underpins the development of interventions to enhance MedDiet adherence, particularly in individuals at higher CVD risk, aiming to reduce the risk of age-related cognitive decline in non-Mediterranean populations.

20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(7): 1228-1236, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111865

RESUMO

Previous estimates of whether long-term exposure to benzodiazepines increases dementia risk are conflicting and are compromised by the difficulty of controlling for confounders and by reverse causation. We investigated how estimates for the association between benzodiazepine use and later dementia incidence varied based on study design choices, using a case-control study nested within the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink. A total of 40,770 dementia cases diagnosed between April 2006 and July 2015 were matched on age, sex, available data history, and deprivation to 283,933 control subjects. Benzodiazepines and Z-drug prescriptions were ascertained in a drug-exposure period 4-20 years before dementia diagnosis. Estimates varied with the inclusion of new or prevalent users, with the timing of covariate ascertainment, and with varying time between exposure and outcome. There was no association between any new prescription of benzodiazepines and dementia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.07), whereas an inverse association was observed among prevalent users (adjusted OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.95), although this was likely induced by unintentional adjustment for colliders. By considering the choice of confounders and timing of exposure and covariate measurement, our findings overall are consistent with no causal effect of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs on dementia incidence.

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