Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 10 de 10
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22481, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795364

RESUMO

We have performed sound velocity and unit cell volume measurements of three synthetic, ultrafine micro/nanocrystalline grossular samples up to 50 GPa using Brillouin spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The samples are characterized by average grain sizes of 90 nm, 93 nm and 179 nm (hereinafter referred to as samples Gr90, Gr93, and Gr179, respectively). The experimentally determined sound velocities and elastic properties of Gr179 sample are comparable with previous measurements, but slightly higher than those of Gr90 and Gr93 under ambient conditions. However, the differences diminish with increasing pressure, and the velocity crossover eventually takes place at approximately 20-30 GPa. The X-ray diffraction peaks of the ultrafine micro/nanocrystalline grossular samples significantly broaden between 15-40 GPa, especially for Gr179. The velocity or elasticity crossover observed at pressures over 30 GPa might be explained by different grain size reduction and/or inhomogeneous strain within the individual grains for the three grossular samples, which is supported by both the pressure-induced peak broadening observed in the X-ray diffraction experiments and transmission electron microscopy observations. The elastic behavior of ultrafine micro/nanocrystalline silicates, in this case, grossular, is both grain size and pressure dependent.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(23): 16246-16256, 2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797046

RESUMO

We investigated interfacial reactions of U(VI) in the presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) at acidic and neutral pH. Laboratory batch experiments show that the adsorption and precipitation of U(VI) in the presence of NOM occur at pH 2 and pH 4, while the aqueous complexation of U by dissolved organic matter is favored at pH 7, preventing its precipitation. Spectroscopic analyses indicate that U(VI) is mainly adsorbed to the particulate organic matter at pH 4. However, U(VI)-bearing ultrafine to nanocrystalline solids were identified at pH 4 by electron microscopy. This study shows the promotion of U(VI) precipitation by NOM at low pH which may be relevant to the formation of mineralized deposits, radioactive waste repositories, wetlands, and other U- and organic-rich environmental systems.


Assuntos
Resíduos Radioativos , Urânio , Adsorção , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Urânio/análise
3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361184

RESUMO

This paper reports the successful synthesis of true two-dimensional silicon carbide using a top-down synthesis approach. Theoretical studies have predicted that 2D SiC has a stable planar structure and is a direct band gap semiconducting material. Experimentally, however, the growth of 2D SiC has challenged scientists for decades because bulk silicon carbide is not a van der Waals layered material. Adjacent atoms of SiC bond together via covalent sp3 hybridization, which is much stronger than van der Waals bonding in layered materials. Additionally, bulk SiC exists in more than 250 polytypes, further complicating the synthesis process, and making the selection of the SiC precursor polytype extremely important. This work demonstrates, for the first time, the successful isolation of 2D SiC from hexagonal SiC via a wet exfoliation method. Unlike many other 2D materials such as silicene that suffer from environmental instability, the created 2D SiC nanosheets are environmentally stable, and show no sign of degradation. 2D SiC also shows interesting Raman behavior, different from that of the bulk SiC. Our results suggest a strong correlation between the thickness of the nanosheets and the intensity of the longitudinal optical (LO) Raman mode. Furthermore, the created 2D SiC shows visible-light emission, indicating its potential applications for light-emitting devices and integrated microelectronics circuits. We anticipate that this work will cause disruptive impact across various technological fields, ranging from optoelectronics and spintronics to electronics and energy applications.

4.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(1): 73-85, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325952

RESUMO

We investigated the mechanisms of uranium (U) uptake by Tamarix (salt cedars) growing along the Rio Paguate, which flows throughout the Jackpile mine near Pueblo de Laguna, New Mexico. Tamarix were selected for this study due to the detection of U in the roots and shoots of field collected plants (0.6-58.9 mg kg-1), presenting an average bioconcentration factor greater than 1. Synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence analyses of plant roots collected from the field indicate that the accumulation of U occurs in the cortex of the root. The mechanisms for U accumulation in the roots of Tamarix were further investigated in controlled-laboratory experiments where living roots of field plants were macerated for 24 h or 2 weeks in a solution containing 100 µM U. The U concentration in the solution decreased 36-59% after 24 h, and 49-65% in two weeks. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses detected U precipitation in the root cell walls near the xylems of the roots, confirming the initial results from the field samples. High-resolution TEM was used to study the U fate inside the root cells, and needle-like U-P nanocrystals, with diameter <7 nm, were found entrapped inside vacuoles in cells. EXAFS shell-by-shell fitting suggest that U is associated with carbon functional groups. The preferable binding of U to the root cell walls may explain the U retention in the roots of Tamarix, followed by U-P crystal precipitation, and pinocytotic active transport and cellular entrapment. This process resulted in a limited translocation of U to the shoots in Tamarix plants. This study contributes to better understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms affecting the U uptake and accumulation by plants growing near contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Tamaricaceae , Urânio , New Mexico , Fósforo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Urânio/análise
5.
Minerals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33425380

RESUMO

The crystal chemistry of carnotite (prototype formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O) occurring in mine wastes collected from Northeastern Arizona was investigated by integrating spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analyses. Raman spectroscopy confirms that the uranyl vanadate phase present in the mine waste is carnotite, rather than the rarer polymorph vandermeerscheite. X-ray diffraction patterns of the carnotite occurring in these mine wastes are in agreement with those reported in the literature for a synthetic analog. Carbon detected in this carnotite was identified as organic carbon inclusions using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses. After excluding C and correcting for K-drift from the electron microprobe analyses, the composition of the carnotite was determined as 8.64% K2O, 0.26% CaO, 61.43% UO3, 20.26% V2O5, 0.38% Fe2O3, and 8.23% H2O. The empirical formula, (K1.66 Ca0.043 Al(OH)2+ 0.145 Fe(OH)2+ 0.044)((U0.97)O2)2((V1.005)O4)2·4H2O of the studied carnotite, with an atomic ratio 1.9:2:2 for K:U:V, is similar to the that of carnotite (K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O) reported in the literature. Lattice spacing data determined using selected area electron diffraction (SAED)-TEM suggests: (1) complete amorphization of the carnotite within 120 s of exposure to the electron beam and (2) good agreement of the measured d-spacings for carnotite in the literature. Small Differences between the measured and literature d-spacing values are likely due to the varying degree of hydration between natural and synthetic materials. Such information about the crystal chemistry of carnotite in mine wastes is important for an improved understanding of the occurrence and reactivity of U, V, and other elements in the environment.

6.
ACS Earth Space Chem ; 3(10): 2190-2196, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742240

RESUMO

The role of calcium (Ca) on the cellular distribution of U(VI) in Brassica juncea roots and root-to-shoot translocation was investigated using hydroponic experiments, microscopy, and spectroscopy. Uranium accumulated mainly in the roots (727-9376 mg kg-1) after 30 days of exposure to 80 µM dissolved U in water containing 1 mM HCO3 - at different Ca concentrations (0-6 mM) at pH 7.5. However, the concentration of U in the shoots increased 22 times in experiments with 6 mM Ca compared to 0 mM Ca. In the Ca control experiment, transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy analyses detected U-P-bearing precipitates in the cortical apoplast of parenchyma cells. In experiments with 0.3 mM Ca, U-P-bearing precipitates were detected in the cortical apoplast and the bordered pits of xylem cells. In experiments with 6 mM Ca, U-P-bearing precipitates aggregated in the xylem with no apoplastic precipitation. These results indicate that Ca in carbonate water inhibits the transport and precipitation of U in the root cortical apoplast and facilitates the symplastic transport and translocation toward shoots. These findings reveal the considerable role of Ca in the presence of carbonate in facilitating the transport of U in plants and present new insights for future assessment and phytoremediation strategies.

7.
Chem Erde ; 79(4)2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020946

RESUMO

A coordinated mineralogical and oxygen isotopic study of four fine-grained calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 carbonaceous chondrite was conducted. Three of the inclusions studied, 05, 1-65, and 2-119, all have nodular structures that represent three major groups, melilite-rich, spinel-rich, and hibonite-rich, based on their primary core mineral assemblages. A condensation origin was inferred for these CAIs. However, the difference in their primary core mineralogy reflects unique nebular environments in which multiple gas-solid reactions occurred under disequilibrium conditions to form hibonite, spinel, and melilite with minor perovskite and Al,Ti-rich diopside. A common occurrence of a diopside rim on the CAIs records a widespread event that marks the end of their condensation as a result of isolation from a nebular gas. An exception is a rare inclusion 2-112 that contains euhedral spinel crystals embedded in melilite, suggesting this CAI had been re-melted. All of the fine-grained CAIs analyzed in ALHA77307 are uniformly 16O-rich with an average Δ17O value of ~-22 ± 5‰ (2σ), indicating no apparent correlation between their textures and oxygen isotopic compositions. We therefore conclude that a prevalent 16O-rich gas reservoir existed in a region of the solar nebula where CO3 fine-grained CAIs formed, initially by condensation and then later, some of them were reprocessed by melting event(s).

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(22): 13089-13098, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412391

RESUMO

We integrated field measurements, hydroponic experiments, microscopy, and spectroscopy to investigate the effect of Ca(II) on dissolved U(VI) uptake by plants in 1 mM HCO3- solutions at circumneutral pH. The accumulation of U in plants (3.1-21.3 mg kg-1) from the stream bank of the Rio Paguate, Jackpile Mine, New Mexico served as a motivation for this study. Brassica juncea was the model plant used for the laboratory experiments conducted over a range of U (30-700 µg L-1) and Ca (0-240 mg L-1) concentrations. The initial U uptake followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The initial U uptake rate ( V0) ranged from 4.4 to 62 µg g-1 h-1 in experiments with no added Ca and from 0.73 to 2.07 µg g-1 h-1 in experiments with 12 mg L-1 Ca. No measurable U uptake over time was detected for experiments with 240 mg L-1 Ca. Ternary Ca-U-CO3 complexes may affect the decrease in U bioavailability observed in this study. Elemental X-ray mapping using scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectrometry detected U-P-bearing precipitates within root cell walls in water free of Ca. These results suggest that root interactions with Ca and carbonate in solution affect the bioavailability of U in plants. This study contributes relevant information to applications related to U transport and remediation of contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Urânio , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cálcio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , New Mexico , Raízes de Plantas
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(21): 11539-11548, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27704799

RESUMO

We applied spectroscopy, microscopy, diffraction, and aqueous chemistry methods to investigate the persistence of metals in water and sediments from the Animas River 13 days after the Gold King Mine spill (August 5, 2015). The Upper Animas River watershed, located in San Juan Colorado, is heavily mineralized and impacted by acid mine drainage, with low pH water and elevated metal concentrations in sediments (108.4 ± 1.8 mg kg-1 Pb, 32.4 ± 0.5 mg kg-1 Cu, 729.6 ± 5.7 mg kg-1 Zn, and 51 314.6 ± 295.4 mg kg-1 Fe). Phosphate and nitrogen species were detected in water and sediment samples from Farmington, New Mexico, an intensive agricultural area downstream from the Animas River, while metal concentrations were low compared to those observed upstream. Solid-phase analyses of sediments suggest that Pb, Cu, and Zn are associated with metal-bearing jarosite and other minerals (e.g., clays, Fe-(oxy)hydroxides). The solubility of jarosite at near-neutral pH and biogeochemical processes occurring downstream could affect the stability of metal-bearing minerals in river sediments. This study contributes relevant information about the association of metal mixtures in a heavy mineralized semiarid region, providing a foundation to better understand long-term metal release in a public and agricultural water supply.


Assuntos
Ouro , Rios/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(14): 8506-14, 2015 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26158204

RESUMO

The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67-169 µg L(-1)) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 µg L(-1). Elevated U (6,614 mg kg(-1)), V (15,814 mg kg(-1)), and As (40 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Fe were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (∼pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (∼pH 8.3). These results suggest that U-V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As-Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Metais/análise , Mineração , Urânio/análise , Arizona , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Ferro/análise , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Resíduos Sólidos , Urânio/química , Vanádio/análise , Vanádio/química , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...