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1.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Alemtuzumab (Campath®) is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease and graft failure following pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The main toxicity includes delayed immune reconstitution, subsequent viral reactivations, and leukemia relapse. Exposure to alemtuzumab is highly variable upon empirical milligram/kilogram dosing. METHODS: A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for alemtuzumab was developed based on a total of 1146 concentration samples from 206 patients, aged 0.2-19 years, receiving a cumulative intravenous dose of 0.2-1.5 mg/kg, and treated between 2003 and 2015 in two centers. RESULTS: Alemtuzumab PK were best described using a two-compartment model with a parallel saturable and linear elimination pathway. The linear clearance pathway, central volume of distribution, and intercompartmental distribution increased with body weight. Blood lymphocyte counts, a potential substrate for alemtuzumab, did not impact clearance. CONCLUSION: The current practice with uniform milligram/kilogram doses leads to highly variable exposures in children due to the non-linear relationship between body weight and alemtuzumab PK. This model may be used for individualized dosing of alemtuzumab.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894854

RESUMO

Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is a lymphocyte depleting agent applied in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to prevent rejection and Graft-vs.-Host Disease (GvHD). In this study, we compared two rabbit ATG products, ATG-Genzyme (ATG-GENZ), and ATG-Fresenius (ATG-FRES), with respect to dosing, clearance of the active lymphocyte binding component, post-HSCT immune reconstitution and clinical outcome. Fifty-eigth pediatric acute leukemia patients (n = 42 ATG-GENZ, n = 16 ATG-FRES), who received a non-depleted bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell graft from an unrelated donor were included. ATG-GENZ was given at a dosage of 6-10 mg/kg; ATG-FRES at 45-60 mg/kg. The active component of ATG from both products was cleared at different rates. Within the ATG-FRES dose range no differences were found in clearance of active ATG or T-cell re-appearance. However, the high dosage of ATG-GENZ (10 mg/kg), in contrast to the low dosage (6-8 mg/kg), correlated with prolonged persistence of active ATG and delayed T-cell reconstitution. Occurrence of serious acute GvHD (grade III-IV) was highest in the ATG-GENZ-low dosage group. These results imply that dosing of ATG-GENZ is more critical than dosing of ATG-FRES due to the difference in clearance of active ATG. This should be taken into account when designing clinical protocols.

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(5): 721-729, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805731

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a condition that often results in severe infections and death at young age. Early detection shortly after birth, followed by treatment before infections occur, largely increases the chances of survival. As the incidence of SCID is low, assessing cost-effectiveness of adding screening for SCID to the newborn screening program is relevant for decision making. Lifetime costs and effects of newborn screening for SCID were compared to a situation without screening in the Netherlands in a decision analysis model. Model parameters were based on literature and expert opinions. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Due to earlier detection, the number of deaths due to SCID per 100,000 children was assessed to decrease from 0.57 to 0.23 and a number of 11.7 quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained was expected. Total yearly healthcare costs, including costs of screening, diagnostics, and treatment, were €390,800 higher in a situation with screening compared to a situation without screening, resulting in a cost-utility ratio of €33,400 per QALY gained.Conclusion: Newborn screening for SCID might be cost-effective. However, there is still a lot of uncertainty around the cost-effectiveness estimate. Pilot screening projects are warranted to obtain more accurate estimates for the European situation. What is Known: • Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a condition that often results in severe infections and death at a young age. • As the incidence of SCID is low, assessing cost-effectiveness of adding screening for SCID to the newborn screening program is needed. What is New: • Newborn screening for SCID is expected to reduce mortality from 0.57 to 0.23 per 100,000 children at additional healthcare costs of €390,800. The cost-utility ratio is €33,400 per QALY gained. • Due to large uncertainty around cost-effectiveness estimates, pilot screening projects are warranted for Europe.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem Neonatal/economia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Países Baixos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/economia
4.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(6): 1164-1171, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731251

RESUMO

Bloodstream infections and graft-versus-host disease are common complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) procedures, associated with the gut microbiota that acts as a reservoir for opportunistic pathogens. Selective gut decontamination (SGD) and total gut decontamination (TGD) during HSCT have been associated with a decreased risk of developing these complications after transplantation. However, because studies have shown conflicting results, the use of these treatments remains subject of debate. In addition, their impact on the gut microbiota is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the dynamics of the microbiota during and after TGD and to compare these with the dynamics of SGD. In this prospective, observational, single-center study fecal samples were longitudinally collected from 19 children eligible for allogenic HSCT (TGD, n=12; SGD, n=7), weekly during hospital admission and monthly after discharge. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 3 family stem cell donors. Fecal microbiota structure of patients and donors was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Microbiota richness and diversity markedly decreased during SGD and TGD and gradually increased after cessation of decontamination treatment. During SGD, gut microbiota composition was relatively stable and dominated by Bacteroides, whereas it showed high inter- and intraindividual variation and low Bacteroides abundance during TGD. In some children TGD allowed the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus to thrive during treatment. A gut microbiota dominated by Bacteroides was associated with increased predicted activity of several metabolic processes. Comparing the microbiota of recipients and their donors indicated that receiving an SCT did not alter the patient's microbiota to become more similar to that of its donor. Overall, our findings indicate that SGD and TGD affect gut microbiota structure in a treatment-specific manner. Whether these treatments affect clinical outcomes via interference with the gut microbiota needs to be further elucidated.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

7.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(4): 772-778, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277513

RESUMO

Autoimmune or alloimmune cytopenia (AIC) is a known rare complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). AIC after SCT is considered difficult to treat and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study in pediatric patients we evaluated incidence, outcome, potential risk factors, and current treatment strategies. A nested matched case-control study was performed to search for biomarkers associated with AIC. Of 531 consecutive SCTs at our center between 2000 and 2016, 26 were complicated by the development of AIC (cumulative incidence, 5.0%) after a median of 5 months post-SCT. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia was the most common AIC with 12 patients (46%). We identified nonmalignant disease, alemtuzumab serotherapy pre-SCT, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation as independently associated risk factors. The cytokine profile of patients at the time of AIC diagnosis appeared to skew toward a more pronounced Th 2 response compared with control subjects at the corresponding time point post-SCT. Corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin as first-line treatment or a wait-and-see approach led to resolution of AIC in 35% of cases. Addition of step-up therapies rituximab (n = 15), bortezomib (n = 7), or sirolimus (n = 3) was associated with AIC resolution in 40%, 57%, and 100% of cases, respectively. In summary, we identified CMV reactivation post-SCT as a new clinical risk factor for the development of AIC in children. The cytokine profile during AIC appears to favor a Th 2 response. Rituximab, bortezomib, and sirolimus are promising step-up treatment modalities.

8.
Clin Immunol ; 180: 106-110, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487086

RESUMO

Newborn screening of severe combined immunodeficiency through the detection of T-cell receptor excision circles will provide the opportunity of treating before the occurrence of life-threatening infections. With the EnLite Neonatal TREC assay (PerkinElmer) and end-point PCR, 39 samples (3.0%) of 1295 heel prick cards of the Dutch newborn screening program required a retest after initial analysis. After retest, 21 samples (1.62%) gave TREC levels below cut-off. A significant reduction in TREC levels was observed in heel prick cards stored for three months (n=33) and one year (n=33). Preterm newborns (n=155) showed significantly lower TREC levels and a higher retest-rate than full-term newborns. Peripheral blood spots of 22 confirmed SCID patients and 17 primary immunodeficiency patients showed undetectable or low TREC-levels. These findings suggest that the EnLite Neonatal TREC assay is a suitable method for SCID-screening in the Netherlands, thereby providing guidance in the decisions concerning implementation into the Dutch program.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Bioensaio , DNA Circular/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia
9.
Transplant Direct ; 3(1): e124, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal immunosuppressive regimen in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (SPKT) recipients that prevents acute rejection episodes (AREs) and allows optimal outcome remains elusive. METHODS: This cohort study assessed incidence and time to AREs in 73 consecutive SPKT recipients receiving alemtuzumab induction and steroid-free maintenance with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. A cohort with single high-dose antithymocyte globulin (ATG; n = 85) and triple therapy served as controls. In addition, we provided mechanistic insights in AREs after alemtuzumab depletion, including composition and alloreactivity of lymphocytes (flow cytometry and mixed lymphocyte reaction) plasma alemtuzumab levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and maintenance drug exposure. RESULTS: Overall number of AREs at 3 years was significantly lower with alemtuzumab versus ATG induction (26.0% vs 43.5%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.38; P = 0.029). Most AREs (94.6%) with ATG occurred within the first month, whereas 84.2% of AREs with alemtuzumab occurred beyond 3 months. Patients with and without an ARE in the steroid-free alemtuzumab group showed no differences in composition of lymphocytes, or in alemtuzumab levels. Of note, more than two thirds of these AREs were preceded by empiric tacrolimus and/or mycophenolate mofetil dose adjustments due to viral infections, leukopenia, or gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Alemtuzumab induction resulted in a significant lower incidence of AREs. Empiric dose adjustments beyond 3 months in the absence of steroids carry a significant risk for subsequent rejection in SPKT recipients.

10.
Lancet Haematol ; 4(4): e183-e191, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28330607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, ATG can also cause delayed immune reconstitution of T cells, negatively affecting survival. We studied the relation between exposure to ATG and clinical outcomes in adult patients with acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. METHODS: We did a retrospective, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of data from patients with acute lymphoid leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome receiving their first T-cell repleted allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell HCT with ATG (thymoglobulin) as part of non-myeloablative conditioning from March 1, 2004, to June 1, 2015. Patients received a cumulative intravenous dose of 8 mg/kg divided over 4 days, starting on day -8 before HCT. Active ATG concentrations were measured using a validated bioassay and pharmacokinetic exposure measures (maximum concentration, concentration at time of infusion of the graft, time to reach a concentration of 1 arbitary unit [AU] per day/mL, area under the curve [AUC], and the AUC before and after HCT) were calculated with a validated population pharmacokinetic model. The main outcome of interest was 5-year overall survival, defined as days to death from any cause or last follow-up. Other outcomes were relapse-related mortality, non-relapse mortality, event-free survival, acute and chronic GvHD, and assessment of current and optimum dosing. We used Cox proportional hazard models and Fine-Gray competing risk models for the analyses. FINDINGS: 146 patients were included. ATG exposure after HCT was shown to be the best predictor for 5-year overall survival. Optimum exposure after transplantation was determined to be 60-95 AU per day/mL. Estimated 5-year overall survival in the group who had optimum exposure (69%, 95% CI 55-86) was significantly higher than in the group who had below optimum exposure (32%, 20-51, p=0·00037; hazard ratio [HR] 2·41, 95% CI 1·15-5·06, p=0·020) and above optimum exposure (48%, 37-62, p=0·030; HR 2·11, 95% CI 1·04-4·27, p=0·038). Patients in the optimum exposure group had a greater chance of event-free survival than those in the below optimum exposure group (HR 2·54, 95% CI 1·29-5·00, p=0·007; HR for the above optimum group: 1·83, 0·97-3·47, p=0·063). Above-optimum exposure led to higher relapse-related mortality compared with optimum exposure (HR 2·66, 95% CI 1·12-6·31; p=0·027). Below optimum exposure increased non-relapse mortality compared with optimum exposure (HR 4·36, 95% CI 1·60-11·88; p=0·0040), grade 3-4 acute GvHD (3·09, 1·12-8·53; p=0·029), but not chronic GvHD (2·38, 0·93-6·08; p=0·070). Modelled dosing based on absolute lymphocyte counts led to higher optimum target attainment than did weight-based dosing. INTERPRETATION: Exposure to ATG affects survival after HCT in adults, stressing the importance of optimum ATG dosing. Individualised dosing of ATG, based on lymphocyte counts rather than bodyweight, might improve survival chances after HCT. FUNDING: Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development and Queen Wilhelma Fund for Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(8)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28074607

RESUMO

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia was common in the immunocompromised host before the widespread use of prophylaxis. When trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is not tolerated, prophylaxis with intravenous pentamidine (IVP) may be initiated. We performed a retrospective analysis of all pediatric patients who received IVP regarding efficacy, safety, and reason for initiation. Of 106 patients included in our analysis, one patient tested positive for Pneumocystis DNA. Adverse events were reported in 18% of IVP courses, and main reason for initiation was cytopenia (59%). We found IVP to be effective and safe, and recommend the use of IVP in pediatric patients in whom first-line prophylaxis is contraindicated.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/efeitos dos fármacos , Pentamidina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante de Células-Tronco
12.
Lancet Haematol ; 3(11): e526-e536, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27746112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous busulfan combined with therapeutic drug monitoring to guide dosing improves outcomes after allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The best method to estimate busulfan exposure and optimum exposure in children or young adults remains unclear. We therefore assessed three approaches to estimate intravenous busulfan exposure (expressed as cumulative area under the curve [AUC]) and associated busulfan AUC with clinical outcomes in children or young adults undergoing allogeneic HCT. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, patients from 15 centres in the Netherlands, USA, Canada, Switzerland, UK, Italy, Germany, and Australia who received a busulfan-based conditioning regimen between March 18, 2001, and Feb 12, 2015, were included. Cumulative AUC was calculated by numerical integration using non-linear mixed effect modelling (AUCNONMEM), non-compartmental analysis (AUC from 0 to infinity [AUC0-∞] and to the next dose [AUC0-τ]), and by individual centres using various approaches (AUCcentre). The main outcome of interest was event-free survival. Other outcomes of interest were graft failure or relapse, or both; transplantation-related mortality; acute toxicity (veno-occlusive disease or acute graft versus-host disease [GvHD]); chronic GvHD; overall survival; and chronic-GvHD-free event-free survival. We used propensity-score-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, Weibull models, and Fine-Gray competing risk regressions for statistical analyses. FINDINGS: 790 patients were enrolled, 674 of whom were included: 274 (41%) with malignant and 400 (59%) with non-malignant disease. Median age was 4·5 years (IQR 1·4-10·7). The median busulfan AUCNONMEM was 74·4 mg × h/L (95% CI 31·1-104·6), which correlated with the standardised method AUC0-∞ (r2=0·74), but the latter correlated poorly with AUCcentre (r2=0·35). Estimated 2-year event-free survival was 69·7% (95% CI 66·2-73·0). Event-free survival at 2 years was 77·0% (95% CI 72·1-82·9) in the 257 patients with an optimum intravenous busulfan AUC of 78-101 mg × h/L compared with 66·1% (60·9-71·4) in the 235 patients at the low historical target of 58-86 mg × h/L and 49·5% (29·2-66·0) in the 44 patients with a high (>101 mg × h/L) busulfan AUC (p=0·011). Compared with the low AUC group, graft failure or relapse occurred less frequently in the optimum AUC group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·57, 95% CI 0·39-0·84; p=0·0041). Acute toxicity (HR 1·69, 1·12-2·57; p=0·013) and transplantation-related mortality (2·99, 1·82-4·92; p<0·0001) were significantly higher in the high AUC group (>101 mg × h/L) than in the low AUC group (<78 mg × h/L), independent of indication; no difference was noted between AUC groups for chronic GvHD (<78 mg × h/L vs ≥78 mg × h/L, HR 1·30, 95% CI 0·73-2·33; p=0·37). INTERPRETATION: Improved clinical outcomes are likely to be achieved by targeting the busulfan AUC to 78-101 mg × h/L using a new validated pharmacokinetic model for all indications. FUNDING: Research Allocation Program and the UCSF Helen Friller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Mt Zion Health Fund of the University of California, San Francisco.


Assuntos
Área Sob a Curva , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Bussulfano/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(3): 195-203, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931784

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Complete interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γR1) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency causing predisposition to severe infection due to intracellular pathogens. Only 36 cases have been reported worldwide. The purpose of this article is to describe a large novel deletion found in 3 related cases, which resulted in the complete removal of the IFNGR1 gene. METHODS: Whole blood from three patients was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFN-γ to determine production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-12 p40 (IL-12p40) and IL-10. Expression of IFN-γR1 on the cell membrane of patients' monocytes was assessed using flow cytometry. IFNGR1 transcript was analyzed in RNA and the gene and adjacent regions were analyzed in DNA. Finally, IL22RA2 transcript levels were analyzed in whole blood cells and dendritic cells. RESULTS: There was no expression of the IFN-γR1 on the monocytes. Consistent with this finding, there was no IFN-γ response in the whole blood assay as measured by effect on LPS-induced IL-12p40, TNF and IL-10 production. A 119.227 nt homozygous deletion on chromosome 6q23.3 was identified, removing the IFNGR1 gene completely and ending 117 nt upstream of the transcription start of the IL22RA2 gene. Transcript levels of IL22RA2 were similar in patient and control. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the first large genomic deletion of IFNGR1 causing complete IFN-γR1 deficiency. Despite the deletion ending very close to the IL22RA2 gene, it does not appear to affect IL22RA2 transcription and, therefore, may not have any additional clinical consequence.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Infecções Oportunistas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Adulto , Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Sanguíneas/imunologia , Células Sanguíneas/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Homozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , Receptores de Interferon/deficiência , Receptores de Interferon/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcrição Genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
14.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 55(5): 902-10, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26867732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the genotype-phenotype association in patients with adenosine deaminase-2 (ADA2) deficiency due to identical homozygous R169Q mutations inCECR1 METHODS: We present a case series of nine ADA2-deficient patients with an identical homozygous R169Q mutation. Clinical and diagnostic data were collected and available MRI studies were reviewed. We performed genealogy and haplotype analyses and measured serum ADA2 activity. ADA2 activity values were correlated to clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Age of presentation differed widely between the nine presented patients (range: 0 months to 8 years). The main clinical manifestations were (hepato)splenomegaly (8/9), skin involvement (8/9) and neurological involvement (8/9, of whom 6 encountered stroke). Considerable variation was seen in type, frequency and intensity of other symptoms, which included aplastic anaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and cutaneous ulcers. Common laboratory abnormalities included cytopenias and hypogammaglobulinaemia. ADA2 enzyme activity in patients was significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. ADA2 activity levels tended to be lower in patients with stroke compared with patients without stroke. Genealogical studies did not identify a common ancestor; however, based on allele frequency, a North-West European founder effect can be noted. Three patients underwent haematopoietic cell transplantation, after which ADA2 activity was restored and clinical symptoms resolved. CONCLUSION: This case series revealed large phenotypic variability in patients with ADA2 deficiency though they were homozygous for the same R169Q mutation inCECR1 Disease modifiers, including epigenetic and environmental factors, thus seem important in determining the phenotype. Furthermore, haematopoietic cell transplantation appears promising for those patients with a severe clinical phenotype.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/deficiência , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/deficiência , Mutação , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/sangue , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Haplótipos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/tratamento farmacológico
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 137(2): 517-526.e3, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26441229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents congenital disorders characterized by a deficiency of T cells caused by arrested development in the thymus. Yet the nature of these developmental blocks has remained elusive because of the difficulty of taking thymic biopsy specimens from affected children. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the stages of arrest in human T-cell development caused by various major types of SCID. METHODS: We performed transplantation of SCID CD34(+) bone marrow stem/progenitor cells into an optimized NSG xenograft mouse model, followed by detailed phenotypic and molecular characterization using flow cytometry, immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor spectratyping, and deep sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) and T-cell receptor δ (TRD) loci. RESULTS: Arrests in T-cell development caused by mutations in IL-7 receptor α (IL7RA) and IL-2 receptor γ (IL2RG) were observed at the most immature thymocytes much earlier than expected based on gene expression profiling of human thymocyte subsets and studies with corresponding mouse mutants. T-cell receptor rearrangements were functionally required at the CD4(-)CD8(-)CD7(+)CD5(+) stage given the developmental block and extent of rearrangements in mice transplanted with Artemis-SCID cells. The xenograft model used is not informative for adenosine deaminase-SCID, whereas hypomorphic mutations lead to less severe arrests in development. CONCLUSION: Transplanting CD34(+) stem cells from patients with SCID into a xenograft mouse model provides previously unattainable insight into human T-cell development and functionally identifies the arrest in thymic development caused by several SCID mutations.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/etiologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Imunofenotipagem , Células Progenitoras Linfoides/citologia , Células Progenitoras Linfoides/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timo/embriologia
16.
Lancet Haematol ; 2(5): e194-203, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26688094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) was introduced into the conditioning regimen in haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to prevent graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) and graft failure. However, ATG can also cause delayed immune reconstitution of donor T cells. We studied the relation between exposure to active ATG and clinical outcomes in children. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all patients (age 0·2-23 years) receiving their first HCT between April 1, 2004, and April 1, 2012, who received ATG (thymoglobulin) in two Dutch paediatric HCT programmes were included. The cumulative dose of ATG was chosen according to local protocols and was given intravenously over 4 days consecutively. ATG exposure measures (maximum concentration, concentration at time of HCT, clearance, days to reach a concentration below the lympholytic concentration of one arbitrary unit [AU] per mL, total area under the curve [AUC], AUC before HCT, and AUC after HCT) were calculated using a validated population pharmacokinetic model. The main outcome of interest was immune reconstitution (defined as CD4+ T cells >0·05 × 10(9) cells per L in two consecutive measurements within 100 days). Other outcomes of interest were survival, acute and chronic GvHD, and graft failure. We used Cox proportional hazard models, logistic regression models, and Fine-Gray competing risk regressions for analyses. FINDINGS: 251 patients were included. The chance of successful immune reconstitution decreased as the ATG AUC after HCT increased (odds ratio 0·991, 95% CI 0·987-0·996; p<0·0001). Within the cord blood group, we noted decreased immune reconstitution above the lowest AUC quartile (≥ 20 AU × day/mL; p=0·0024), whereas in the bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell group, decreased immune reconstitution was noted only in the highest quartile (≥ 100 AU × day/mL; p=0·0024). Successful immune reconstitution by day 100 was associated with increased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·49, 95% CI 0·29-0·81; p=0·0047) caused by reduced non-relapse mortality (0·40, 0·21-0·77; p=0·0062), and relapse-related mortality in myeloid leukaemia (0·25, 0·08-0·76; p=0·015). An AUC before transplantation of at least 40 AU × day/mL resulted in a lower incidence of acute GvHD (grade 2-4 HR 0·979, 95% CI 0·963-0·994; p=0·0081; and grade 3-4 0·975, 0·952-0·998; p=0·033), chronic GvHD (0·983, 0·968-0·998; p=0·029), and graft failure (0·981, 0·965-0·997; p=0·020) compared with an AUC of less than 40 AU × day/mL. INTERPRETATION: These results stress the importance of improving the efficacy and safety of ATG in HCT by amending dosage and timing. Individualised dosing and timing of ATG to aim for optimum exposure before and after HCT could result in improved outcomes after paediatric HCT. FUNDING: Dutch Organization for Scientific Research.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 34(10): 1118-27, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: To study clinical symptoms, timing and consequences of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation after pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), HHV-6 was investigated by plasma polymerase chain reaction in a cohort of 106 pediatric SCT recipients. RESULTS: HHV-6 viremia was detected post-SCT in 48% of the patients with a median time of onset at 20 days after SCT. In week 3 and 4 post-SCT, HHV-6 is the most common infectious agent detected. In up to 30% of the patients with fever of unknown origin, HHV-6 was the only detected infectious agent to explain fever. Patients transplanted with an unrelated donor or receiving serotherapy were at increased risk of HHV-6 reactivation. The onset of HHV-6 reactivation coincided with the appearance of lymphocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood. Treatment with alemtuzumab (MabCampath) delayed both lymphocyte and monocyte engraftment and, concomitantly, onset of HHV-6 reactivation was delayed in those cases. HHV-6 reactivation was not associated with an increased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). However, progression to grade II-IV GvHD was in 9 of 10 patients associated with HHV-6 reactivation before GvHD (P = 0.006) and HHV-6 was the only infection with such an association. CONCLUSIONS: HHV-6 frequently reactivates after pediatric SCT around the time of mononuclear cell engraftment and is associated with an increased severity of GvHD. HHV-6 may explain fever of unknown origin in 30% of the patients early after SCT. Assessment of HHV-6 reactivation in patients early after SCT can be instrumental for clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Herpesvirus Humano 6 , Infecções por Roseolovirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exantema , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/complicações , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Leucócitos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Roseolovirus/complicações , Infecções por Roseolovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Roseolovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Roseolovirus/virologia , Viremia , Ativação Viral , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 30(8): 1367-70, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26054711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX) has recently been introduced as a second-line therapy for nephrotic syndrome in children. Studies show that RTX given during the nephrotic state may be less effective than treatment during a non-nephrotic state, possibly due to loss of RTX in the urine. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We describe a 10-year-old boy with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) treated with RTX during a phase of active non-selective proteinuria. The serum half-life of RTX in this patient was less than 1 day compared to 20 days in patients without protein losses. Urinary clearance was at least 25 %, compared to approximately 0 % in control patients. However, RTX loss in the urine, as well as in pleural effusion and ascites, only partly explains the rapid drop in the serum RTX concentration of this patient. CONCLUSIONS: Serum half-life of RTX can be extremely short, partly due to excessive urinary losses in therapy-resistant nephrotic syndrome with non-selective proteinuria, as seen in our patient. These findings may help to explain the poor results of RTX treatment in patients with active proteinuria.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacocinética , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/farmacocinética , Criança , Resistência a Medicamentos , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
19.
Eur J Pediatr ; 174(9): 1183-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25875249

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is a fatal primary immunodeficiency usually presenting in the first months of life with (opportunistic) infections, diarrhea, and failure to thrive. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and gene therapy (GT) are curative treatment options. The objective of the study was to assess the morbidity, mortality, and diagnostic and therapeutic delay in children with SCID in the Netherlands in the last 15 years. These data may help to judge whether SCID should be considered to be included in our national neonatal screening program. In the period 1998-2013, 43 SCID patients were diagnosed in the Netherlands, 11 of whom were atypical SCID (presentation beyond the first year). The median interval between the first symptom and diagnosis was 2 months (range 0-1173 months). The total mortality was 42 %. In total, 32 patients were treated with HSCT of whom 8 were deceased. Nine patients died due to severe infectious complications before curative treatment could be initiated. CONCLUSION: Because of a high mortality of patients with SCID before HSCT could be initiated, only a national newborn screening program and pre-emptive HSCT or GT will be able to improve survival of these patients. "WHAT IS KNOWN": • SCID is a fatal disease if a curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation cannot be performed in time. • Newborn screening for SCID enables early diagnosis in the asymptomatic phase. "WHAT IS NEW": • Nine out of 43 SCID patients in the Netherlands died due to severe infectious complications before curative treatment could be initiated. • Only newborn screening and pre-emptive curative therapy will improve survival of children with SCID in the Netherlands.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Previsões , Terapia Genética/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 21(2): 293-9, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25464118

RESUMO

Cidofovir is frequently used to treat life-threatening human adenovirus (HAdV) infections in immunocompromised children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, the antiviral effect irrespective of T cell reconstitution remains unresolved. Plasma HAdV DNA levels were monitored by real-time quantitative PCR during 42 cidofovir treatment episodes for HAdV viremia in 36 pediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients. HAdV load dynamics were related to T and natural killer (NK) cell reconstitution measured by flow cytometry. To evaluate the in vivo antiadenoviral effect of cidofovir, we focused on 20 cidofovir treatment episodes lacking concurrent T cell reconstitution. During 2 to 10 weeks of follow-up in the absence of T cells, HAdV load reduction (n = 7) or stabilization (n = 8) was observed in 15 of 20 treatments. Although HAdV load reduction was always accompanied by NK cell expansion, HAdV load stabilization was measured in 2 children lacking both T and NK cell reconstitution. In cases with T cell reconstitution, rapid HAdV load reduction (n = 14) or stabilization (n = 6) was observed in 20 of 22 treatments. In the absence of T cells, cidofovir treatment was associated with HAdV viremia control in the majority of cases. Although the contribution of NK cells cannot be excluded, cidofovir has the potential to mediate HAdV load stabilization in the time pending T cell reconstitution.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Citosina/análogos & derivados , DNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Organofosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/imunologia , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/patologia , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenovírus Humanos/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidofovir , Estudos de Coortes , Citosina/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Depleção Linfocítica , Masculino , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transplante Homólogo , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Viremia/imunologia , Viremia/patologia , Viremia/virologia
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