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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies to determine whether sitting time measured objectively (by laboratory controlled time trial, direct observation, or wearable sensor) is associated with the immediate increase in low back pain (LBP) (determined by pain scale rating) in people >18 years of age. METHODS: Four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched from inception to September 1, 2018. Randomized controlled trials and cohort and cross-sectional studies, where objectively measured sitting time was temporally matched with a measure of LBP in adults, were included. Studies without a control session conducted on a separate day were excluded. Screening, full-text review, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment (Quality In Prognosis Studies) of included papers were performed independently by 2 reviewers, with a third available to resolve disagreements. RESULTS: In total, 609 articles were identified, 361 titles/abstracts were screened,75 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 10 met the inclusion criteria. All but 1 reported sitting time to be associated with an immediate increase in LBP. Six of these reported clinically relevant pain levels (n = 330). Half of the included studies were rated as having a low risk of bias and the remaining were rated as having a moderate risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Prolonged sitting increases immediate reporting of LBP in adults; however, no conclusion between sitting and clinical episodes of LBP can be made. Based upon these findings, we recommend that future prospective studies should match objectively measured sitting with temporally related pain measurements to determine whether prolonged sitting can trigger a clinical episode of LBP.

2.
J Biomech ; : 109603, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964520

RESUMO

Continuous dynamic multi-segmental studies of lumbar motion have added depth to our understanding of the biomechanics of back pain, but few have attempted to continuously measure the proportions of motion accepted by individual levels. This study attempted to compare the motion contributions of adjacent lumbar levels during an active weight bearing flexion and return protocol in chronic, non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) patients and controls using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF). Eight CNSLBP patients received QF during guided standing lumbar flexion. Dynamic motion sharing of segments from L2 to S1 were calculated and analysed for interactions between levels. Eight asymptomatic controls were then matched to the 8 patients for age and sex and their motion sharing patterns compared. Share of intersegmental motion was found to be consistently highest at L2-L3 and L3-L4 and lowest at L5-S1 throughout the motion in both groups, with the exception of maximum flexion where L4-L5 received the greatest share. Change in motion sharing occurred throughout the flexion and return motion paths in both participant groups but tended to vary more at L4-L5 in patients (p < 0.05). In patients, L5-S1 provided less angular range (p < 0.05) and contributed less at maximum bend (p < 0.05), while L3-L4, on average over the bending sequence, provided a greater share of motion (p < 0.05). Intervertebral motion sharing inequality is therefore a normal feature during lumbar flexion. However, in patients, inequality was more pronounced, and variability of motion share at some levels increased. These effects may result from differences in muscular contraction or in the mechanical properties of the disc.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19253, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848427

RESUMO

Low back pain patients are sometimes offered fusion surgery if intervertebral translation, measured from static, end of range radiographs exceeds 3 mm. However, it is essential to know the measurement error of such methods, if selection for back surgery is going to be informed by them. Fifty-five healthy male (34) and female (21) pain free participants aged 21-80 years received quantitative fluoroscopic (QF) imaging both actively during standing and passively in the lateral decubitus position. The following five imaging protocols were extracted from 2 motion examinations, which were repeated 6 weeks apart: 1. Static during upright free bending. 2. Maximum during controlled upright bending, 3. At the end of controlled upright bending, 4. Maximum during controlled recumbent bending, 5. At the end of controlled recumbent bending. Intervertebral flexion translations from L2-S1 were determined for each protocol and their measurement errors (intra subject repeatability) calculated. Estimations using static, free bending radiographic images gave measurement errors of up to 4 mm, which was approximately twice that of the QF protocols. Significantly higher ranges at L4-5 and L5-S1 were obtained from the static protocol compared with the QF protocols. Weight bearing ranges at these levels were also significantly higher in males regardless of the protocol. Clinical decisions based on sagittal translations of less than 4 mm would therefore require QF imaging.

4.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther ; 42(2): 89-95, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the threshold at which clinicians can detect a difference in spinal stiffness of the thoracic and lumbar spine via palpation and then determine if this detection threshold would affect a clinician's ability to identify changes in spinal stiffness as measured by an objective instrument. METHODS: In this study, the threshold at which a change in spinal stiffness was detected was quantified in 12 experienced clinicians (physical therapists and doctors of chiropractic) by changing the differential stiffness in 2 inflatable targets until the clinician could no longer identify which was stiffer. In the second part of the study, clinicians then were asked to palpate pre-identified pairs of vertebrae in an asymptomatic volunteer and to identify the stiffer of the pair (T7 and L3, T7 and L4, L3 and L4), and the biomechanical stiffness of each vertebral pair was quantified objectively by a validated instrument. RESULTS: The mean stiffness detection threshold for the clinicians was 8%. Objective measurement of the stiffness differential between vertebral pairs was 30% for T7* and L3, 20% for T7* and L4, and 10% for L3* and L4 (*denotes the stiffer of the pair). Ten of 12 clinicians correctly identified T7 as stiffer when compared with L3 and T7 as stiffer than L4. Alternatively, when the differential vertebral pair stiffness was similar to the stiffness detection threshold (~8%), clinicians were less successful in identifying the stiffer vertebra of the pair; 4 of 12 clinicians correctly identified L3 as being stiffer compared with L4. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the physiological limits of human palpation may limit the ability of clinicians to identify small alterations in spine stiffness.

5.
Eur Spine J ; 28(2): 450-460, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535658

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In vivo quantification of intervertebral motion through imaging has progressed to a point where biomarkers for low back pain are emerging. This makes possible deeper study of the condition's biometrics. However, the measurement of change over time involves error. The purpose of this prospective investigation is to determine the intrasubject repeatability of six in vivo intervertebral motion parameters using quantitative fluoroscopy. METHODS: Intrasubject reliability (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC) of baseline to 6-week follow-up measurements were calculated for six lumbar spine intervertebral motion parameters in 109 healthy volunteers. A standardised quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) protocol was used to provide measurements in the coronal and sagittal planes using both passive recumbent and active weight-bearing motion. Parameters were: intervertebral range of motion (IV-RoM), laxity, motion sharing inequality (MSI), motion sharing variability (MSV), flexion translation and anterior disc height change during flexion. RESULTS: The best overall intrasubject reliability (ICC) and agreement (MDC) were for disc height (ICC 0.89, MDC 43%) and IV-RoM (ICC 0.96, MDC 60%), and the worst for MSV (ICC 0.04, MDC 408%). Laxity, MSI and translation had acceptable reliability (most ICCs > 0.60), but not agreement (MDC > 85%). CONCLUSION: Disc height and IV-RoM measurement using QF could be considered for randomised trials, while laxity, MSI and translation could be considered for moderators, correlates or mediators of patient-reported outcomes. MSV had both poor reliability and agreement over 6 weeks. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

6.
Eur Spine J ; 27(11): 2831-2839, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926209

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intervertebral kinematic assessments have been used to investigate mechanical causes when back pain is resistant to treatment, and recent studies have identified intervertebral motion markers that discriminate patients from controls. However, such patients are a heterogeneous group, some of whom have structural disruption, but the effects of this on intervertebral kinematics are unknown. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with treatment-resistant back pain referred for quantitative fluoroscopy were matched to an equal number of pain-free controls for age and sex. All received passive recumbent flexion assessments for intervertebral motion sharing inequality (MSI), variability (MSV), laxity and translation. Comparisons were made between patient subgroups, between patients and controls and against normative levels from a separate group of controls. RESULTS: Eleven patients had had surgical or interventional procedures, and ten had spondylolisthesis or pars defects. Sixteen had no disruption. Patients had significantly higher median MSI values (0.30) than controls (0.27, p = 0.010), but not MSV (patients 0.08 vs controls 0.08, p = 0.791). Patients who received invasive procedures had higher median MSI values (0.37) than those with bony defects (0.30, p = 0.018) or no disruption (0.28, p = 0.0007). Laxity and translation above reference limits were not more prevalent in patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with treatment-resistant nonspecific back pain have greater MSI values than controls, especially if the former have received spinal surgery. However, excessive laxity, translation and MSV are not more prevalent in these patients. Thus, MSI should be investigated as a pain mechanism and for its possible value as a prognostic factor and/or target for treatment in larger patient populations. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Dor Lombar/complicações , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Dor Lombar/terapia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espondilolistese
7.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 26: 5, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29441194

RESUMO

In an evidence-based health care environment, healthcare professions require a sustainable research culture to remain relevant. At present however, there is not a mature research culture across the chiropractic profession largely due to deficiencies in research capacity and leadership, which may be caused by a lack of chiropractic teaching programs in major universities. As a response to this challenge the Chiropractic Academy for Research Leadership, CARL, was created with the aim of develop a global network of successful early-career chiropractic researchers under the mentorship of three successful senior academics from Australia, Canada, and Denmark. The program centres upon an annual week-long program residential that rotates continental locations over the first three-year cycle and between residentials the CARL fellows work on self-initiated research and leadership initiatives. Through a competivite application process, the first cohort was selected and consists of 13 early career researchers from five professions in seven countries who represent diverse areas of interests of high relevance for chiropractic. The first residential was held in Odense, Denmark, with the second being planned in April 2018 in Edmonton, Canada, and the final residential to be held in Sydney, Australia in 2019.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Quiroprática/educação , Terapias Complementares/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Austrália , Canadá , Quiroprática/tendências , Terapias Complementares/tendências , Comportamento Cooperativo , Dinamarca , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Liderança , Mentores
8.
Eur Spine J ; 27(1): 145-153, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28555313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence of intervertebral mechanical markers in chronic, non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) is lacking. This research used dynamic fluoroscopic studies to compare intervertebral angular motion sharing inequality and variability (MSI and MSV) during continuous lumbar motion in CNSLBP patients and controls. Passive recumbent and active standing protocols were used and the relationships of these variables to age and disc degeneration were assessed. METHODS: Twenty patients with CNSLBP and 20 matched controls received quantitative fluoroscopic lumbar spine examinations using a standardised protocol for data collection and image analysis. Composite disc degeneration (CDD) scores comprising the sum of Kellgren and Lawrence grades from L2-S1 were obtained. Indices of intervertebral motion sharing inequality (MSI) and variability (MSV) were derived and expressed in units of proportion of lumbar range of motion from outward and return motion sequences during lying (passive) and standing (active) lumbar bending and compared between patients and controls. Relationships between MSI, MSV, age and CDD were assessed by linear correlation. RESULTS: MSI was significantly greater in the patients throughout the intervertebral motion sequences of recumbent flexion (0.29 vs. 0.22, p = 0.02) and when flexion, extension, left and right motion were combined to give a composite measure (1.40 vs. 0.92, p = 0.04). MSI correlated substantially with age (R = 0.85, p = 0.004) and CDD (R = 0.70, p = 0.03) in lying passive investigations in patients and not in controls. There were also substantial correlations between MSV and age (R = 0.77, p = 0.01) and CDD (R = 0.85, p = 0.004) in standing flexion in patients and not in controls. CONCLUSION: Greater inequality and variability of motion sharing was found in patients with CNSLBP than in controls, confirming previous studies and suggesting a biomechanical marker for the disorder at intervertebral level. The relationship between disc degeneration and MSI was augmented in patients, but not in controls during passive motion and similarly for MSV during active motion, suggesting links between in vivo disc mechanics and pain generation.


Assuntos
Fluoroscopia/métodos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/fisiopatologia , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disco Intervertebral/fisiopatologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther ; 41(9): 734-752, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the correlations between individual characteristics and spinal stiffness as measured with different spinal stiffness measurement devices in individuals with and without back pain. METHODS: A secondary analysis of 3 adult data sets obtained using 3 different devices, in 2 spinal regions, from a total of 5 separate cross-sectional studies was conducted. Differences in spinal stiffness between men and women and in the strength of correlations among spinal stiffness and age and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated using either the t test for independent samples, Pearson's correlation coefficient, or Kendall's τ rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: As expected, results varied between data sets; however, few factors had consistent correlations. Specifically, spinal stiffness was significantly lower in women than men in all 3 data sets. Height was positively correlated with spinal stiffness across all data sets. Although weight was correlated with thoracic stiffness, its correlation with lumbar stiffness varied. In 2 data sets, body mass index was inversely associated with lumbar spinal stiffness, whereas results from the thoracic spine region revealed a positive correlation. The results for 1 data set suggest that physiological measurement evaluating body weight distribution may also affect spinal stiffness; however, the specific correlation remains unclear. CONCLUSION: Despite data set differences, significant correlations were observed, indicating that participants' characteristics appear to affect spinal stiffness measurement.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Região Lombossacral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Med Eng Phys ; 38(7): 607-614, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27129784

RESUMO

Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) was developed to measure intervertebral mechanics in vivo and has been found to have high repeatability and accuracy for the measurement of intervertebral rotations. However, sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation (FCR) are potential measures of stability but have not yet been fully validated for current QF. This study investigated the repeatability and accuracy of QF for measuring these variables. Repeatability was assessed from L2-S1 in 20 human volunteers. Accuracy was investigated using 10 consecutive measurements from each of two pairs of linked and instrumented dry human vertebrae as reference; one which tilted without translation and one which translated without tilt. The results found intra- and inter-observer repeatability for translation to be 1.1mm or less (SEM) with fair to substantial reliability (ICC 0.533-0.998). Intra-observer repeatability of FCR location for inter-vertebral rotations of 5° and above ranged from 1.5mm to 1.8mm (SEM) with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.626-0.988). Inter-observer repeatability for FCR ranged from 1.2mm to 5.7mm, also with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.621-0.878). Reliability was substantial (ICC>0.81) for 10/16 measures for translation and 5/8 for FCR location. Accuracy for translation was 0.1mm (fixed centre) and 2.2mm (moveable centre), with an FCR error of 0.3mm(x) and 0.4mm(y) (fixed centre). This technology was found to have a high level of accuracy and with a few exceptions, moderate to substantial repeatability for the measurement of translation and FCR from fluoroscopic motion sequences.


Assuntos
Fluoroscopia/métodos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Rotação , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 23: 28, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26430509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumbar segmental instability is often considered to be a cause of chronic low back pain. However, defining its measurement has been largely limited to laboratory studies. These have characterised segmental stability as the intrinsic resistance of spine specimens to initial bending moments by quantifying the dynamic neutral zone. However these measurements have been impossible to obtain in vivo without invasive procedures, preventing the assessment of intervertebral stability in patients. Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF), measures the initial velocity of the attainment of intervertebral rotational motion in patients, which may to some extent be representative of the dynamic neutral zone. This study sought to explore the possible relationship between the dynamic neutral zone and intervertebral rotational attainment rate as measured with (QF) in an in vitro preparation. The purpose was to find out if further work into this concept is worth pursuing. METHOD: This study used passive recumbent QF in a multi-segmental porcine model. This assessed the intrinsic intervertebral responses to a minimal coronal plane bending moment as measured with a digital force guage. Bending moments about each intervertebral joint were calculated and correlated with the rate at which global motion was attained at each intervertebral segment in the first 10° of global motion where the intervertebral joint was rotating. RESULTS: Unlike previous studies of single segment specimens, a neutral zone was found to exist during lateral bending. The initial attainment rates for left and right lateral flexion were comparable to previously published in vivo values for healthy controls. Substantial and highly significant levels of correlation between initial attainment rate and neutral zone were found for left (Rho = 0.75, P = 0.0002) and combined left-right bending (Rho = 0.72, P = 0.0001) and moderate ones for right alone (Rho = 0.55, P = 0.0012). CONCLUSIONS: This study found good correlation between the initial intervertebral attainment rate and the dynamic neutral zone, thereby opening the possibility to detect segmental instability from clinical studies. However the results must be treated with caution. Further studies with multiple specimens and adding sagittal plane motion are warranted.

12.
Spine J ; 13(3): 224-6, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23537450

RESUMO

In the following perspective article, Mellor and Breen provide a counterpoint to a previous perspective on the potential link between ionizing radiation exposure and intervertebral disc degeneration in humans [1]. The previous perspective asked, is this link a myth or reality? It suggested the potential for such a link. Mellor and Breen offer a drastically alternate view, in essence, that the question itself is flawed. To support their perspective, they explain the different units of radiation measurement and their conversion to risk in humans and how this impacts the previous perspective. They explain the variable sensitivity of different body tissues to radiation and highlight that neither human research nor any of the multiple international regulatory agencies have ever suggested that the intervertebral disc is sensitive to radiation. Finally, they claim that it is impossible to predict with any certainty the effects of low-level radiation on the intervertebral discs.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Humanos
13.
Adv Orthop ; 2012: 802350, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22666606

RESUMO

Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) is an emerging technology for measuring intervertebral motion patterns to investigate problem back pain and degenerative disc disease. This International Forum was a networking event of three research groups (UK, US, Hong Kong), over three days in San Francisco in August 2009. Its aim was to reach a consensus on how best to record, analyse, and communicate QF information for research and clinical purposes. The Forum recommended that images should be acquired during regular trunk motion that is controlled for velocity and range, in order to minimise externally imposed variability as well as to correlate intervertebral motion with trunk motion. This should be done in both the recumbent passive and weight bearing active patient configurations. The main recommended outputs from QF were the true ranges of intervertebral rotation and translation, neutral zone laxity and the consistency of shape of the motion patterns. The main clinical research priority should initially be to investigate the possibility of mechanical subgroups of patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain by comparing their intervertebral motion patterns with those of matched healthy controls.

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