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1.
Brain ; 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065116

RESUMO

COVID-19 is associated with neurological complications including stroke, delirium and encephalitis. Furthermore, a post-viral syndrome dominated by neuropsychiatric symptoms is common, and is seemingly unrelated to COVID-19 severity. The true frequency and underlying mechanisms of neurological injury are unknown, but exaggerated host inflammatory responses appear to be a key driver of COVID-19 severity. We investigated the dynamics of, and relationship between, serum markers of brain injury (neurofilament light [NfL], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] and total tau) and markers of dysregulated host response (autoantibody production and cytokine profiles) in 175 patients admitted with COVID-19 and 45 patients with influenza. During hospitalisation, sera from patients with COVID-19 demonstrated elevations of NfL and GFAP in a severity-dependent manner, with evidence of ongoing active brain injury at follow-up 4 months later. These biomarkers were associated with elevations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the presence of autoantibodies to a large number of different antigens. Autoantibodies were commonly seen against lung surfactant proteins but also brain proteins such as myelin associated glycoprotein. Commensurate findings were seen in the influenza cohort. A distinct process characterised by elevation of serum total tau was seen in patients at follow-up, which appeared to be independent of initial disease severity and was not associated with dysregulated immune responses unlike NfL and GFAP. These results demonstrate that brain injury is a common consequence of both COVID-19 and influenza, and is therefore likely to be a feature of severe viral infection more broadly. The brain injury occurs in the context of dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, with no single pathogenic mechanism clearly responsible.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4801, 2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999215

RESUMO

Understanding how parents' cognitive and non-cognitive skills influence offspring education is essential for educational, family and economic policy. We use genetics (GWAS-by-subtraction) to assess a latent, broad non-cognitive skills dimension. To index parental effects controlling for genetic transmission, we estimate indirect parental genetic effects of polygenic scores on childhood and adulthood educational outcomes, using siblings (N = 47,459), adoptees (N = 6407), and parent-offspring trios (N = 2534) in three UK and Dutch cohorts. We find that parental cognitive and non-cognitive skills affect offspring education through their environment: on average across cohorts and designs, indirect genetic effects explain 36-40% of population polygenic score associations. However, indirect genetic effects are lower for achievement in the Dutch cohort, and for the adoption design. We identify potential causes of higher sibling- and trio-based estimates: prenatal indirect genetic effects, population stratification, and assortative mating. Our phenotype-agnostic, genetically sensitive approach has established overall environmental effects of parents' skills, facilitating future mechanistic work.


Assuntos
Herança Multifatorial , Irmãos , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo
4.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; : appineuropsych22010002, 2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872617

RESUMO

Encephalopathy, a common condition among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, can be a challenge to manage and negatively affect prognosis. While encephalopathy may present clinically as delirium, subsyndromal delirium, or coma and may be a result of systemic causes such as hypoxia, COVID-19 has also been associated with more prolonged encephalopathy due to less common but nevertheless severe complications, such as inflammation of the brain parenchyma (with or without cerebrovascular involvement), demyelination, or seizures, which may be disproportionate to COVID-19 severity and require specific management. Given the large number of patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection, even these relatively unlikely complications are increasingly recognized and are particularly important because they require specific management. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide pragmatic guidance on the management of COVID-19 encephalopathy through consensus agreement of the Global COVID-19 Neuro Research Coalition. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, medRxiv, and bioRxiv was conducted between January 1, 2020, and June 21, 2021, with additional review of references cited within the identified bibliographies. A modified Delphi approach was then undertaken to develop recommendations, along with a parallel approach to score the strength of both the recommendations and the supporting evidence. This review presents analysis of contemporaneous evidence for the definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of COVID-19 encephalopathy and practical guidance for clinical assessment, investigation, and both acute and long-term management.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(7): 1242-1254, 2022 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705101

RESUMO

Growth deviating from the norm during childhood has been associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity later in life. In this study, we examined whether polygenic scores (PGSs) for AN and BMI are associated with growth trajectories spanning the first two decades of life. AN PGSs and BMI PGSs were calculated for participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 8,654). Using generalized (mixed) linear models, we associated PGSs with trajectories of weight, height, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), lean mass index (LMI), and bone mineral density (BMD). Female participants with AN PGSs one standard deviation (SD) higher had, on average, 0.004% slower growth in BMI between the ages 6.5 and 24 years and a 0.4% slower gain in BMD between the ages 10 and 24 years. Higher BMI PGSs were associated with faster growth for BMI, FMI, LMI, BMD, and weight trajectories in both sexes throughout childhood. Female participants with both a high AN PGS and a low BMI PGS showed slower growth compared to those with both a low AN PGS and a low BMI PGS. We conclude that AN PGSs and BMI PGSs have detectable sex-specific effects on growth trajectories. Female participants with a high AN PGS and low BMI PGS likely constitute a high-risk group for AN, as their growth was slower compared to their peers with high PGSs on both traits. Further research is needed to better understand how the AN PGS and the BMI PGS co-influence growth during childhood and whether a high BMI PGS can mitigate the effects of a high AN PGS.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Obesidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nat Genet ; 54(5): 548-559, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513722

RESUMO

We interrogate the joint genetic architecture of 11 major psychiatric disorders at biobehavioral, functional genomic and molecular genetic levels of analysis. We identify four broad factors (neurodevelopmental, compulsive, psychotic and internalizing) that underlie genetic correlations among the disorders and test whether these factors adequately explain their genetic correlations with biobehavioral traits. We introduce stratified genomic structural equation modeling, which we use to identify gene sets that disproportionately contribute to genetic risk sharing. This includes protein-truncating variant-intolerant genes expressed in excitatory and GABAergic brain cells that are enriched for genetic overlap across disorders with psychotic features. Multivariate association analyses detect 152 (20 new) independent loci that act on the individual factors and identify nine loci that act heterogeneously across disorders within a factor. Despite moderate-to-high genetic correlations across all 11 disorders, we find little utility of a single dimension of genetic risk across psychiatric disorders either at the level of biobehavioral correlates or at the level of individual variants.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma , Genômica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Biologia Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
7.
Nat Neurosci ; 25(5): 543-554, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524137

RESUMO

Eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder) are a heterogeneous class of complex illnesses marked by weight and appetite dysregulation coupled with distinctive behavioral and psychological features. Our understanding of their genetics and neurobiology is evolving thanks to global cooperation on genome-wide association studies, neuroimaging, and animal models. Until now, however, these approaches have advanced the field in parallel, with inadequate cross-talk. This review covers overlapping advances in these key domains and encourages greater integration of hypotheses and findings to create a more unified science of eating disorders. We highlight ongoing and future work designed to identify implicated biological pathways that will inform staging models based on biology as well as targeted prevention and tailored intervention, and will galvanize interest in the development of pharmacologic agents that target the core biology of the illnesses, for which we currently have few effective pharmacotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Animais , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
8.
Curr Protoc ; 2(4): e373, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452565

RESUMO

The Illumina genotyping microarrays generate data in image format, which is processed by the platform-specific software GenomeStudio, followed by an array of complex bioinformatics analyses that rely on various software, different programming languages, and numerous dependencies to be installed and configured correctly. The entire process can be time-consuming, can lead to reproducibility errors, and can be a daunting task for bioinformaticians. To address this, we introduce the COPILOT protocol, which has been successfully used to transform raw Illumina genotype intensity data into high-quality analysis-ready data on tens of thousands of human patient samples that have been genotyped on a variety of Illumina genotyping arrays. This includes processing both mainstream and custom content genotyping chips with over 4 million markers per sample. The COPILOT QC protocol consists of two distinct tandem procedures to process raw Illumina genotyping data. The first protocol is an up-to-date process to systematically QC raw Illumina microarray genotyping data using the Illumina-specific GenomeStudio software. The second protocol takes the output from the first protocol and further processes the data through the COPILOT (Containerised wOrkflow for Processing ILlumina genOtyping daTa) containerized QC pipeline, to automate an array of complex bioinformatics analyses to improve data quality through a secondary clustering algorithm and to automatically identify typical Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) data issues, including gender discrepancies, heterozygosity outliers, related individuals, and population outliers, through ancestry estimation. The data is returned to the user in analysis-ready PLINK binary format and is accompanied by a comprehensive and interactive HTML summary report file which quickly helps the user understand the data and guides the user for further data analyses. The COPILOT protocol and containerized pipeline are also available at https://khp-informatics.github.io/COPILOT/index.html. © 2022 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Processing raw Illumina genotyping data using GenomeStudio Basic Protocol 2: COPILOT: A containerised workflow for processing Illumina genotyping data.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Nature ; 604(7906): 509-516, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396579

RESUMO

Rare coding variation has historically provided the most direct connections between gene function and disease pathogenesis. By meta-analysing the whole exomes of 24,248 schizophrenia cases and 97,322 controls, we implicate ultra-rare coding variants (URVs) in 10 genes as conferring substantial risk for schizophrenia (odds ratios of 3-50, P < 2.14 × 10-6) and 32 genes at a false discovery rate of <5%. These genes have the greatest expression in central nervous system neurons and have diverse molecular functions that include the formation, structure and function of the synapse. The associations of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor subunit GRIN2A and AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptor subunit GRIA3 provide support for dysfunction of the glutamatergic system as a mechanistic hypothesis in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We observe an overlap of rare variant risk among schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders1, epilepsy and severe neurodevelopmental disorders2, although different mutation types are implicated in some shared genes. Most genes described here, however, are not implicated in neurodevelopment. We demonstrate that genes prioritized from common variant analyses of schizophrenia are enriched in rare variant risk3, suggesting that common and rare genetic risk factors converge at least partially on the same underlying pathogenic biological processes. Even after excluding significantly associated genes, schizophrenia cases still carry a substantial excess of URVs, which indicates that more risk genes await discovery using this approach.


Assuntos
Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Esquizofrenia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética
10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-15, 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical, epidemiological, and genetic findings support an overlap between eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anxiety symptoms. However, little research has examined the role of genetics in the expression of underlying phenotypes. We investigated whether the anorexia nervosa (AN), OCD, or AN/OCD transdiagnostic polygenic scores (PGS) predict eating disorder, OCD, and anxiety symptoms in a large developmental cohort in a sex-specific manner. METHODS: Using summary statistics from Psychiatric Genomics Consortium AN and OCD genome-wide association studies, we conducted an AN/OCD transdiagnostic genome-wide association meta-analysis. We then calculated AN, OCD, and AN/OCD PGS in participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to predict eating disorder, OCD, and anxiety symptoms, stratified by sex (combined N = 3212-5369 per phenotype). RESULTS: The PGS prediction of eating disorder, OCD, and anxiety phenotypes differed between sexes, although effect sizes were small. AN and AN/OCD PGS played a more prominent role in predicting eating disorder and anxiety risk than OCD PGS, especially in girls. AN/OCD PGS provided a small boost over AN PGS in the prediction of some anxiety symptoms. All three PGS predicted higher compulsive exercise across different developmental timepoints [ß = 0.03 (s.e. = 0.01) for AN and AN/OCD PGS at age 14; ß = 0.05 (s.e. = 0.02) for OCD PGS at age 16] in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Compulsive exercise may have a transdiagnostic genetic etiology, and AN genetic risk may play a role in the presence of anxiety symptoms. Converging with prior twin literature, our results also suggest that some of the contribution of genetic risk may be sex-specific.

11.
PLoS Genet ; 18(3): e1010042, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239653

RESUMO

In November 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic death toll surpassed five million individuals. We applied Mendelian randomization including >3,000 blood proteins as exposures to identify potential biomarkers that may indicate risk for hospitalization or need for respiratory support or death due to COVID-19, respectively. After multiple testing correction, using genetic instruments and under the assumptions of Mendelian Randomization, our results were consistent with higher blood levels of five proteins GCNT4, CD207, RAB14, C1GALT1C1, and ABO being causally associated with an increased risk of hospitalization or respiratory support/death due to COVID-19 (ORs = 1.12-1.35). Higher levels of FAAH2 were solely associated with an increased risk of hospitalization (OR = 1.19). On the contrary, higher levels of SELL, SELE, and PECAM-1 decrease risk of hospitalization or need for respiratory support/death (ORs = 0.80-0.91). Higher levels of LCTL, SFTPD, KEL, and ATP2A3 were solely associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization (ORs = 0.86-0.93), whilst higher levels of ICAM-1 were solely associated with a decreased risk of respiratory support/death of COVID-19 (OR = 0.84). Our findings implicate blood group markers and binding proteins in both hospitalization and need for respiratory support/death. They, additionally, suggest that higher levels of endocannabinoid enzymes may increase the risk of hospitalization. Our research replicates findings of blood markers previously associated with COVID-19 and prioritises additional blood markers for risk prediction of severe forms of COVID-19. Furthermore, we pinpoint druggable targets potentially implicated in disease pathology.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Causalidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hospitalização , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 150: 34-39, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349796

RESUMO

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuroprotective molecule known to be involved in neuroplasticity, learning and memory. Additionally, it may mitigate the effects of inflammation on the brain. There is inconclusive evidence as to whether reductions in BDNF found in AN are related to features associated with the illness such as changes in inflammatory markers and comorbidities, and whether they persist after recovery. This cross-sectional study measured BDNF and 36 inflammatory markers in the serum of individuals recovered from AN (rec-AN; n = 24), with acute AN (n = 56), and healthy controls (n = 51). We (a) compared BDNF concentrations between AN, rec-AN and controls including four pre-determined covariates; (b) assessed the relationship between BDNF and body mass index, eating disorder (ED) psychopathology and depression; and (c) correlated BDNF with inflammatory markers, stratified by group. The AN group showed reductions in BDNF compared to controls and rec-AN. BDNF was negatively associated with depression and ED psychopathology in the whole sample, but not the AN sample. BDNF was positively correlated with three inflammatory markers in the control group (interleukin (IL)-8, Eotaxin-3, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) and negatively correlated with one (IL-16). The only pro-inflammatory marker associated with BDNF in the AN group was TNF-α, and no pro-inflammatory markers were associated with BDNF in the rec-AN group. These results indicate that BDNF serum concentrations may be a state marker of AN. In people with acute AN, BDNF levels seem to be linked to TNF-α signalling. However, BDNF concentrations do not appear to reflect AN symptom severity.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Citocinas , Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
13.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrospective self-reports of childhood trauma are associated with a greater risk of psychopathology in adulthood than prospective measures of trauma. Heritable reporter characteristics are anticipated to account for part of this association, whereby genetic predisposition to certain traits influences both the likelihood of self-reporting trauma and of developing psychopathology. However, previous research has not considered how gene-environment correlation influences these associations. AIMS: To investigate reporter characteristics associated with retrospective self-reports of childhood trauma and whether these associations are accounted for by gene-environment correlation. METHOD: In 3963 unrelated individuals from the Twins Early Development Study, we tested whether polygenic scores for 21 psychiatric, cognitive, anthropometric and personality traits were associated with retrospectively self-reported childhood emotional and physical abuse. To assess the presence of gene-environment correlation, we investigated whether these associations remained after controlling for composite scores of environmental adversity across development. RESULTS: Retrospectively self-reported childhood trauma was associated with polygenic scores for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), body mass index (BMI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and risky behaviours. When composite scores of environmental adversity were controlled for, only associations with the polygenic scores for ASD and PTSD remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic predisposition to ASD and PTSD may increase liability to experiencing or interpreting events as traumatic. Associations between genetic predisposition for risky behaviour and BMI with self-reported childhood trauma may reflect gene-environment correlation. Studies of the association between retrospectively self-reported childhood trauma and later-life outcomes should consider that genetically influenced reporter characteristics may confound associations, both directly and through gene-environment correlation.

14.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 30(3): 221-236, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorder (ED) symptoms are prevalent in the general population, but their shared genetic underpinnings with psychiatric, metabolic, and anthropometric traits are not known. Here, we examined if polygenic scores (PGSs) of traits associated with anorexia nervosa are also associated with adolescent ED symptoms in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). METHODS: A total of 8654 participants with genotype data and at least one phenotypic measure were included from the ALSPAC study. We associated PGS from 25 traits (16 psychiatric, 4 metabolic, and 5 anthropometric) with eight ED symptoms, including behaviours such as fasting for weight loss and cognitions such as body dissatisfaction. RESULTS: Higher attention deficit hyperactivity disorder PGS and lower educational attainment PGS were associated with fasting for weight loss. Higher insomnia PGS was associated with increased body dissatisfaction. We found no evidence of an association between metabolic trait PGS and any ED symptom. Fat-free mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage PGSs, were positively associated with binge eating, excessive exercise, fasting for weight loss, body dissatisfaction, and weight and shape concern. CONCLUSIONS: ED symptoms are genetically associated with psychiatric and anthropometric, but not with metabolic traits. Our findings provide insights for future genetic research investigating on why some individuals with ED symptoms progress to develop threshold EDs while others do not.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Herança Multifatorial
15.
Br J Psychiatry ; 220(1): 21-30, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted lives and livelihoods, and people already experiencing mental ill health may have been especially vulnerable. AIMS: Quantify mental health inequalities in disruptions to healthcare, economic activity and housing. METHOD: We examined data from 59 482 participants in 12 UK longitudinal studies with data collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Within each study, we estimated the association between psychological distress assessed pre-pandemic and disruptions since the start of the pandemic to healthcare (medication access, procedures or appointments), economic activity (employment, income or working hours) and housing (change of address or household composition). Estimates were pooled across studies. RESULTS: Across the analysed data-sets, 28% to 77% of participants experienced at least one disruption, with 2.3-33.2% experiencing disruptions in two or more domains. We found 1 s.d. higher pre-pandemic psychological distress was associated with (a) increased odds of any healthcare disruptions (odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% CI 1.20-1.40), with fully adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.24 (95% CI 1.09-1.41) for disruption to procedures to 1.33 (95% CI 1.20-1.49) for disruptions to prescriptions or medication access; (b) loss of employment (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.21) and income (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 -1.19), and reductions in working hours/furlough (odds ratio 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09) and (c) increased likelihood of experiencing a disruption in at least two domains (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.18-1.32) or in one domain (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.16), relative to no disruption. There were no associations with housing disruptions (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.03). CONCLUSIONS: People experiencing psychological distress pre-pandemic were more likely to experience healthcare and economic disruptions, and clusters of disruptions across multiple domains during the pandemic. Failing to address these disruptions risks further widening mental health inequalities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Atenção à Saúde , Habitação , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
J Anxiety Disord ; 85: 102491, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding and improving outcomes for people with anxiety or depression often requires large sample sizes. To increase participation and reduce costs, such research is typically unable to utilise "gold-standard" methods to ascertain diagnoses, instead relying on remote, self-report measures. AIMS: Assess the comparability of remote diagnostic methods for anxiety and depression disorders commonly used in research. METHOD: Participants from the UK-based GLAD and COPING NBR cohorts (N = 58,400) completed an online questionnaire between 2018 and 2020. Responses to detailed symptom reports were compared to DSM-5 criteria to generate symptom-based diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and agoraphobia. Participants also self-reported any prior diagnoses from health professionals, termed self-reported diagnoses. "Any anxiety" included participants with at least one anxiety disorder. Agreement was assessed by calculating accuracy, Cohen's kappa, McNemar's chi-squared, sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: Agreement between diagnoses was moderate for MDD, any anxiety, and GAD, but varied by cohort. Agreement was slight to fair for the phobic disorders. Many participants with self-reported GAD did not receive a symptom-based diagnosis. In contrast, symptom-based diagnoses of the phobic disorders were more common than self-reported diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Agreement for MDD, any anxiety, and GAD was higher for cases in the case-enriched GLAD cohort and for controls in the general population COPING NBR cohort. For anxiety disorders, self-reported diagnoses classified most participants as having GAD, whereas symptom-based diagnoses distributed participants more evenly across the anxiety disorders. Further validation against gold standard measures is required.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Autorrelato
17.
Brain Behav ; 12(1): e2430, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843176

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Educational attainment is a substantially heritable trait, and it has recently been linked to specific genetic variants by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, the effects of such genetic variants are expected to vary across environments, including countries and historical eras. METHODS: We used polygenic scores (PGSs) to assess molecular genetic effects on educational attainment in Hungary, a country in the Central Eastern European region where behavioral genetic studies are in general scarce and molecular genetic studies of educational attainment have not been previously published. RESULTS: We found that the PGS is significantly associated with the attainment of a college degree as well as the number of years in education in a sample of Hungarian study participants (N = 829). PGS effect sizes were not significantly different when compared to an English (N = 976) comparison sample with identical measurement protocols. In line with previous Estonian findings, we found higher PGS effect sizes in Hungarian, but not in English participants who attended higher education after the fall of Communism, although we lacked statistical power for this effect to reach significance. DISCUSSION: Our results provide evidence that polygenic scores for educational attainment have predictive value in culturally diverse European populations.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Escolaridade , Humanos , Hungria
18.
Biol Psychiatry ; 91(7): 626-636, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is heritable and a potential consequence of exposure to traumatic stress. Evidence suggests that a quantitative approach to PTSD phenotype measurement and incorporation of lifetime trauma exposure (LTE) information could enhance the discovery power of PTSD genome-wide association studies (GWASs). METHODS: A GWAS on PTSD symptoms was performed in 51 cohorts followed by a fixed-effects meta-analysis (N = 182,199 European ancestry participants). A GWAS of LTE burden was performed in the UK Biobank cohort (N = 132,988). Genetic correlations were evaluated with linkage disequilibrium score regression. Multivariate analysis was performed using Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS. Functional mapping and annotation of leading loci was performed with FUMA. Replication was evaluated using the Million Veteran Program GWAS of PTSD total symptoms. RESULTS: GWASs of PTSD symptoms and LTE burden identified 5 and 6 independent genome-wide significant loci, respectively. There was a 72% genetic correlation between PTSD and LTE. PTSD and LTE showed largely similar patterns of genetic correlation with other traits, albeit with some distinctions. Adjusting PTSD for LTE reduced PTSD heritability by 31%. Multivariate analysis of PTSD and LTE increased the effective sample size of the PTSD GWAS by 20% and identified 4 additional loci. Four of these 9 PTSD loci were independently replicated in the Million Veteran Program. CONCLUSIONS: Through using a quantitative trait measure of PTSD, we identified novel risk loci not previously identified using prior case-control analyses. PTSD and LTE have a high genetic overlap that can be leveraged to increase discovery power through multivariate methods.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética
19.
Schizophr Bull ; 48(1): 20-26, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987677

RESUMO

Ursini et al reported recently that the liability of schizophrenia explained by a polygenic risk score (PRS) derived from the variants most associated with schizophrenia was increased 5-fold in individuals who experienced complications during pregnancy or birth. Follow-up gene expression analysis showed that the genes mapping to the most associated genetic variants are highly expressed in placental tissues. If confirmed, these findings will have major implications in our understanding of the joint effect of genes and environment in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We examined the interplay between PRS and obstetric complications (OCs) in 5 independent samples (effective N = 2110). OCs were assessed with the full or modified Lewis-Murray scale, or with birth weight < 2.5 kg as a proxy. In a large cohort we tested whether the pathways from placenta-relevant variants in the original report were associated with case-control status. Unlike in the original study, we did not find significant effect of PRS on the presence of OCs in cases, nor a substantial difference in the association of PRS with case-control status in samples stratified by the presence of OCs. Furthermore, none of the PRS by OCs interactions were significant, nor were any of the biological pathways, examined in the Swedish cohort. Our study could not support the hypothesis of a mediating effect of placenta biology in the pathway from genes to schizophrenia. Methodology differences, in particular the different scales measuring OCs, as well as power constraints for interaction analyses in both studies, may explain this discrepancy.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Placenta/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Suécia/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Psychol Med ; 52(4): 726-736, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. This study aims to determine whether depression with atypical features shows different heritability and different degree of overlap with polygenic risk for psychiatric and immuno-metabolic traits than other depression subgroups. METHODS: Data included 30 069 European ancestry individuals from the UK Biobank who met criteria for lifetime major depression. Participants reporting both weight gain and hypersomnia were classified as ↑WS depression (N = 1854) and the others as non-↑WS depression (N = 28 215). Cases with non-↑WS depression were further classified as ↓WS depression (i.e. weight loss and insomnia; N = 10 142). Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for 22 traits were generated using genome-wide summary statistics (Bonferroni corrected p = 2.1 × 10-4). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of depression subgroups was estimated. RESULTS: ↑WS depression had a higher polygenic risk for BMI [OR = 1.20 (1.15-1.26), p = 2.37 × 10-14] and C-reactive protein [OR = 1.11 (1.06-1.17), p = 8.86 × 10-06] v. non-↑WS depression and ↓WS depression. Leptin PRS was close to the significance threshold (p = 2.99 × 10-04), but the effect disappeared when considering GWAS summary statistics of leptin adjusted for BMI. PRS for daily alcohol use was inversely associated with ↑WS depression [OR = 0.88 (0.83-0.93), p = 1.04 × 10-05] v. non-↑WS depression. SNP-based heritability was not significantly different between ↑WS depression and ↓WS depression (14.3% and 12.2%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ↑WS depression shows evidence of distinct genetic predisposition to immune-metabolic traits and alcohol consumption. These genetic signals suggest that biological targets including immune-cardio-metabolic pathways may be relevant to therapies in individuals with ↑WS depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Leptina , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Leptina/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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