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1.
Behav Res Ther ; 121: 103413, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491689

RESUMO

The majority of those who experience clinical anxiety and/or depressive symptoms in the population do not receive treatment. Studies investigating inequalities in treatment outcomes rarely consider that individuals respond differently to their experience of the environment. Much of our environment is under genetic influence, via our behaviour, whereby individuals actively select their experiences. If genes influence who seeks and receives treatment, selection bias will confound genomic studies of treatment response. Furthermore, if some individuals are at high genetic risk of needing but not commencing treatment, then greater efforts could be made to engage them. The role of common genetic variation on four lifetime treatment-seeking behaviours (treatment-seeking, treatment-receipt, self-help, self-medication with alcohol/drugs) was examined in participants of the UK Biobank (sample size range: 48,106 - 75,322). Treatment-related behaviours were only modestly heritable in these data. Nonetheless, genetic correlations reveal substantial genetic overlap between lifetime treatment-related behaviours and psychiatric disorders, symptoms and behavioural traits. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine genetic influences on treatment-related behaviours. Further work is required to determine whether genetic factors could be used alongside clinical, social and demographic factors to identify at risk groups and inform strategies which target early intervention.

2.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinically, anorexia nervosa (AN) presents with altered body composition. We quantified these alterations and evaluated their relationships with metabolites and hormones in patients with AN longitudinally. METHOD: In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we conducted 94 meta-analyses on 62 samples published during 1996-2019, comparing up to 2,319 pretreatment, posttreatment, and weight-recovered female patients with AN with up to 1,879 controls. Primary outcomes were fat mass, fat-free mass, body fat percentage, and their regional distribution. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral density, metabolites, and hormones. Meta-regressions examined relationships among those measures and moderators. RESULTS: Pretreatment female patients with AN evidenced 50% lower fat mass (mean difference [MD]: -8.80 kg, 95% CI: -9.81, -7.79, Q = 1.01 × 10-63 ) and 4.98 kg (95% CI: -5.85, -4.12, Q = 1.99 × 10-28 ) lower fat-free mass, with fat mass preferentially stored in the trunk region during early weight restoration (4.2%, 95% CI: -2.1, -6.2, Q = 2.30 × 10-4 ). While the majority of traits returned to levels seen in healthy controls after weight restoration, fat-free mass (MD: -1.27 kg, 95% CI: -1.79, -0.75, Q = 5.49 × 10-6 ) and bone mineral density (MD: -0.10 kg, 95% CI: -0.18, -0.03, Q = 0.01) remained significantly altered. DISCUSSION: Body composition is markedly altered in AN, warranting research into these phenotypes as clinical risk or relapse predictors. Notably, the long-term altered levels of fat-free mass and bone mineral density suggest that these parameters should be investigated as potential AN trait markers. RESUMENOBJETIVO: Clínicamente, la anorexia nervosa (AN) se presenta con alteraciones en la composición corporal. Cuantificamos estas alteraciones y evaluamos longitudinalmente su relación con metabolitos y hormonas en pacientes con AN. MÉTODO: De acuerdo con las pautas PRISMA, realizamos 94 meta-análisis en 62 muestras publicadas entre 1996-2019, comparando hasta 2,319 pacientes mujeres en pre-tratamiento, post-tratamiento, y recuperadas en base al peso con hasta 1,879 controles. Las principales medidas fueron masa grasa, masa libre de grasa, porcentaje de grasa corporal y su distribución regional. Las medidas secundarias fueron densidad mineral ósea, metabolitos y hormonas. Las meta-regresiones examinaron las relaciones entre esas medidas y moderadores. RESULTADOS: Las pacientes femeninas con AN pre-tratamiento mostraron un 50% menos de masa grasa (MD: -8.80 kg, CI 95%: -9.81, -7.79, Q = 1.01 × 10- 63 ) y 4.98 kg (CI 95%: -5.85, -4.12, Q = 1.99 × 10- 28 ) menos de masa libre de grasa, con masa grasa preferentemente almacenada en la región del tronco durante la recuperación temprana del peso (4.2%, CI 95%: -2.1, -6.2, Q = 2.30 × 10- 4 ). Aunque la mayoría de los rasgos regresaron a los niveles vistos en los controles sanos después de la restauración del peso, la masa libre de grasa (MD: -1.27 kg, CI 95%: -1.79, -0.75, Q = 5.49 × 10- 6 ) y la densidad mineral ósea (MD: -0.10 kg, CI 95%: -0.18, -0.03, Q = 0.01) permanecieron significativamente alteradas. DISCUSIÓN: La composición corporal es marcadamente alterada en la AN, lo que garantiza la investigación en estos fenotipos como predictores de riesgo clínico o de recaída. Notablemente, la alteración a largo plazo de los niveles de masa libre de grasa y densidad mineral ósea sugieren que estos parámetros debe ser investigados como potenciales rasgos indicadores de AN.

3.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; : e1796, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: For many research cohorts, it is not practical to provide a "gold-standard" mental health diagnosis. It is therefore important for mental health research that potential alternative measures for ascertaining mental disorder status are understood. METHODS: Data from UK Biobank in those participants who had completed the online Mental Health Questionnaire (n = 157,363) were used to compare the classification of mental disorder by four methods: symptom-based outcome (self-complete based on diagnostic interviews), self-reported diagnosis, hospital data linkage, and self-report medication. RESULTS: Participants self-reporting any psychiatric diagnosis had elevated risk of any symptom-based outcome. Cohen's κ between self-reported diagnosis and symptom-based outcome was 0.46 for depression, 0.28 for bipolar affective disorder, and 0.24 for anxiety. There were small numbers of participants uniquely identified by hospital data linkage and medication. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that ascertainment of mental disorder diagnosis in large cohorts such as UK Biobank is complex. There may not be one method of classification that is right for all circumstances, but an informed and transparent use of outcome measure(s) to suit each research question will maximise the potential of UK Biobank and other resources for mental health research.

5.
Science ; 364(6447): 1271-1274, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249056

RESUMO

The current obesity epidemic is a major worldwide health concern. Despite the consensus that the brain regulates energy homeostasis, the neural adaptations governing obesity are unknown. Using a combination of high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing and longitudinal in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, we surveyed functional alterations of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA)-a highly conserved brain region that orchestrates feeding-in a mouse model of obesity. The transcriptional profile of LHA glutamatergic neurons was affected by obesity, exhibiting changes indicative of altered neuronal activity. Encoding properties of individual LHA glutamatergic neurons were then tracked throughout obesity, revealing greatly attenuated reward responses. These data demonstrate how diet disrupts the function of an endogenous feeding suppression system to promote overeating and obesity.

6.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

7.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116379

RESUMO

Importance: Anxiety and stress-related disorders are among the most common mental disorders. Although family and twin studies indicate that both genetic and environmental factors play an important role underlying their etiology, the genetic underpinnings of anxiety and stress-related disorders are poorly understood. Objectives: To estimate the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of anxiety and stress-related disorders; to identify novel genetic risk variants, genes, or biological pathways; to test for pleiotropic associations with other psychiatric traits; and to evaluate the association of psychiatric comorbidities with genetic findings. Design, Setting, Participants: This genome-wide association study included individuals with various anxiety and stress-related diagnoses and controls derived from the population-based Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) study. Lifetime diagnoses of anxiety and stress-related disorders were obtained through the national Danish registers. Genes of interest were further evaluated in mice exposed to chronic social defeat. The study was conducted between June 2016 and November 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnoses of a relatively broad diagnostic spectrum of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Results: The study sample included 12 655 individuals with various anxiety and stress-related diagnoses and 19 225 controls. Overall, 17 740 study participants (55.6%) were women. A total of 7308 participants (22.9%) were born between 1981-1985, 8840 (27.7%) between 1986-1990, 8157 (25.6%) between 1991-1995, 5918 (18.6%) between 1996-2000, and 1657 (5.2%) between 2001-2005. Standard association analysis revealed variants in PDE4B to be associated with anxiety and stress-related disorder (rs7528604; P = 5.39 × 10-11; odds ratio = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92). A framework of sensitivity analyses adjusting for mental comorbidity supported this result showing consistent association of PDE4B variants with anxiety and stress-related disorder across analytical scenarios. In mouse models, alterations in Pde4b expression were observed in those mice displaying anxiety-like behavior after exposure to chronic stress in the prefrontal cortex (P = .002; t = -3.33) and the hippocampus (P = .001; t = -3.72). We also found a single-nucleotide polymorphism heritability of 28% (standard error = 0.027) and that the genetic signature of anxiety and stress-related overlapped with psychiatric traits, educational outcomes, obesity-related phenotypes, smoking, and reproductive success. Conclusions and Relevance: This study highlights anxiety and stress-related disorders as complex heritable phenotypes with intriguing genetic correlations not only with psychiatric traits, but also with educational outcomes and multiple obesity-related phenotypes. Furthermore, we highlight the candidate gene PDE4B as a robust risk locus pointing to the potential of PDE4B inhibitors in treatment of these disorders.

8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation has been proposed to have a pathophysiological role in anorexia nervosa (AN) and to contribute to the maintenance of the disorder. Longitudinal cytokine research in AN has focused on only a few pro-inflammatory cytokines. We assessed a broad range of cytokines over time in people undergoing specialised treatment for AN. METHOD: We measured serum concentrations of 27 cytokines in people with AN (n = 23). Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) symptoms and general psychopathology were assessed and blood samples were collected within four weeks of the commencement of specialised ED treatment (baseline) and at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. RESULTS: Both BMI and ED symptoms improved over the assessment period. Linear mixed models showed that log IL-6 decreased between baseline and week 12 assessments. By week 12, log IL-6 values were comparable to levels in healthy individuals. Log IL-7 increased from week 12 to week 24. DISCUSSION: Initially elevated IL-6 serum concentrations appear to 'normalize' during the first 3-months of specialised treatment for AN and this co-occurs with improvements in ED symptoms. Therefore, IL-6 has the potential to be a state biomarker for AN.

9.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 793-803, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043756

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Loci Gênicos , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Biologia de Sistemas
10.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(2): 120-130, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 5'-nucleotidase, cytosolic II gene (NT5C2, cN-II) is associated with disorders characterized by psychiatric and psychomotor disturbances. Common psychiatric risk alleles at the NT5C2 locus reduce expression of this gene in the fetal and adult brain, but downstream biological risk mechanisms remain elusive. METHODS: Distribution of the NT5C2 protein in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cortical human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) was determined using immunostaining, publicly available expression data, and reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Phosphorylation quantification of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) alpha (Thr172) and ribosomal protein S6 (Ser235/Ser236) was performed using Western blotting to infer the degree of activation of AMPK signaling and the rate of protein translation. Knockdowns were induced in hNPCs and Drosophila melanogaster using RNA interference. Transcriptomic profiling of hNPCs was performed using microarrays, and motility behavior was assessed in flies using the climbing assay. RESULTS: Expression of NT5C2 was higher during neurodevelopment and was neuronally enriched in the adult human cortex. Knockdown in hNPCs affected AMPK signaling, a major nutrient-sensing mechanism involved in energy homeostasis, and protein translation. Transcriptional changes implicated in protein translation were observed in knockdown hNPCs, and expression changes to genes related to AMPK signaling and protein translation were confirmed using reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The knockdown in Drosophila was associated with drastic climbing impairment. CONCLUSIONS: We provide an extensive neurobiological characterization of the psychiatric risk gene NT5C2, describing its previously unknown role in the regulation of AMPK signaling and protein translation in neural stem cells and its association with Drosophila melanogaster motility behavior.

11.
Schizophr Res ; 209: 88-97, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a condition influenced by an interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Gene expression studies can capture these interactions; however, studies are usually performed in patients who are in remission. This study uses blood of first episode psychosis patients, in order to characterise deregulated pathways associated with psychosis symptom dimensions. METHODS: Peripheral blood from 149 healthy controls and 131 first episode psychosis patients was profiled using Illumina HT-12 microarrays. A case/control differential expression analysis was performed, followed by correlation of gene expression with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores. Enrichment analyses were performed on the associated gene lists. We test for pathway differences between first episode psychosis patients who qualify for a Schizophrenia diagnosis against those who do not. RESULTS: A total of 978 genes were differentially expressed and enriched for pathways associated to immune function and the mitochondria. Using PANSS scores we found that positive symptom severity was correlated with immune function, while negative symptoms correlated with mitochondrial pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Our results identified gene expression changes correlated with symptom severity and showed that key pathways are modulated by positive and negative symptom dimensions.

12.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.

13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 116, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Principal component analysis (PCA) is a standard method to correct for population stratification in ancestry-specific genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and is used to cluster individuals by ancestry. Using the 1000 genomes project data, we examine how non-linear dimensionality reduction methods such as t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) or generative topographic mapping (GTM) can be used to provide improved ancestry maps by accounting for a higher percentage of explained variance in ancestry, and how they can help to estimate the number of principal components necessary to account for population stratification. GTM generates posterior probabilities of class membership which can be used to assess the probability of an individual to belong to a given population - as opposed to t-SNE, GTM can be used for both clustering and classification. RESULTS: PCA only partially identifies population clusters and does not separate most populations within a given continent, such as Japanese and Han Chinese in East Asia, or Mende and Yoruba in Africa. t-SNE and GTM, taking into account more data variance, can identify more fine-grained population clusters. GTM can be used to build probabilistic classification models, and is as efficient as support vector machine (SVM) for classifying 1000 Genomes Project populations. CONCLUSION: The main interest of probabilistic GTM maps is to attain two objectives with only one map: provide a better visualization that separates populations efficiently, and infer genetic ancestry for individuals or populations. This paper is a first application of GTM for ancestry classification models. Our code ( https://github.com/hagax8/ancestry_viz ) and interactive visualizations ( https://lovingscience.com/ancestries ) are available online.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Genética Populacional , Modelos Estatísticos , Arabidopsis/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Processos Estocásticos
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 117, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877270

RESUMO

The major depressive disorder (MDD) working group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) has published a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for MDD in 130,664 cases, identifying 44 risk variants. We used these results to investigate potential drug targets and repurposing opportunities. We built easily interpretable bipartite drug-target networks integrating interactions between drugs and their targets, genome-wide association statistics, and genetically predicted expression levels in different tissues, using the online tool Drug Targetor ( drugtargetor.com ). We also investigated drug-target relationships that could be impacting MDD. MAGMA was used to perform pathway analyses and S-PrediXcan to investigate the directionality of tissue-specific expression levels in patients vs. controls. Outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 153 protein-coding genes are significantly associated with MDD in MAGMA after multiple testing correction; among these, five are predicted to be down or upregulated in brain regions and 24 are known druggable genes. Several drug classes were significantly enriched, including monoamine reuptake inhibitors, sex hormones, antipsychotics, and antihistamines, indicating an effect on MDD and potential repurposing opportunities. These findings not only require validation in model systems and clinical examination, but also show that GWAS may become a rich source of new therapeutic hypotheses for MDD and other psychiatric disorders that need new-and better-treatment options.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 119, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886212

RESUMO

Ruminative response style is a passive and repetitive way of responding to stress, associated with several disorders. Although twin and candidate gene studies have proven the genetic underpinnings of rumination, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been conducted yet. We performed a GWAS on ruminative response style and its two subtypes, brooding and reflection, among 1758 European adults recruited in the general population of Budapest, Hungary, and Manchester, United Kingdom. We evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based, gene-based and gene set-based tests, together with inferences on genes regulated by our most significant SNPs. While no genome-wide significant hit emerged at the SNP level, the association of rumination survived correction for multiple testing with KCTD12 at the gene level, and with the set of genes binding miR-383 at the gene set level. SNP-level results were concordant between the Budapest and Manchester subsamples for all three rumination phenotypes. SNP-level results and their links to brain expression levels based on external databases supported the role of KCTD12, SRGAP3, and SETD5 in rumination, CDH12 in brooding, and DPYSL5, MAPRE3, KCNK3, ATXN7L3B, and TPH2 in reflection, among others. The relatively low sample size is a limitation of our study. Results of the first GWAS on rumination identified genes previously implicated in psychiatric disorders underscoring the transdiagnostic nature of rumination, and pointed to the possible role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum in this cognitive process.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1976, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760829

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric disease has polygenic determinants but is often precipitated by environmental pressures, including adverse perinatal events. However, the way in which genetic vulnerability and early-life adversity interact remains obscure. We hypothesised that the extreme environmental stress of prematurity would promote neuroanatomic abnormality in individuals genetically vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. In 194 unrelated infants (104 males, 90 females), born before 33 weeks of gestation (mean gestational age 29.7 weeks), we combined Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for five psychiatric pathologies to test the prediction that: deep grey matter abnormalities frequently seen in preterm infants are associated with increased polygenic risk for psychiatric illness. The variance explained by the PRS in the relative volumes of four deep grey matter structures (caudate nucleus, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus and lentiform nucleus) was estimated using linear regression both for the full, mixed ancestral, cohort and a subsample of European infants. Psychiatric PRS was negatively associated with lentiform volume in the full cohort (ß = -0.24, p = 8 × 10-4) and a European subsample (ß = -0.24, p = 8 × 10-3). Genetic variants associated with neuropsychiatric disease increase vulnerability to abnormal lentiform development after perinatal stress and are associated with neuroanatomic changes in the perinatal period.

17.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(3): 343-352, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718901

RESUMO

Major depression is a debilitating psychiatric illness that is typically associated with low mood and anhedonia. Depression has a heritable component that has remained difficult to elucidate with current sample sizes due to the polygenic nature of the disorder. To maximize sample size, we meta-analyzed data on 807,553 individuals (246,363 cases and 561,190 controls) from the three largest genome-wide association studies of depression. We identified 102 independent variants, 269 genes, and 15 genesets associated with depression, including both genes and gene pathways associated with synaptic structure and neurotransmission. An enrichment analysis provided further evidence of the importance of prefrontal brain regions. In an independent replication sample of 1,306,354 individuals (414,055 cases and 892,299 controls), 87 of the 102 associated variants were significant after multiple testing correction. These findings advance our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of depression and provide several future avenues for understanding etiology and developing new treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(6): 439-447, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708398

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is clinically heterogeneous with prevalence rates twice as high in women as in men. There are many possible sources of heterogeneity in MDD most of which are not measured in a sufficiently comparable way across study samples. Here, we assess genetic heterogeneity based on two fundamental measures, between-cohort and between-sex heterogeneity. First, we used genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics to investigate between-cohort genetic heterogeneity using the 29 research cohorts of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC; N cases = 16,823, N controls = 25,632) and found that some of the cohort heterogeneity can be attributed to ascertainment differences (such as recruitment of cases from hospital vs. community sources). Second, we evaluated between-sex genetic heterogeneity using GWAS summary statistics from the PGC, Kaiser Permanente GERA, UK Biobank, and the Danish iPSYCH studies but did not find convincing evidence for genetic differences between the sexes. We conclude that there is no evidence that the heterogeneity between MDD data sets and between sexes reflects genetic heterogeneity. Larger sample sizes with detailed phenotypic records and genomic data remain the key to overcome heterogeneity inherent in assessment of MDD.

19.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 42-51, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) contributes substantially to the burden of mood disorders and is undoubtedly an important subpopulation in whom there are clear unmet treatment needs. Despite a paucity of research focusing specifically on TRD, recent studies indicate that inflammatory activity may be particularly elevated in these patients. METHODS: 36 patients with TRD were investigated longitudinally before and after undertaking a specialist inpatient treatment program. 27 inflammatory proteins were compared between patients and a matched sample of non-depressed controls, as well as between treatment responders and non-responders. Treatment outcomes were calculated from depression severity scores before and after admission, and at a long-term follow-up 3-12 months after discharge. RESULTS: TRD patients had higher levels of numerous inflammatory proteins than controls, and elevated interleukins 6 and 8, tumour necrosis factor, c-reactive protein and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 were associated with poorer treatment outcomes. A separate set of proteins (either anti-inflammatory in nature or attenuated at baseline) showed increases during treatment, regardless of clinical response. Participants with the greatest elevations in inflammation tended to be older, more cognitively impaired and more treatment-resistant at baseline. LIMITATIONS: The small sample and large number of comparisons examined in this study must be taken into account when interpreting these results. CONCLUSIONS: However, this study provides empirical support for theories that more severe, chronic or treatment-resistant depressive disorders are associated with dysregulated inflammatory activity. If a predictor or predictors of response in TRD are established, improved and targeted care might be more reliably provided to this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa Empírica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
20.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(6): 428-438, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593698

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) occurs nine times more often in females than in males. Although environmental factors likely play a role, the reasons for this imbalanced sex ratio remain unresolved. AN displays high genetic correlations with anthropometric and metabolic traits. Given sex differences in body composition, we investigated the possible metabolic underpinnings of female propensity for AN. We conducted sex-specific GWAS in a healthy and medication-free subsample of the UK Biobank (n = 155,961), identifying 77 genome-wide significant loci associated with body fat percentage (BF%) and 174 with fat-free mass (FFM). Partitioned heritability analysis showed an enrichment for central nervous tissue-associated genes for BF%, which was more prominent in females than males. Genetic correlations of BF% and FFM with the largest GWAS of AN by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were estimated to explore shared genomics. The genetic correlations of BF%male and BF%female with AN differed significantly from each other (p < .0001, δ = -0.17), suggesting that the female preponderance in AN may, in part, be explained by sex-specific anthropometric and metabolic genetic factors increasing liability to AN.

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