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1.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic regions associated with anorexia nervosa. No genome-wide studies of other eating disorders, such as bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, have been performed, despite their substantial heritability. Exploratively, we aimed to identify traits that are genetically associated with binge-type eating disorders. METHOD: We calculated genome-wide polygenic scores for 269 trait and disease outcomes using PRSice v2.2 and their association with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder in up to 640 cases and 17,050 controls from the UK Biobank. Significant associations were tested for replication in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (up to 217 cases and 3,018 controls). RESULTS: Individuals with binge-type eating disorders had higher polygenic scores than controls for other psychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and higher polygenic scores for body mass index. DISCUSSION: Our findings replicate some of the known comorbidities of eating disorders on a genomic level and motivate a deeper investigation of shared and unique genomic factors across the three primary eating disorders.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integration of functional genomic annotations when estimating polygenic risk scores (PRS) can provide insight into aetiology and improve risk prediction. This study explores the predictive utility of gene expression risk scores (GeRS), calculated using imputed gene expression and transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) results. METHODS: The predictive utility of GeRS was evaluated using 12 neuropsychiatric and anthropometric outcomes measured in two target samples: UK Biobank and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). GeRS were calculated based on imputed gene expression levels and TWAS results, using 53 gene expression-genotype panels, termed SNP-weight sets, capturing expression across a range of tissues. We compare the predictive utility of elastic net models containing GeRS within and across SNP-weight sets, and models containing both GeRS and PRS. We estimate the proportion of SNP-based heritability attributable to cis-regulated gene expression. RESULTS: GeRS significantly predicted a range of outcomes, with elastic net models combining GeRS across SNP-weight sets improving prediction. GeRS were less predictive than PRS, but models combining GeRS and PRS improved prediction for several outcomes, with relative improvements ranging from 0.3% for Height (p = 0.023) to 4% for Rheumatoid Arthritis (p = 5.9 × 10-8). The proportion of SNP-based heritability attributable to cis-regulated expression was modest for most outcomes, even when restricting GeRS to colocalised genes. CONCLUSION: GeRS represent a component of PRS and could be useful for functional stratification of genetic risk. Only in specific circumstances can GeRS substantially improve prediction over PRS alone. Future research considering functional genomic annotations when estimating genetic risk is warranted.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 434-441, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased circulating pro-inflammatory markers have repeatedly been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear whether inflammation represents a causal mechanism for MDD, or whether the association is influenced by confounding factors such as body mass index (BMI). METHODS: To better understand this complex relationship, we generated polygenic risk scores (PRS) for MDD and BMI in a population cohort and attempted to isolate the impact these potential risk factors have on adulthood inflammation. Peripheral blood samples were collected as part of the South East London Community Health study, where we generated individualized PRS for MDD and BMI and quantified inflammatory markers using multiplex ELISA-based technology. We performed linear regressions to investigate the effects of PRS for MDD and BMI on inflammatory marker levels. RESULTS: Out of 35 inflammatory markers, we found a nominal effect of PRS for MDD on interleukin-10. We also found a significant positive effect of BMI on nine inflammatory markers, of which the two most strongly affected markers, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), were also nominally predicted by BMI PRS. LIMITATIONS: The study utilized a cross-sectional design with a moderately sized sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest there may not be a shared genetic mechanism contributing to MDD and higher inflammatory marker levels. However, there may be shared genetic etiology between BMI and adulthood levels of CRP and IL-6. Therefore, polygenic risk scores for BMI may represent a useful indicator for heightened levels of inflammation in adulthood.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483695

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness with substantial common variant heritability. However, the role of rare coding variation in BD is not well established. We examined the protein-coding (exonic) sequences of 3,987 unrelated individuals with BD and 5,322 controls of predominantly European ancestry across four cohorts from the Bipolar Sequencing Consortium (BSC). We assessed the burden of rare, protein-altering, single nucleotide variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P-LP) both exome-wide and within several groups of genes with phenotypic or biologic plausibility in BD. While we observed an increased burden of rare coding P-LP variants within 165 genes identified as BD GWAS regions in 3,987 BD cases (meta-analysis OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.8, one-sided p = 6.0 × 10-4), this enrichment did not replicate in an additional 9,929 BD cases and 14,018 controls (OR = 0.9, one-side p = 0.70). Although BD shares common variant heritability with schizophrenia, in the BSC sample we did not observe a significant enrichment of P-LP variants in SCZ GWAS genes, in two classes of neuronal synaptic genes (RBFOX2 and FMRP) associated with SCZ or in loss-of-function intolerant genes. In this study, the largest analysis of exonic variation in BD, individuals with BD do not carry a replicable enrichment of rare P-LP variants across the exome or in any of several groups of genes with biologic plausibility. Moreover, despite a strong shared susceptibility between BD and SCZ through common genetic variation, we do not observe an association between BD risk and rare P-LP coding variants in genes known to modulate risk for SCZ.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 585-598, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined associations between family status (living with a spouse or partner and number of children) and lifetime depression. METHODS: We used data from the UK Biobank, a large prospective study of middle-aged and older adults. Lifetime depression was assessed as part of a follow-up mental health questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between family status and depression. We included extensive adjustment for social, demographic and other potential confounders, including depression polygenic risk scores. RESULTS: 52,078 participants (mean age = 63.6, SD = 7.6; 52% female) were included in our analyses. Living with a spouse or partner was associated with substantially lower odds of lifetime depression (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.62-0.74). Compared to individuals without children, we found higher odds of lifetime depression for parents of one child (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.27) and parents of three (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) or four or more children (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.14-1.42). Amongst those not cohabiting, having any number of children was associated with higher odds of lifetime depression. Our results were consistent across age groups, the sexes, neighbourhood deprivation and genetic risk for depression. Exploratory Mendelian randomisation analyses suggested a causal effect of number of children on lifetime depression. LIMITATIONS: Our data did not allow distinguishing between non-marital and marital cohabitation. Results may not generalise to all ages or populations. CONCLUSIONS: Living with a spouse or partner was strongly associated with reduced odds of depression. Having one or three or more children was associated with increased odds of depression, especially in individuals not living with a spouse or partner.

7.
Nat Genet ; 52(12): 1303-1313, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199917

RESUMO

Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits.

8.
Behav Genet ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141367

RESUMO

The relationship between genetic and environmental risk is complex and for many traits, estimates of genetic effects may be inflated by passive gene-environment correlation. This arises because biological offspring inherit both their genotypes and rearing environment from their parents. We tested for passive gene-environment correlation in adult body composition traits using the 'natural experiment' of childhood adoption, which removes passive gene-environment correlation within families. Specifically, we compared 6165 adoptees with propensity score matched non-adoptees in the UK Biobank. We also tested whether passive gene-environment correlation inflates the association between psychiatric genetic risk and body composition. We found no evidence for inflation of heritability or polygenic scores in non-adoptees compared to adoptees for a range of body composition traits. Furthermore, polygenic risk scores for anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia did not differ in their influence on body composition traits in adoptees and non-adoptees. These findings suggest that passive gene-environment correlation does not inflate genetic effects for body composition, or the influence of psychiatric disorder genetic risk on body composition. Our design does not look at passive gene-environment correlation in childhood, and does not test for 'pure' environmental effects or the effects of active and evocative gene-environment correlations, where child genetics directly influences home environment. However, these findings suggest that genetic influences identified for body composition in this adult sample are direct, and not confounded by the family environment provided by biological relatives.

9.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(10): 944-954, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Efforts to prevent depression, the leading cause of disability worldwide, have focused on a limited number of candidate factors. Using phenotypic and genomic data from over 100,000 UK Biobank participants, the authors sought to systematically screen and validate a wide range of potential modifiable factors for depression. METHODS: Baseline data were extracted for 106 modifiable factors, including lifestyle (e.g., exercise, sleep, media, diet), social (e.g., support, engagement), and environmental (e.g., green space, pollution) variables. Incident depression was defined as minimal depressive symptoms at baseline and clinically significant depression at follow-up. At-risk individuals for incident depression were identified by polygenic risk scores or by reported traumatic life events. An exposure-wide association scan was conducted to identify factors associated with incident depression in the full sample and among at-risk individuals. Two-sample Mendelian randomization was then used to validate potentially causal relationships between identified factors and depression. RESULTS: Numerous factors across social, sleep, media, dietary, and exercise-related domains were prospectively associated with depression, even among at-risk individuals. However, only a subset of factors was supported by Mendelian randomization evidence, including confiding in others (odds ratio=0.76, 95% CI=0.67, 0.86), television watching time (odds ratio=1.09, 95% CI=1.05, 1.13), and daytime napping (odds ratio=1.34, 95% CI=1.17, 1.53). CONCLUSIONS: Using a two-stage approach, this study validates several actionable targets for preventing depression. It also demonstrates that not all factors associated with depression in observational research may translate into robust targets for prevention. A large-scale exposure-wide approach combined with genetically informed methods for causal inference may help prioritize strategies for multimodal prevention in psychiatry.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/genética , Dieta , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Tempo de Tela , Higiene do Sono
10.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

11.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. This study aims to determine whether depression with atypical features shows different heritability and different degree of overlap with polygenic risk for psychiatric and immuno-metabolic traits than other depression subgroups. METHODS: Data included 30 069 European ancestry individuals from the UK Biobank who met criteria for lifetime major depression. Participants reporting both weight gain and hypersomnia were classified as ↑WS depression (N = 1854) and the others as non-↑WS depression (N = 28 215). Cases with non-↑WS depression were further classified as ↓WS depression (i.e. weight loss and insomnia; N = 10 142). Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for 22 traits were generated using genome-wide summary statistics (Bonferroni corrected p = 2.1 × 10-4). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of depression subgroups was estimated. RESULTS: ↑WS depression had a higher polygenic risk for BMI [OR = 1.20 (1.15-1.26), p = 2.37 × 10-14] and C-reactive protein [OR = 1.11 (1.06-1.17), p = 8.86 × 10-06] v. non-↑WS depression and ↓WS depression. Leptin PRS was close to the significance threshold (p = 2.99 × 10-04), but the effect disappeared when considering GWAS summary statistics of leptin adjusted for BMI. PRS for daily alcohol use was inversely associated with ↑WS depression [OR = 0.88 (0.83-0.93), p = 1.04 × 10-05] v. non-↑WS depression. SNP-based heritability was not significantly different between ↑WS depression and ↓WS depression (14.3% and 12.2%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ↑WS depression shows evidence of distinct genetic predisposition to immune-metabolic traits and alcohol consumption. These genetic signals suggest that biological targets including immune-cardio-metabolic pathways may be relevant to therapies in individuals with ↑WS depression.

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depression (MD) is often characterised as a categorical disorder; however, observational studies comparing sub-threshold and clinical depression suggest MD is continuous. Many of these studies do not explore the full continuum and are yet to consider genetics as a risk factor. This study sought to understand if polygenic risk for MD could provide insight into the continuous nature of depression. METHODS: Factor analysis on symptom-level data from the UK Biobank (N = 148 957) was used to derive continuous depression phenotypes which were tested for association with polygenic risk scores (PRS) for a categorical definition of MD (N = 119 692). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis showed a five-factor hierarchical model, incorporating 15 of the original 18 items taken from the PHQ-9, GAD-7 and subjective well-being questionnaires, produced good fit to the observed covariance matrix (CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.038, SRMR = 0.031). MD PRS associated with each factor score (standardised ß range: 0.057-0.064) and the association remained when the sample was stratified into case- and control-only subsets. The case-only subset had an increased association compared to controls for all factors, shown via a significant interaction between lifetime MD diagnosis and MD PRS (p value range: 2.23 × 10-3-3.94 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: An association between MD PRS and a continuous phenotype of depressive symptoms in case- and control-only subsets provides support against a purely categorical phenotype; indicating further insights into MD can be obtained when this within-group variation is considered. The stronger association within cases suggests this variation may be of particular importance.

13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(10): 875-882, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns regarding potential neurological complications of COVID-19 are being increasingly reported, primarily in small series. Larger studies have been limited by both geography and specialty. Comprehensive characterisation of clinical syndromes is crucial to allow rational selection and evaluation of potential therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the breadth of complications of COVID-19 across the UK that affected the brain. METHODS: During the exponential phase of the pandemic, we developed an online network of secure rapid-response case report notification portals across the spectrum of major UK neuroscience bodies, comprising the Association of British Neurologists (ABN), the British Association of Stroke Physicians (BASP), and the Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPsych), and representing neurology, stroke, psychiatry, and intensive care. Broad clinical syndromes associated with COVID-19 were classified as a cerebrovascular event (defined as an acute ischaemic, haemorrhagic, or thrombotic vascular event involving the brain parenchyma or subarachnoid space), altered mental status (defined as an acute alteration in personality, behaviour, cognition, or consciousness), peripheral neurology (defined as involving nerve roots, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, or muscle), or other (with free text boxes for those not meeting these syndromic presentations). Physicians were encouraged to report cases prospectively and we permitted recent cases to be notified retrospectively when assigned a confirmed date of admission or initial clinical assessment, allowing identification of cases that occurred before notification portals were available. Data collected were compared with the geographical, demographic, and temporal presentation of overall cases of COVID-19 as reported by UK Government public health bodies. FINDINGS: The ABN portal was launched on April 2, 2020, the BASP portal on April 3, 2020, and the RCPsych portal on April 21, 2020. Data lock for this report was on April 26, 2020. During this period, the platforms received notification of 153 unique cases that met the clinical case definitions by clinicians in the UK, with an exponential growth in reported cases that was similar to overall COVID-19 data from UK Government public health bodies. Median patient age was 71 years (range 23-94; IQR 58-79). Complete clinical datasets were available for 125 (82%) of 153 patients. 77 (62%) of 125 patients presented with a cerebrovascular event, of whom 57 (74%) had an ischaemic stroke, nine (12%) an intracerebral haemorrhage, and one (1%) CNS vasculitis. 39 (31%) of 125 patients presented with altered mental status, comprising nine (23%) patients with unspecified encephalopathy and seven (18%) patients with encephalitis. The remaining 23 (59%) patients with altered mental status fulfilled the clinical case definitions for psychiatric diagnoses as classified by the notifying psychiatrist or neuropsychiatrist, and 21 (92%) of these were new diagnoses. Ten (43%) of 23 patients with neuropsychiatric disorders had new-onset psychosis, six (26%) had a neurocognitive (dementia-like) syndrome, and four (17%) had an affective disorder. 18 (49%) of 37 patients with altered mental status were younger than 60 years and 19 (51%) were older than 60 years, whereas 13 (18%) of 74 patients with cerebrovascular events were younger than 60 years versus 61 (82%) patients older than 60 years. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first nationwide, cross-specialty surveillance study of acute neurological and psychiatric complications of COVID-19. Altered mental status was the second most common presentation, comprising encephalopathy or encephalitis and primary psychiatric diagnoses, often occurring in younger patients. This study provides valuable and timely data that are urgently needed by clinicians, researchers, and funders to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 neuroscience research and health policy. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 143, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398646

RESUMO

Epidemiological and biological evidence support the association between heavy cannabis use and psychosis. However, it is unclear which cannabis users are susceptible to its psychotogenic effect. Therefore, understanding genetic factors contributing to this relationship might prove an important strategy to identify the mechanisms underlying cannabis-associated psychotic experiences. We aimed to determine how variation in AKT1, COMT and FAAH genotypes, and their interaction with three different groups (first episode psychosis (FEP) patients (n = 143), controls (n = 92) and young adult (YA) cannabis users n = 485)) influenced cannabis experiences, in those who had used cannabis at least once. We investigated the role of AKT1 (rs2494732), COMT Val158Met (rs4680) and FAAH (rs324420) on cannabis experiences by combining data from a large case-control study of FEP patients, with a naturalistic study of YA cannabis users (n = 720). Outcome measures were cannabis-induced psychotic-like experiences (cPLEs) and euphoric experiences (cEEs). We used linear mixed effects models to assess the effects of each genotype and their interaction with group, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, age of first cannabis use, years of use and frequency. cPLEs were more frequent in FEP patients than controls and YA cannabis users. cEEs were more prevalent in YA cannabis users than FEP patients or controls. Variation in AKT1, COMT or FAAH was not associated with cPLEs/cEEs. There was no interaction between genotype and group (FEP cases, controls and YA cannabis users) on cPLEs/cEEs. In conclusion, AKT1, COMT or FAAH did not modulate specific psychotomimetic response to cannabis and did not interact with group, contrary to previous research.

16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 163, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448866

RESUMO

Depression is a common and clinically heterogeneous mental health disorder that is frequently comorbid with other diseases and conditions. Stratification of depression may align sub-diagnoses more closely with their underling aetiology and provide more tractable targets for research and effective treatment. In the current study, we investigated whether genetic data could be used to identify subgroups within people with depression using the UK Biobank. Examination of cross-locus correlations were used to test for evidence of subgroups using genetic data from seven other complex traits and disorders that were genetically correlated with depression and had sufficient power (>0.6) for detection. We found no evidence for subgroups within depression for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, anorexia nervosa, inflammatory bowel disease or obesity. This suggests that for these traits, genetic correlations with depression were driven by pleiotropic genetic variants carried by everyone rather than by a specific subgroup.

17.
Nat Genet ; 52(5): 482-493, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341526

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of loci associated with complex brain disorders, but it remains unclear in which cell types these loci are active. Here we integrate genome-wide association study results with single-cell transcriptomic data from the entire mouse nervous system to systematically identify cell types underlying brain complex traits. We show that psychiatric disorders are predominantly associated with projecting excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Neurological diseases were associated with different cell types, which is consistent with other lines of evidence. Notably, Parkinson's disease was genetically associated not only with cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons (which include dopaminergic neurons) but also with enteric neurons and oligodendrocytes. Using post-mortem brain transcriptomic data, we confirmed alterations in these cells, even at the earliest stages of disease progression. Our study provides an important framework for understanding the cellular basis of complex brain maladies, and reveals an unexpected role of oligodendrocytes in Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 437-447, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231276

RESUMO

Minimal phenotyping refers to the reliance on the use of a small number of self-reported items for disease case identification, increasingly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we report differences in genetic architecture between depression defined by minimal phenotyping and strictly defined major depressive disorder (MDD): the former has a lower genotype-derived heritability that cannot be explained by inclusion of milder cases and a higher proportion of the genome contributing to this shared genetic liability with other conditions than for strictly defined MDD. GWAS based on minimal phenotyping definitions preferentially identifies loci that are not specific to MDD, and, although it generates highly predictive polygenic risk scores, the predictive power can be explained entirely by large sample sizes rather than by specificity for MDD. Our results show that reliance on results from minimal phenotyping may bias views of the genetic architecture of MDD and impede the ability to identify pathways specific to MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(7): 715-728, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293669

RESUMO

Importance: Adult mood disorders are often preceded by behavioral and emotional problems in childhood. It is yet unclear what explains the associations between childhood psychopathology and adult traits. Objective: To investigate whether genetic risk for adult mood disorders and associated traits is associated with childhood disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis examined data from 7 ongoing longitudinal birth and childhood cohorts from the UK, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Starting points of data collection ranged from July 1985 to April 2002. Participants were repeatedly assessed for childhood psychopathology from ages 6 to 17 years. Data analysis occurred from September 2017 to May 2019. Exposures: Individual polygenic scores (PGS) were constructed in children based on genome-wide association studies of adult major depression, bipolar disorder, subjective well-being, neuroticism, insomnia, educational attainment, and body mass index (BMI). Main Outcomes and Measures: Regression meta-analyses were used to test associations between PGS and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and internalizing and social problems measured repeatedly across childhood and adolescence and whether these associations depended on childhood phenotype, age, and rater. Results: The sample included 42 998 participants aged 6 to 17 years. Male participants varied from 43.0% (1040 of 2417 participants) to 53.1% (2434 of 4583 participants) by age and across all cohorts. The PGS of adult major depression, neuroticism, BMI, and insomnia were positively associated with childhood psychopathology (ß estimate range, 0.023-0.042 [95% CI, 0.017-0.049]), while associations with PGS of subjective well-being and educational attainment were negative (ß, -0.026 to -0.046 [95% CI, -0.020 to -0.057]). There was no moderation of age, type of childhood phenotype, or rater with the associations. The exceptions were stronger associations between educational attainment PGS and ADHD compared with internalizing problems (Δß, 0.0561 [Δ95% CI, 0.0318-0.0804]; ΔSE, 0.0124) and social problems (Δß, 0.0528 [Δ95% CI, 0.0282-0.0775]; ΔSE, 0.0126), and between BMI PGS and ADHD and social problems (Δß, -0.0001 [Δ95% CI, -0.0102 to 0.0100]; ΔSE, 0.0052), compared with internalizing problems (Δß, -0.0310 [Δ95% CI, -0.0456 to -0.0164]; ΔSE, 0.0074). Furthermore, the association between educational attainment PGS and ADHD increased with age (Δß, -0.0032 [Δ 95% CI, -0.0048 to -0.0017]; ΔSE, 0.0008). Conclusions and Relevance: Results from this study suggest the existence of a set of genetic factors influencing a range of traits across the life span with stable associations present throughout childhood. Knowledge of underlying mechanisms may affect treatment and long-term outcomes of individuals with psychopathology.

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