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1.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1552-1559, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371921

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This report describes the return of sequencing results to low-income Latino participants recruited through a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). We describe challenges in returning research results secondary to social determinants of health and present lessons learned to guide future genomic medicine implementation studies in low-resource settings. METHODS: Five hundred Latino adults (76% women) consented to research sequencing for a predetermined panel of actionable genes. Providers and staff from the FQHC were engaged to align processes with the practice and a community advisory board grounded the project in the local community. RESULTS: A pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant was present in 10 participants (2%). Challenges in return of results included the time lag (582 ± 53 days) between enrollment and returning actionable results, difficulty reaching participants, missed appointments, low health literacy, lack of health insurance, and reconciling results with limited information on family history. Return of one actionable result was deferred due to acute emotional distress secondary to recent traumatic life events. CONCLUSION: The social determinants of health influence the implementation of genomic medicine in low-income populations in low-resource settings. Considering nonbiological factors that contribute to disparities will be necessary to better appreciate how genomic medicine may fit within the context of health equity.

2.
NPJ Genom Med ; 5: 19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377377

RESUMO

To inform the process of returning results in genome sequencing studies, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative assessment of challenges encountered during the Return of Actionable Variants Empiric (RAVE) study conducted at Mayo Clinic. Participants (n = 2535, mean age 63 ± 7, 57% female) were sequenced for 68 clinically actionable genes and 14 single nucleotide variants. Of 122 actionable results detected, 118 were returnable; results were returned by a genetic counselor-86 in-person and 12 by phone. Challenges in returning actionable results were encountered in a significant proportion (38%) of the cohort and were related to sequencing and participant contact. Sequencing related challenges (n = 14), affecting 13 participants, included reports revised based on clinical presentation (n = 3); reports requiring corrections (n = 2); mosaicism requiring alternative DNA samples for confirmation (n = 3); and variant re-interpretation due to updated informatics pipelines (n = 6). Participant contact related challenges (n = 44), affecting 38 participants, included nonresponders (n = 20), decedents (n = 1), and previously known results (n = 23). These results should be helpful to investigators preparing for return of results in large-scale genomic sequencing projects.

3.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 37(12): 1053-1061, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to understand the patients' perspective of what contributes to an absence of discussions of sexual orientation (SO), gender identity (GI), and sexual health in cancer care. METHODS: Patients were recruited from oncology, gynecology, and a gender transition clinic to participate in semistructured interviews, which were analyzed with qualitative methods. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients were interviewed, shedding light on 2 themes. The first was that these conversations are important but infrequent. One patient explained, "…. we know people who have had sex changes…[they] would have appreciated that question." In response to whether sexual health was ever brought up, one patient responded, "No doctor ever has." Patients described unaddressed issues: "There have been times, you know, we've wondered if it was okay to make love." The second theme consisted of 4 pragmatic, patient-provided points to facilitate discussions: (1) implementation of a scale of 1 to 10 (with 10 being comfortable) to first gauge patients' comfort in talking about SO, GI, and sexual health; (2) having the health-care provider explore the topic again over-time; (3) making sure the health-care provider is comfortable, as such comfort appears to enhance the patient's comfort ("I have a doctor here, a female doctor, who just matter of fact will ask if I get erections and so on because of the medication she's giving me);" and (4) eliminating euphemisms (one patient stated, "I don't know what you mean by 'sexual health'."). CONCLUSION: Oncology health-care providers have a unique opportunity and responsibility to address SO, GI, and sexual health.

4.
J Cancer Educ ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052262

RESUMO

Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) have disproportionately lower rates of cancer screening than English-proficient patients. Given the multifactorial nature of screening disparities, strategies to improve screening rates must address barriers within and outside of the clinic setting. The objectives of this study were to understand local barriers from multiple stakeholder perspectives, to identify potential multilevel intervention approaches, and to mobilize community-engaged intervention decision making and planning. This participatory formative evaluation approach employed needs assessment and user engagement in order to enhance intervention usefulness and relevance. The study took place in several stages and involved clinic and community partners in a small metropolitan area of the Midwest USA. Interviews were conducted with LEP patients (n = 9) who had not completed three recommended screenings (breast, cervical, and colorectal), primary care providers (n = 5), medical interpreter (n = 5), and community members (n = 3). These highlighted multilevel barriers including limited patient understanding of preventive health, time and cost constraints, and variable roles of language interpreters. The literature was also reviewed to identify interventions used with similar populations. Findings from this review suggest that interventions are largely focused on single population groups or address single screening barriers. Finally, a community-academic summit (n = 48 participants) was held to review results and develop recommendations for community and clinic interventions. Findings from this study indicate that it is possible to engage a diverse group of stakeholders in strategies that are responsive to health care providers and patients, including LEP patients from heterogeneous backgrounds.

5.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 37(6): 418-423, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although national organizations advocate that health-care providers ask patients about sexual health and sexual and gender minority status-to learn, for example, about side effects of treatment and to understand patients' social support-these conversations often do not occur. This study explored health-care providers' reasons for having/not having these conversations. METHODS: This single-institution study recruited health-care providers from medical oncology, hematology, radiation oncology, and gynecology. Face-to-face interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged: (1) patient-centric reasons for discussing/not discussing sexual health and sexual and gender minority status ("So I think just the holistic viewpoint is important"); (2) health-care provider-centric reasons for discussing/not discussing these issues ("That's going to take more time to talk about and to deal with…" or "I was raised orthodox, so this is not something we talk about…"; and (3) reasons that appeared to straddle both of the above themes (eg, acknowledgment of the sometimes taboo nature of these topics). CONCLUSION: Although many health-care providers favor talking with patients with cancer about sexual health and sexual and gender minority status, limited time, personal reluctance, and the taboo nature of these topics appear at times to hamper the initiation of these conversations.

6.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 123-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989430

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lung cancer in non-smoking women is a distinct entity, but few studies have examined these patients' healthcare-related experiences. METHODS: Women with lung cancer and with no smoking history underwent a face-to-face semi-structured, audio-recorded interview that was analyzed with a qualitative inductive approach. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were interviewed, and three themes emerged. The first theme centered on a delay in cancer diagnosis. One patient described, "The whole initial diagnostic process just fills me with rage… I didn't actually get my Tarceva® until the last week in April." Second, the diagnosis of lung cancer seemed especially challenging in view of patients' non-smoking history and otherwise good health; these factors seem to have contributed to the diagnostic delay. One patient explained, "Well, I was just so adamant that I didn't like smoking… maybe if I had been a smoker, they [the healthcare providers] would've been more resourceful." Finally, the stigma of a smoking-induced malignancy was clearly articulated, "Yeah. Because it's a stigma, and I had read that, too -- people go, 'Well, it's your own damn fault because you were a smoker.'" CONCLUSIONS: Non-smoking women with lung cancer appear to endure a long trajectory from symptoms to cancer diagnosis to the initiation of cancer therapy. An awareness and acknowledgement of this long trajectory might help healthcare providers render more compassionate cancer care to these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , não Fumantes , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Empatia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/psicologia , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tempo para o Tratamento/normas , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(3): 391-404, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756308

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess changes in breast density (BD) awareness, knowledge, and attitudes among US women over a period of 5 years. METHODS: Using a probability-based web panel representative of the US population, we administered an identical BD survey in 2012 and 2017 to women aged 40 to 74 years. RESULTS: In 2017, 65.8% had heard of BD (versus 57.5% in 2012; P = .0002). BD awareness in both 2012 and 2017 was significantly associated with race, income, and education. Among women aware of BD in 2017, 76.5% had knowledge of BD's relationship to masking (versus 71.5% in 2012; P = .04); 65.5% had knowledge of BD's relationship to cancer risk (versus 58.5%; P = .009); and 47.3% had discussed BD with a provider (versus 43.1% in 2012; P = .13). After multivariable adjustment, residence in a state with BD legislation was associated in 2017 with knowledge of BD's relationship to risk but not to masking. Most women wanted to know their BD (62.5% in 2017 versus 59.8% in 2012; P = .46); this information was anticipated to cause anxiety in 44.8% (versus 44.9% in 2012; P = .96); confusion in 35.9% (versus 43.0%; P = .002); and feeling informed in 89.7% (versus 90.4%; P = .64). Over three-quarters supported federal BD legislation in both surveys. Response rate to the 2017 survey was 55% (1,502 of 2,730) versus 65% (1,506 of 2,311) in 2012. CONCLUSION: Although BD awareness has increased, important disparities persist. Knowledge of BD's impact on risk has increased; knowledge about masking and BD discussions with providers have not. Most women want to know their BD, would not feel anxious or confused as a result of knowing, and would feel empowered to make decisions. The federal BD notification legislation presents an opportunity to improve awareness and knowledge and encourage BD conversations with providers.

9.
Clin Genet ; 95(6): 704-712, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868559

RESUMO

Efforts to characterize stakeholder attitudes about the implementation of genomic medicine would benefit from a validated instrument for measuring public views of the potential benefits and harms of genomic technologies, which would facilitate comparison across populations and clinical settings. We sought to develop a scale to evaluate attitudes about the future of genomic medicine. We developed a 21-item scale that examined the likelihood of various outcomes of genomic medicine. The scale was administered to participants in a genomic sequencing study. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted and bivariate correlations were calculated. The genomic orientation (GO) scale was completed by 2895 participants. A two-factor structure was identified, corresponding to an optimism subscale (16 items, α = 0.89) and a pessimism subscale (5 items, α = 0.63). Genomic optimism was positively associated with a perceived value of genetic test results, higher health literacy, and decreased decisional conflict about participation in a genomic research study. Genomic pessimism was associated with concerns about genetic testing, lower health literacy, and increased decisional conflict about the decision to participate in the study. The GO scale is a promising tool for measuring both positive and negative views regarding the future of genomic medicine and deserves further validation.


Assuntos
Otimismo , Pessimismo , Medicina de Precisão/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Dados , Demografia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Genômica/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 36(6): 533-537, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599758

RESUMO

End of life is difficult for all patients but sexual and gender minorities (SGM) are prone to isolation and loneliness, especially if their SGM status is unknown or unaccepted. In oncology clinics, where goals of care discussions about end of life are integral and frequent, querying patients about their SGM status and sexual health is of particular importance. The American Society of Clinical Oncology recently released a position statement that called for greater focus on SGM populations with the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating disparities in cancer care within this group. An important first step in addressing such disparities is learning how best to train cancer health-care providers to ask patients about their SGM status and about sexual health in general. This article summarizes the mandate for understanding cancer issues in SGM populations and the dearth of cancer-related data within this group. This article also describes an ongoing 3-part study intended to build a mini curriculum with the goal of helping cancer health-care providers to ask patients with cancer about SGM status and to ask all patients with cancer about sexual health issues. The results of this ongoing study could potentially improve end-of-life care for subgroups of patients.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Saúde Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Currículo , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto
11.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(3): pkz053, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328557

RESUMO

Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer (BC) outcomes persist where non-Hispanic black (NHB) women are more likely to die from BC than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women, and the extent of this disparity varies geographically. We evaluated tumor, treatment, and patient characteristics that contribute to racial differences in BC mortality in Atlanta, Georgia, where the disparity was previously characterized as especially large. Methods: We identified 4943 NHW and 3580 NHB women in the Georgia Cancer Registry with stage I-IV BC diagnoses in Atlanta (2010-2014). We used Cox proportional hazard regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing NHB vs NHW BC mortality by tumor, treatment, and patient characteristics on the additive and multiplicative scales. We additionally estimated the mediating effects of these characteristics on the association between race and BC mortality. Results: At diagnosis, NHB women were younger-with higher stage, node-positive, and triple-negative tumors relative to NHW women. In age-adjusted models, NHB women with luminal A disease had a 2.43 times higher rate of BC mortality compared to their NHW counterparts (95% CI = 1.99 to 2.97). High socioeconomic status (SES) NHB women had more than twice the mortality rates than their white counterparts (HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.65 to 4.33). Racial disparities among women without insurance, in the lowest SES index, or diagnosed with triple-negative BC were less pronounced. Conclusions: In Atlanta, the largest racial disparities are observed in luminal tumors and most pronounced among women of high SES. More research is needed to understand drivers of disparities within these treatable features.

12.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(1): 249-255, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite recent advances in prophylaxis and management, 20% of patients who receive moderately to severely emetogenic chemotherapy continue to experience nausea and vomiting. Relying on patients' own words, this study sought to capture and characterize the lived experience with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) for this important subgroup of patients. METHODS: Solid tumor patients with a history of poorly controlled CINV provided informed consent and participated in a semi-structured interview, which was audio-recorded and transcribed. After data saturation, enrollment ceased, and inductive, qualitative analytic methods were employed. RESULTS: The median age of the 20 enrolled patients was 56 years (range 27-83) with an equal gender split; half had gastrointestinal cancers. Two themes emerged. First, CINV is severe and multidimensional: "It's like shredding your muscles… It's doing it over and over again." This symptom complex has psychosocial implications: "Isolation is a big thing." Financial toxicity is also implicated: "I use [an antiemetic] when I feel like it is absolutely necessary because it is so expensive I cannot afford it anyway." The second theme is underreporting of symptoms. Patients seemed to accept N/V as part of treatment and were therefore less forthcoming: "God, if you're pumping poison in your system, you gotta expect some side effects." CONCLUSIONS: These vivid data should motivate investigators to continue conducting clinical trials CINV and should remind healthcare providers about the importance of patient education on the availability of therapy for breakthrough symptomatology.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Quimioprevenção , Náusea , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Quimioprevenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/epidemiologia , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Falha de Tratamento , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/prevenção & controle
14.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 31(6): 592-596, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906513

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: In this study we describe adolescent and parent retention and changes in willingness to participate (WTP) in research among adolescents, parents, and adolescent-parent dyads. DESIGN AND SETTING: Adolescent-parent dyads were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study to assess research participation attitudes using simultaneous individual interviews of the adolescent and parent with a return visit 1 year later using the same interview. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents (14-17 years old) and their parents. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The relationship between participant characteristics and dyad retention was assessed. WTP was measured on a Likert scale and dichotomized (willing/unwilling) to assess changes in WTP attitudes over time for adolescents, parents, and dyads. RESULTS: Eighty-three percent of the 300 dyads were retained. Dyads in which there was successful contact with the parent before follow-up were more likely to be retained (odds ratio, 4.88; 95% confidence interval, 2.57-9.26). For adolescents at baseline, 59% were willing to participate and 55% were willing to participate at follow-up (McNemar S = 0.91; P = .34). For parents at baseline, 51% were willing to participate and 57% were willing to participate at follow-up (McNemar S = 5.12; P = .02). For dyads at baseline, 57% were concordant (in either direction) and 70% of dyads were concordant at follow-up (McNemar S = 10.56; P = .001). CONCLUSION: Over 1 year, parent contact might positively influence successful adolescent retention. Parents become more willing to let their adolescents participate over time, with dyads becoming more concordant about research participation.


Assuntos
Atitude , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 35(11): 1384-1389, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A growing number of cancer antineoplastic agents can cause life-threatening acute infusion reactions. Because previous studies have not studied these reactions from the perspective of patients, this study was undertaken with that objective in mind. METHODS: Patients who had an acute infusion reaction were interviewed based on the Leventhal model. Once saturation of content was achieved, interviews were transcribed and analyzed with qualitative methodology. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were enrolled. Most were women (n = 15); the median age was 58 years, and paclitaxel was the most common inciting agent. Three themes emerged. First, these reactions are frightening; patients made remarks such as "I was just thinking oh my God, I am dying." Second, prior education about these reactions seemed to mitigate this fear, "Basically everything the nurses told me potentially could happen, like happened. So, I was prepared." Third, when health-care providers were prompt and attentive during the reaction, patients described less fear with future chemotherapy, "So no, I'm really not fearful about going in tomorrow because I know they'll be there and they'll be watching me." CONCLUSION: These reactions evoke fear which can be mitigated with education prior to and with prompt responsiveness during the acute infusion reaction.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Reação no Local da Injeção/psicologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 31(1): 28-32, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037930

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine how adolescent-parent dyads describe decision-making regarding initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series, specifically who they viewed as making the final decision. DESIGN: Semistructured interviews with adolescent-parent dyads were audio-recorded and transcribed. Responses to the question: "How did you make a decision about whether or not to receive the HPV vaccine series?" were content-coded for each individual member of the dyad. SETTING: Adolescent medicine clinics of 2 large urban medical centers and through snowball sampling. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents 14-17 years of age and a parent (N = 262). Qualitative analyses were conducted for those who agreed that they were offered and started the HPV vaccine series (n = 109). INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptions of the decision-making included 1 person (adolescent or parent) making the decision or joint decision-making by the adolescent and parent together. RESULTS: More than half of the dyads did not agree on who made the decision to start the vaccine. Most adolescents and parents described a similar account about when they were offered the HPV vaccine, although the interpretation of the event in terms of the decision-maker might have differed. More than half of adolescents and parents individually mentioned the health care provider in their description of the HPV vaccine decision-making process even though they were not queried about the role of the provider. CONCLUSION: Understanding the range of descriptions of these dyads is helpful to guide interventions to promote vaccine uptake in a manner that balances provider expertise, adolescent autonomy, and parental involvement.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Relações Pais-Filho , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pais
17.
J Gen Intern Med ; 33(4): 524-532, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have several health disparities, including suboptimal patient-provider interactions, poorer glycemic control, and T2DM complications. Understanding existing interventions for improving T2DM outcomes in this population is critical for reducing disparities. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies examining the effectiveness of interventions in improving T2DM outcomes among patients with LEP in North America. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for RCTs and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for non-RCT studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using the random-effects model. RESULTS: Fifty-four studies, 39 of which reported sufficient data for meta-analysis of glycemic control, were included. The interventions were associated with a statistically significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (weighted difference in means, -0.84% [95% CI, -0.97 to -0.71]) that was, however, very heterogeneous across studies (I2 = 95.9%). Heterogeneity was explained by study design (lower efficacy in RCTs than non-RCTs) and by intervention length and delivery mode (greater reduction in interventions lasting <6 months or delivered face-to-face); P < 0.05 for all three covariates. The interventions were also associated in most studies with improvement in knowledge, self-efficacy in diabetes management, quality of life, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. DISCUSSION: Multiple types of interventions are available for T2DM management in patients with LEP. Multicomponent interventions delivered face-to-face seem most effective for glycemic control. More research is needed to better understand other aspects of multicomponent interventions that are critical for improving important outcomes among patients with T2DM and LEP.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Autocuidado/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
18.
Vaccine ; 35(45): 6122-6128, 2017 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We tested the hypotheses that consistency and strength of clinician recommendation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination would be associated with vaccine delivery rates. METHODS: From October 2015 through January 2016, we conducted a survey of primary care clinicians (n=227) in Southeastern Minnesota to evaluate clinician behaviors regarding HPV vaccination. The survey response rate was 41.0% (51 clinical sites). We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a clinical data linkage infrastructure, to ascertain clinical site-level HPV vaccination rates. We examined associations of clinician self-reports of both the consistency and strength of their recommendations for HPV vaccination for patients aged 11-12years (n=14,406) with site-level vaccination rates. RESULTS: The majority of clinicians reported consistently (always or usually) recommending the HPV vaccine to females (79.0%) and to males (62.2%); 71.9% of clinicians reported strongly recommending the vaccine to females while 58.6% reported strongly recommending to males. Consistency and strength of recommending the HPV vaccine was significantly higher among those practicing in pediatrics and board certified in pediatrics compared to family medicine. Higher rates of initiation (1 dose) [Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.05; 95% CI (1.01-1.09)] and completion (3 doses) [IRR=1.08; 95% CI (1.02-1.13)] were observed among clinical sites where, on average, clinicians more frequently reported always or usually recommending the vaccine for females compared to sites where, on average, clinicians reported recommending the vaccine less frequently. Similarly, higher rates of initiation [IRR=1.03; 95% CI (1.00-1.06)] and completion [IRR=1.04; CI (1.00, 1.08)] were observed among sites where clinicians reported strongly recommending the vaccine to females more frequently compared to sites where, on average, clinicians reported strongly recommending the HPV vaccine less frequently; similar associations were observed for male initiation [IRR=1.05; CI (1.02,1.08)] and completion [IRR=1.05; 95% CI (1.01, 1.09)]. CONCLUSIONS: Consistency and strength of HPV vaccination recommendation was associated with higher vaccination rates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Pais/psicologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 4(1): 19-24, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27294766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: African American women bear a disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify prevalent health concerns among African American women who are members of The Links, Incorporated (Links), a large national service organization with health programming for communities of color. METHODS: Survey data (n = 391) were collected during the 2012 Links National Assembly. Twenty-six health issues were presented within five groups: cancer, CVD, pulmonary disease, chronic conditions, and behavioral health. For each issue, women indicated if it was a concern for "you/your family" or "the African American community" via check-boxes. Differences in the proportions for "you/your family" and "the African American community" were evaluated using the McNemar test. RESULTS: Hypertension was the most frequently endorsed concern for you/your family (79 %); 73 % indicated this was a concern for the African American community. Sickle cell anemia was the most frequently endorsed concern for the African American community (77 %). Melanoma was the least endorsed health issue overall (15 % you/your family, 55 % community). Breast was the most frequently endorsed cancer concern, while lung was among the least. For 23 out of 26 health issues, the proportion concerned was greater for the "African American community" than for "you/your family" (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CVD and breast cancer were salient concerns; both are topics for which national awareness campaigns and Links health programming exist. Comparatively lower concern was observed for melanoma, a cancer with known survival disparities, and for lung cancer, a leading cause of death in women.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Organizações/organização & administração , Voluntários , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Health Care Chaplain ; 23(1): 15-33, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27398684

RESUMO

Individuals with brain cancer face many challenges, including threats to cognition, personality, and sensory and motor functioning. These can alter one's sense of identity and result in despair. Chaplain-led spiritual interviews were conducted with 19 patients with brain cancer as part of a larger spiritual legacy intervention called "Hear My Voice." The majority was female (58%), married (68%) and had aggressive/advanced tumors (63%). Participants were 22-68 years of age and expressed the following religious affiliations: Protestant (42%), Catholic (21%), Muslim (5%), and none (32%). Framework analysis was applied to reduce and understand the interview data. Primary codes were relationships with: God or the spiritual, others, and self. Brain cancer was reported to deepen and enrich patients' commitment to these relationships. Struggle and grief were also revealed. Results suggest the continued vitality, growth and generativity of these participants and provide insight for chaplains and others on the medical team.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Neoplasias Encefálicas/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Idoso , Serviço Religioso no Hospital , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião , Adulto Jovem
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