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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(2)2022 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205275

RESUMO

The Y chromosome is a valuable genetic marker for studying the origin and influence of paternal lineages in populations. In this study, we conducted Y-chromosomal lineage-tracing in Arabian horses. First, we resolved a Y haplotype phylogeny based on the next generation sequencing data of 157 males from several breeds. Y-chromosomal haplotypes specific for Arabian horses were inferred by genotyping a collection of 145 males representing most Arabian sire lines that are active around the globe. These lines formed three discrete haplogroups, and the same haplogroups were detected in Arabian populations native to the Middle East. The Arabian haplotypes were clearly distinct from the ones detected in Akhal Tekes, Turkoman horses, and the progeny of two Thoroughbred foundation sires. However, a haplotype introduced into the English Thoroughbred by the stallion Byerley Turk (1680), was shared among Arabians, Turkomans, and Akhal Tekes, which opens a discussion about the historic connections between Oriental horse types. Furthermore, we genetically traced Arabian sire line breeding in the Western World over the past 200 years. This confirmed a strong selection for relatively few male lineages and uncovered incongruences to written pedigree records. Overall, we demonstrate how fine-scaled Y-analysis contributes to a better understanding of the historical development of horse breeds.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Cromossomo Y , Animais , Feminino , Haplótipos , Cavalos/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Filogenia , Cromossomo Y/genética
2.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 108: 103797, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801788

RESUMO

Melanoma prevalence in gray horses reaches up to 50% and more. Several studies have documented a genetic melanoma predisposition which is referred to the 4.6 kb duplication in intron 6 of STX17 and its surrounding haplotype. However, the genetic background and mechanisms responsible for differences in etiopathogenesis of equine dermal melanomatosis still remain unknown. In the current study, we performed a genome wide association analysis in 141 Lipizzan horses and subsequently identified one candidate gene on chromosome 24 putatively involved in melanoma pathogenesis in gray horses. The associated SNP was located in the intronic region of DPF3, a gene which is involved in humans in cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and motility of cancer cells. The replication study in 1210 horses from seven breeds demonstrated, that the G/G genotype of the DPF3 associated SNP exhibits putative melanoma suppression effects. As a conclusion DPF3 represents a candidate gene, which might play an essential role for gray horses coping with high genetic melanoma related tumor load.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos , Melanoma , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Cavalos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/veterinária
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 336, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In horses, the autoimmune disease vitiligo is characterized by the loss of melanocytes and results in patchy depigmentation of the skin around the eyes, muzzle and the perianal region. Vitiligo-like depigmentation occurs predominantly in horses displaying the grey coat colour and is observed at a prevalence level of 26.0-67.0% in grey horses compared with only 0.8-3.5% in non-grey horses. While the polygenetic background of this complex disease is well documented in humans, the underlying candidate genes for this skin disorder in horses remain unknown. In this study we aim to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for identifying putative candidate loci for vitiligo-like depigmentation in horses. METHODS: In the current study, we performed a GWAS analysis using high-density 670 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 152 Lipizzan and 104 Noriker horses, which were phenotyped for vitiligo-like depigmentation by visual inspection. After quality control 376,219 SNPs remained for analyses, the genome-wide Bonferroni corrected significance level was p < 1.33e-7. RESULTS: We identified seven candidate genes on four chromosomes (ECA1, ECA13, ECA17, ECA20) putatively involved in vitiligo pathogenesis in grey horses. The highlighted genes PHF11, SETDB2, CARHSP1 and LITAFD, are associated with the innate immune system, while the genes RCBTB1, LITAFD, NUBPL, PTP4A1, play a role in tumor suppression and metastasis. The antagonistic pathogenesis of vitiligo in relation to cancer specific enhanced cell motility and/or metastasis on typical melanoma predilection sites underlines a plausible involvement of RCBTB1, LITAFD, NUBPL, and PTP4A1. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed candidate genes for equine vitiligo-like depigmentation, indicate an antagonistic relation between vitiligo and tumor metastasis in a horse population with higher incidence of melanoma. Further replication and expression studies should lead to a better understanding of this skin disorder in horses.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Transtornos da Pigmentação/veterinária , Animais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/veterinária , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Transtornos da Pigmentação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência
4.
Mol Ecol ; 30(24): 6701-6717, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534381

RESUMO

To predict species responses to anthropogenic disturbances and climate change, it is reasonable to use species with high sensitivity to such factors. Snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) could represent a good candidate for this; as the only large herbivore species adapted to the cold and alpine habitats of northeastern Siberia, it plays a crucial role in its ecosystem. Despite having an extensive geographical distribution among all ovine species, it is one of the least studied. In this study, we sequenced and analysed six genomes of snow sheep in combination with all other wild sheep species to infer key aspects of their evolutionary history and unveil the genetic basis of their adaptation to subarctic environments. Despite their large census population size, snow sheep genomes showed remarkably low heterozygosity, which could reflect the effect of isolation and historical bottlenecks that we inferred using the pairwise sequential Markovian coalescent and runs of homozygosity. F4 -statistics indicated instances of introgression involving snow sheep with argali (Ovis ammon) and Dall (Ovis dalli) sheep, suggesting that these species might have been more widespread during the Pleistocene. Furthermore, the introgressed segments, which were identified using mainly minimum relative node depth, covered genes associated with immunity, adipogenesis and morphology-related traits, representing potential targets of adaptive introgression. Genes related to mitochondrial functions and thermogenesis associated with adipose tissue were identified to be under selection. Overall, our data suggest introgression as a mechanism facilitating adaptation in wild sheep species and provide insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying cold adaptation in snow sheep.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Genoma , Ovinos/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571753

RESUMO

Comparison of genomic footprints in chicken breeds with different selection history is a powerful tool in elucidating genomic regions that have been targeted by recent and more ancient selection. In the present work, we aimed at examining and comparing the trajectories of artificial selection in the genomes of the native egg-type Russian White (RW) and meat-type White Cornish (WC) breeds. Combining three different statistics (top 0.1% SNP by FST value at pairwise breed comparison, hapFLK analysis, and identification of ROH island shared by more than 50% of individuals), we detected 45 genomic regions under putative selection including 11 selective sweep regions, which were detected by at least two different methods. Four of such regions were breed-specific for each of RW breed (on GGA1, GGA5, GGA8, and GGA9) and WC breed (on GGA1, GGA5, GGA8, and GGA28), while three remaining regions on GGA2 (two sweeps) and GGA3 were common for both breeds. Most of identified genomic regions overlapped with known QTLs and/or candidate genes including those for body temperatures, egg productivity, and feed intake in RW chickens and those for growth, meat and carcass traits, and feed efficiency in WC chickens. These findings were concordant with the breed origin and history of their artificial selection. We determined a set of 188 prioritized candidate genes retrieved from the 11 overlapped regions of putative selection and reviewed their functions relative to phenotypic traits of interest in the two breeds. One of the RW-specific sweep regions harbored the known domestication gene, TSHR. Gene ontology and functional annotation analysis provided additional insight into a functional coherence of genes in the sweep regions. We also showed a greater candidate gene richness on microchromosomes relative to macrochromosomes in these genomic areas. Our results on the selection history of RW and WC chickens and their key candidate genes under selection serve as a profound information for further conservation of their genomic diversity and efficient breeding.

6.
Front Genet ; 12: 708740, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276802

RESUMO

Specific local environmental and sociocultural conditions have led to the creation of various goat populations in Russia. National goat diversity includes breeds that have been selected for down and mohair production traits as well as versatile local breeds for which pastoralism is the main management system. Effective preservation and breeding programs for local goat breeds are missing due to the lack of DNA-based data. In this work, we analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of Russian local goats, including Altai Mountain, Altai White Downy, Dagestan Downy, Dagestan Local, Karachaev, Orenburg, and Soviet Mohair goats, which were genotyped with the Illumina Goat SNP50 BeadChip. In addition, we addressed genetic relationships between local and global goat populations obtained from the AdaptMap project. Russian goats showed a high level of genetic diversity. Although a decrease in historical effective population sizes was revealed, the recent effective population sizes estimated for three generations ago were larger than 100 in all studied populations. The mean runs of homozygosity (ROH) lengths ranged from 79.42 to 183.94 Mb, and the average ROH number varied from 18 to 41. Short ROH segments (<2 Mb) were predominant in all breeds, while the longest ROH class (>16 Mb) was the least frequent. Principal component analysis, Neighbor-Net graph, and Admixture clustering revealed several patterns in Russian local goats. First, a separation of the Karachaev breed from other populations was observed. Moreover, genetic connections between the Orenburg and Altai Mountain breeds were suggested and the Dagestan breeds were found to be admixed with the Soviet Mohair breed. Neighbor-Net analysis and clustering of local and global breeds demonstrated the close genetic relations between Russian local and Turkish breeds that probably resulted from past admixture events through postdomestication routes. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the genetic relationships of goats originating in West Asia and Eurasia and may be used to design breeding programs for local goats to ensure their effective conservation and proper management.

7.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803851

RESUMO

Currently, the intraspecific taxonomy of snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) is controversial and needs to be specified using DNA molecular genetic markers. In our previous work using whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, we found that the population inhabiting Kharaulakh Ridge was genetically different from the other populations of Yakut subspecies to which it was usually referred. Here, our study was aimed at the clarification of taxonomic status of Kharaulakh snow sheep using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. A total of 87 specimens from five different geographic locations of Yakut snow sheep as well as 20 specimens of other recognized subspecies were included in this study. We identified 19 haplotypes, two of which belonged to the population from Kharaulakh Ridge. Median-joining network and Bayesian tree analyses revealed that Kharaulakh population clustered separately from all the other Yakut snow sheep. The divergence time between Kharaulakh population and Yakut snow sheep was estimated as 0.48 ± 0.19 MYA. Thus, the study of the mtDNA cytb sequences confirmed the results of genome-wide SNP analysis. Taking into account the high degree of divergence of Kharaulakh snow sheep from other groups, identified by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we propose to classify the Kharaulakh population as a separate subspecies.

8.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(12)2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353040

RESUMO

Warmblood fragile foal syndrome (WFFS) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a single nucleotide variant in the procollagen-lysine-2-oxoglutarate-5-dioxygenase 1 gene (PLOD1:c.2032G>A, p.Gly678Arg). Homozygosity for the PLOD1 variant causes an Ehler-Danlos-like syndrome, which has to date only been reported in warmblood breeds but the WFFS allele has been also detected in the Thoroughbred. To investigate the breed distribution of the WFFS allele, 4081 horses belonging to 38 different breeds were screened. In total, 4.9% of the horses representing 21 breeds carried the WFFS allele. The affected breeds were mainly warmbloods, with carrier frequency as high as 17% in the Hanoverian and Danish Warmblood. The WFFS allele was not detected in most non-warmblood breeds. Exceptions include WFFS carriers in the Thoroughbred (17/716), Haflinger (2/48), American Sport Pony (1/12), and Knabstrupper (3/46). The origin of the WFFS allele remains unknown. The Arabian breed and specifically the stallion Bairactar Or. Ar. (1813), whose offspring were reported to have a similar phenotype in the 19th century, were hypothesized as the origin. DNA from a museum sample of Bairactar Or. Ar. showed that he did not carry the mutated allele. This result, together with the genotypes of 302 Arabians, all homozygous for the reference allele, does not support an Arabian origin of the WFFS allele. Our extensive survey shows the WFFS allele to be of moderate frequency and concern in warmbloods and also in breeds where it may not be expected.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Cavalos/genética , Pró-Colágeno-Lisina 2-Oxoglutarato 5-Dioxigenase/genética , Dermatopatias Genéticas/veterinária , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos/classificação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Mutação Puntual , Dermatopatias Genéticas/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Genéticas/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 5(3): 3645-3646, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367043

RESUMO

Karachaev goat (Capra hircus) is a local breed from North-Caucasus region, Russia. Here we present complete mitochondrial genome of Karachaev goat from the republic of Karachaevo-Cherkessia, Russia. The length of the studied sequence was 16,624 bp in size. It was shown that the studied specimen belonged to haplogroup A.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196682

RESUMO

Native cattle breeds can carry specific signatures of selection reflecting their adaptation to the local environmental conditions and response to the breeding strategy used. In this study, we comprehensively analysed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes to characterise the population structure and detect the selection signatures in Russian native Yaroslavl and Kholmogor dairy cattle breeds, which have been little influenced by introgression with transboundary breeds. Fifty-six samples of pedigree-recorded purebred animals, originating from different breeding farms and representing different sire lines, of the two studied breeds were genotyped using a genome-wide bovine genotyping array (Bovine HD BeadChip). Three statistical analyses-calculation of fixation index (FST) for each SNP for the comparison of the pairs of breeds, hapFLK analysis, and estimation of the runs of homozygosity (ROH) islands shared in more than 50% of animals-were combined for detecting the selection signatures in the genome of the studied cattle breeds. We confirmed nine and six known regions under putative selection in the genomes of Yaroslavl and Kholmogor cattle, respectively; the flanking positions of most of these regions were elucidated. Only two of the selected regions (localised on BTA 14 at 24.4-25.1 Mbp and on BTA 16 at 42.5-43.5 Mb) overlapped in Yaroslavl, Kholmogor and Holstein breeds. In addition, we detected three novel selection sweeps in the genome of Yaroslavl (BTA 4 at 4.74-5.36 Mbp, BTA 15 at 17.80-18.77 Mbp, and BTA 17 at 45.59-45.61 Mbp) and Kholmogor breeds (BTA 12 at 82.40-81.69 Mbp, BTA 15 at 16.04-16.62 Mbp, and BTA 18 at 0.19-1.46 Mbp) by using at least two of the above-mentioned methods. We expanded the list of candidate genes associated with the selected genomic regions and performed their functional annotation. We discussed the possible involvement of the identified candidate genes in artificial selection in connection with the origin and development of the breeds. Our findings on the Yaroslavl and Kholmogor breeds obtained using high-density SNP genotyping and three different statistical methods allowed the detection of novel putative genomic regions and candidate genes that might be under selection. These results might be useful for the sustainable development and conservation of these two oldest Russian native cattle breeds.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Artificial , Animais , Seleção Genética
12.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751575

RESUMO

To examine the genetic diversity and population structure of domestic reindeer, using the BovineHD BeadChip, we genotyped reindeer individuals belonging to the Nenets breed of the five main breeding regions, the Even breed of the Republic of Sakha, the Evenk breed of the Krasnoyarsk and Yakutia regions, and the Chukotka breed of the Chukotka region and its within-breed ecotype, namely, the Chukotka-Khargin, which is bred in Yakutia. The Chukotka reindeer was shown to have the lowest genetic diversity in terms of the allelic richness and heterozygosity indicators. The principal component analysis (PCA) results are consistent with the neighbor-net tree topology, dividing the reindeer into groups according to their habitat location and origin of the breed. Admixture analysis indicated a genetic structuring of two groups of Chukotka origin, the Even breed and most of the geographical groups of the Nenets breed, with the exception of the Murmansk reindeer, the gene pool of which was comprised of the Nenets and apparently the native Sami reindeer. The presence of a genetic component of the Nenets breed in some reindeer inhabiting the Krasnoyarsk region was detected. Our results provide a deeper insight into the current intra-breeding reindeer genetic diversity, which is an important requirement for future reindeer herding strategies and for animal adaptation to environmental changes.

13.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(8)2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824045

RESUMO

Analysis of ancient and historical DNA has great potential to trace the genetic diversity of local cattle populations during their centuries-long development. Forty-nine specimens representing five cattle breeds (Kholmogor, Yaroslavl, Great Russian, Novgorod, and Holland), dated from the end of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century, were genotyped for nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Using a multiple-tube approach, we determined the consensus genotypes of all samples/loci analysed. Amplification errors, including allelic drop-out (ADO) and false alleles (FA), occurred with an average frequency of 2.35% and 0.79%, respectively. A significant effect of allelic length on ADO rate (r2 = 0.620, p = 0.05) was shown. We did not observe significant differences in genetic diversity among historical samples and modern representatives of Kholmogor and Yaroslavl breeds. The unbiased expected heterozygosity values were 0.726-0.774 and 0.708-0.739; the allelic richness values were 2.716-2.893 and 2.661-2.758 for the historical and modern samples, respectively. Analyses of FST and Jost's D genetic distances, and the results of STRUCTURE clustering, showed the maintenance of a part of historical components in the modern populations of Kholmogor and Yaroslavl cattle. Our study contributes to the conservation of biodiversity in the local Russian genetic resources of cattle.


Assuntos
Alelos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Genótipo , Análise de Componente Principal
14.
J Proteomics ; 225: 103884, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593762

RESUMO

Reproductive fluids from the female reproductive tract are gaining attention for their potential to support and optimize reproductive processes, including gamete maturation and embryo culture in vitro. Quantitative proteomics is a powerful way to decipher the proteome of reproductive tract fluids and to identify biologically relevant proteins. The present review describes proteomic strategies for analysing female reproductive fluid proteins. In addition, it considers the strategies for the preparation of oviductal, uterine and follicular fluid samples. Finally, it highlights the main results of quantitative proteomic studies, providing insights into the biological processes related to reproductive biology in farm animals. SIGNIFICANCE: Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have become vitally important for farm animal breeding and much effort is going into the optimization and refinement of the techniques. There are also attempts to imitate physiological conditions by adding reproductive fluids or individual fluid proteins to improve in vitro procedures. A detailed knowledge of the reproductive fluid proteomes is indispensable. The present review summarizes the most widely used quantitative proteomic approaches for the analysis of fluids from the female reproductive tract and highlights the potential of quantitative proteomics to delineate reproductive processes and identify candidate proteins for ARTs in farm animals.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Proteômica , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Oviductos , Reprodução
15.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(8): 1330-1336, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592471

RESUMO

The snow sheep, Ovis nivicola, which is endemic to the mountain ranges of northeastern Siberia, are well adapted to the harsh cold climatic conditions of their habitat. In this study, using long reads of Nanopore sequencing technology, whole-genome sequencing, assembly, and gene annotation of a snow sheep were carried out. Additionally, RNA-seq reads from several tissues were also generated to supplement the gene prediction in snow sheep genome. The assembled genome was ∼2.62 Gb in length and was represented by 7,157 scaffolds with N50 of about 2 Mb. The repetitive sequences comprised of 41% of the total genome. BUSCO analysis revealed that the snow sheep assembly contained full-length or partial fragments of 97% of mammalian universal single-copy orthologs (n = 4,104), illustrating the completeness of the assembly. In addition, a total of 20,045 protein-coding sequences were identified using comprehensive gene prediction pipeline. Of which 19,240 (∼96%) sequences were annotated using protein databases. Moreover, homology-based searches and de novo identification detected 1,484 tRNAs; 243 rRNAs; 1,931 snRNAs; and 782 miRNAs in the snow sheep genome. To conclude, we generated the first de novo genome of the snow sheep using long reads; these data are expected to contribute significantly to our understanding related to evolution and adaptation within the Ovis genus.


Assuntos
Genoma , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Tempo Frio Extremo , Masculino
16.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 88: 102950, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303326

RESUMO

The roan coat color in horses is characterized by dispersed white hair and dark points. This phenotype segregates in a broad range of horse breeds, while the underlying genetic background is still unknown. Previous studies mapped the roan locus to the KIT gene on equine chromosome 3 (ECA3). However, this association could not be validated across different horse breeds. Performing a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) in Noriker horses, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (ECA3:g.79,543.439 A > G) in the intron 17 of the KIT gene. The G -allele of the top associated SNP was present in other roan horses, namely Quarter Horse, Murgese, Slovenian, and Belgian draught horse, while it was absent in a panel of 15 breeds, including 657 non-roan horses. In further 379 gray Lipizzan horses, eight animals exhibited a heterozygous genotype (A/G). Comparative whole-genome sequence analysis of the KIT region revealed two deletions in the downstream region (ECA3:79,533,217_79,533,224delTCGTCTTC; ECA3:79,533,282_79,533,285delTTCT) and a 3 bp deletion combined with 17 bp insertion in intron 20 of KIT (ECA3:79,588,128_79,588,130delinsTTATCTCTATAGTAGTT). Within the Noriker sample, these loci were in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the identified top SNP. Based upon pedigree information and historical records, we were able to trace back the genetic origin of roan coat color to a baroque gene pool. Furthermore, our data suggest allelic heterogeneity and the existence of additional roan alleles in ponies and breeds related to the English Thoroughbred. In order to study the roan phenotype segregating in those breeds, further association and verification studies are required.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Cor de Cabelo/genética , Cavalos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(7)2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261764

RESUMO

Intensive artificial and natural selection have shaped substantial variation among European horse breeds. Whereas most equine selection signature studies employ divergent genetic population structures in order to derive specific inter-breed targets of selection, we screened a total of 1476 horses originating from 12 breeds for the loss of genetic diversity by runs of homozygosity (ROH) utilizing a 670,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array. Overlapping homozygous regions (ROH islands) indicating signatures of selection were identified by breed and similarities/dissimilarities between populations were evaluated. In the entire dataset, 180 ROH islands were identified, whilst 100 islands were breed specific, all other overlapped in 36 genomic regions with at least one ROH island of another breed. Furthermore, two ROH hot spots were determined at horse chromosome 3 (ECA3) and ECA11. Besides the confirmation of previously documented target genes involved in selection for coat color (MC1R, STX17, ASIP), body size (LCORL/NCAPG, ZFAT, LASP1, HMGA2), racing ability (PPARGC1A), behavioral traits (GRIN2B, NTM/OPCML) and gait patterns (DMRT3), several putative target genes related to embryonic morphogenesis (HOXB), energy metabolism (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3), hair follicle morphogenesis (KRT25, KRT27, INTU) and autophagy (RALB) were highlighted. Furthermore, genes were pinpointed which might be involved in environmental adaptation of specific habitats (UVSSA, STXBP4, COX11, HLF, MMD).


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Homozigoto , Cavalos/genética , Proteína Agouti Sinalizadora/genética , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Ontologia Genética , Genoma , Proteína HMGA2/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/genética , Queratinas Específicas do Cabelo/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas ral de Ligação ao GTP/genética
18.
Front Genet ; 10: 423, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178891

RESUMO

Polymorphic markers on the male-specific part of the Y chromosome (MSY) provide useful information for tracking male genealogies. While maternal lineages are well studied in Old World camelids using mitochondrial DNA, the lack of a Y-chromosomal reference sequence hampers the analysis of male-driven demographics. Recently, a shotgun assembly of the horse MSY was generated based on short read next generation sequencing data. The haplotype network resulting from single copy MSY variants using the assembly as a reference revealed sufficient resolution to trace individual male lines in this species. In a similar approach we generated a 3.8 Mbp sized assembly of the MSY of Camelus bactrianus. The camel MSY assembly was used as a reference for variant calling using short read data from eight Old World camelid individuals. Based on 596 single nucleotide variants we revealed a Y-phylogenetic network with seven haplotypes. Wild and domestic Bactrian camels were clearly separated into two different haplogroups with an estimated divergence time of 26,999 ± 2,268 years. Unexpectedly, one wild camel clustered into the domestic Bactrian camels' haplogroup. The observation of a domestic paternal lineage within the wild camel population is concerning in view of the importance to conserve the genetic integrity of these highly endangered species in their natural habitat.

19.
Cell ; 177(6): 1419-1435.e31, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056281

RESUMO

Horse domestication revolutionized warfare and accelerated travel, trade, and the geographic expansion of languages. Here, we present the largest DNA time series for a non-human organism to date, including genome-scale data from 149 ancient animals and 129 ancient genomes (≥1-fold coverage), 87 of which are new. This extensive dataset allows us to assess the modern legacy of past equestrian civilizations. We find that two extinct horse lineages existed during early domestication, one at the far western (Iberia) and the other at the far eastern range (Siberia) of Eurasia. None of these contributed significantly to modern diversity. We show that the influence of Persian-related horse lineages increased following the Islamic conquests in Europe and Asia. Multiple alleles associated with elite-racing, including at the MSTN "speed gene," only rose in popularity within the last millennium. Finally, the development of modern breeding impacted genetic diversity more dramatically than the previous millennia of human management.


Assuntos
Cavalos/genética , Animais , Ásia , Evolução Biológica , Cruzamento/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Domesticação , Equidae/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , História Antiga , Masculino , Filogenia
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6095, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988347

RESUMO

Analysis of the Y chromosome is the best-established way to reconstruct paternal family history in humans. Here, we applied fine-scaled Y-chromosomal haplotyping in horses with biallelic markers and demonstrate the potential of our approach to address the ancestry of sire lines. We de novo assembled a draft reference of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome from Illumina short reads and then screened 5.8 million basepairs for variants in 130 specimens from intensively selected and rural breeds and nine Przewalski's horses. Among domestic horses we confirmed the predominance of a young'crown haplogroup' in Central European and North American breeds. Within the crown, we distinguished 58 haplotypes based on 211 variants, forming three major haplogroups. In addition to two previously characterised haplogroups, one observed in Arabian/Coldblooded and the other in Turkoman/Thoroughbred horses, we uncovered a third haplogroup containing Iberian lines and a North African Barb Horse. In a genealogical showcase, we distinguished the patrilines of the three English Thoroughbred founder stallions and resolved a historic controversy over the parentage of the horse 'Galopin', born in 1872. We observed two nearly instantaneous radiations in the history of Central and Northern European Y-chromosomal lineages that both occurred after domestication 5,500 years ago.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Cavalos/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Domesticação , Feminino , Variação Genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Filogenia
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