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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16929, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729407

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective, two center study was to investigate the dynamics of the microbial changes in relation to the development of ulcerative oral mucositis in autologous SCT (autoSCT) recipients. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with multiple myeloma and treated with high-dose melphalan followed by autoSCT. They were evaluated before, three times weekly during hospitalization, and three months after autoSCT. At each time point an oral rinse was collected and the presence or absence of ulcerative oral mucositis (UOM) was scored (WHO scale). Oral microbiome was determined by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and fungal load by qPCR. Twenty patients (39%) developed UOM. The oral microbiome changed significantly after autoSCT and returned to pre-autoSCT composition after three months. However, changes in microbial diversity and similarity were more pronounced and rapid in patients who developed UOM compared to patients who did not. Already before autoSCT, different taxa discriminated between the 2 groups, suggesting microbially-driven risk factors. Samples with high fungal load (>0.1%) had a significantly different microbial profile from samples without fungi. In conclusion, autoSCT induced significant and reversible changes in the oral microbiome, while patients who did not develop ulcerative oral mucositis had a more resilient microbial ecosystem.

2.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acinar progenitor cells within salivary glands have decreased regenerative capacity and exhibit shorter telomeres in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients. We investigated whether DNA of saliva, PBMCs, and labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsy tissue have shorter telomeres in pSS compared to controls. mRNA expression of genes associated with pSS pathogenesis (ETS1, LEF1, and MMP9), telomere DNA damage response (ATM), senescence (CDKN2A), telomerase inhibition (IFN-y, TGFß1), and the shelterin complex (TPP1, POT1) were assessed in LSG tissue by qRT-PCR to examine potential defects in telomere maintenance. METHODS: Relative telomere length in DNA of saliva, PBMCs, and LSGs from non-pSS sicca and pSS patients was measured using qPCR. Saliva DNA telomere length was further compared to healthy controls. Expression of genes affecting telomere maintenance was analyzed in LSGs using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Primary Sjögren's syndrome patients have shorter telomeres in saliva DNA (n = 21) than healthy controls (n = 27) (P = .0035). ATM mRNA expression was higher in pSS LSG tissue (n = 16) vs non-pSS sicca patients (n = 13) (P = .0283) and strongly correlated with LEF1, TPP1, and POT1 (P < .01, r > 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with pSS exhibited significant telomere erosion in saliva DNA. Overexpression of ATM in LSGs could represent a compensatory response to telomere shortening. The role of LEF1 in telomere erosion remains to be elucidated.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2019(53)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425594

RESUMO

Characterization of the role of oral microbiome in cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis (CTOM) is critical in preventing the clinically deleterious effects on patients' health that are associated with CTOM. Funding initiatives related to the National Institutes of Health human microbiome project have resulted in groundbreaking advancements in biology and medicine during the last decade. These advancements have shown that a human being is in fact a superorganism made of human cells and associated symbiotic or commensal microbiota. In this review, we describe the state of science as it relates to fundamental knowledge on oral microbiome and its role in CTOM. We also discuss how state-of-the-art technologies and systems biology tools may be used to help tackle the difficult challenges ahead to develop effective treatments or preventive therapies for oral mucositis. We make a clear distinction between disease processes pertaining to the oral microbiome, which includes opportunistic pathogens that may be defined as pathobionts, and those infectious disease processes initiated by exogenous pathogens. We also explored the extent to which knowledge from the gastrointestinal tract in disease and intestinal mucositis could help us better understand CTOM pathobiology. Finally, we propose a model in which the oral microbiome participates in the current five-step CTOM pathobiology model. With the advent of more sophisticated metagenomics technologies and methods of analysis, much hope lies ahead to implement an effective holistic approach to treat cancer patients affected by CTOM.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2019(53)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425596

RESUMO

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw is an oral complication in cancer patients being treated with either antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs. The first reports of MRONJ were published in 2003. Hundreds of manuscripts have been published in the medical and dental literature describing the complication, clinical and radiographic signs and symptoms, possible pathophysiology, and management. Despite this extensive literature, the pathobiological mechanisms by which medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw develops have not yet been fully delineated. The aim of this manuscript is to present current knowledge about the complication ragarding to the definition, known risk factors, and clinical management recommendations. Based on this current state of the science, we also propose research directions that have potential to enhance the management of future oncology patients who are receiving these agents.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2019(53)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425599

RESUMO

The deleterious effects of head and neck radiation on bone, with osteoradionecrosis (ORN) as the major disabling side effect of head and neck cancer treatment, are difficult to prevent and hard to treat. This review focuses on the current state of the science regarding the pathobiology, clinical impact, and management of ORN. With regard to the pathobiology underlying ORN, it is not yet confirmed whether the current radiation schedules by 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity modified radiotherapy result in an unchanged, decreased, or increased risk of developing ORN when compared with conventional radiation treatment, the main risk factor being the total radiation dose delivered on any clinically significant surface of the mandible. With regard to the prevention of ORN, a thorough, early pre-irradiation dental assessment is still considered the first step to reduce the hazard of developing ORN post-radiotherapy, and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment reduces the risk of developing ORN in case of dental surgery in an irradiated field. With regard to the treatment of ORN, the focus is bidirectional: elimination of the necrotic bone and improving the vascularity of the normal tissues that were included in the radiation portal. The cure rate of limited ORN by conservative therapy is approximately 50%, and the cure rate of surgical approaches when conservative therapy has failed is approximately 40%. Whether it is effective to support conservative or surgical treatment with HBO as an adjuvant is not set. HBO treatment is shown to increase the vascularity of hard and soft tissues and has been reported to be beneficial in selected cases. However, in randomized clinical trials comparing the preventive effect of HBO on developing ORN with, eg, antibiotic coverage in patients needing dental surgery, the preventive effect of HBO was not shown to surpass that of a more conservative approach. More recently, pharmacologic management was introduced in the treatment of ORN with success, but its efficacy has to be confirmed in randomized clinical trials. The major problem of performing well-designed randomized clinical trials in ORN is having access to large numbers of patients with well-defined, comparable cases of ORN. Because many institutions will not have large numbers of such ORN cases, national and international scientific societies must be approached to join multicenter trials. Fortunately, the interest of funding organizations and the number researchers with an interest in healthy aging is growing. Research aimed at prevention and reduction of the morbidity of cancer treatment fits well within these programs.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2019(53)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425601

RESUMO

Oral mucositis is a common side-effect associated with conventional cancer therapy and has also recently been reported in association with newly emerging cancer therapies. It is characterized as an inflammation of the oral mucous membranes accompanied by many complex mucosal and submucosal changes. Ulcerative oral mucositis can cause significant oral pain, impair nutritional intake, lead to local or systemic infection, and cause significant economic cost. In addition, it may necessitate interruptions in cancer therapy, thus adversely affecting patient prognosis. This review presents the current understanding of the pathogenesis of mucositis and discusses evidence-based clinical management strategies for oral mucositis. In addition, key research questions for future investigation are identified, followed by a discussion of strategies to promote development and funding of the needed research.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and serological manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in ethnic groups of the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 648 patients with primary SS: 20 African-American (AA), 164 American Indian (AI), 426 European-American (EA) and 38 of other races evaluated in a multi-disciplinary sicca research clinic. RESULTS: AA subjects comprised 3.1% of the SS cohort, much lower than the percentage of AA in the State of Oklahoma (p=3.01xE-05), the United States (p=2.24E-13) or a lupus cohort at the same institution (p=4.26x10E-27). In contrast, the percentage of AI in the SS cohort (25.3%) was much higher than expected (p=3.17E-09 vs. SLE; p=6.36-26 vs. Oklahoma and p=8.14E-96 vs. USA population). The SS classification criteria were similar between AA and EA, but subjects of AI ancestry had lower rates of abnormal tear and salivary flow as well as anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies. Paradoxically, AI had higher levels of disease activity (mean±SD ESSDAI 3.77±4.78) in comparison to whites (2.90±4.12; p=0.011) and more extraglandular manifestations affecting mainly the articular and glandular domains. Meanwhile, AA patients were characterized by higher rates of hypergammaglobulinemia (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.39-8.65, p=0.01), elevated ESR (OR 3.95, 95%CI 1.46-9.95, p=0.009), and parotid enlargement (OR 4.40, 95%CI 1.49-13.07, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: American Indians are affected at high rates with SS but present with few classical features, potentially preventing timely diagnosis. In contrast to SLE, SS is infrequent and not more severe amongst AA, but the triad of hypergammaglobulinemia, increased ESR and parotid enlargement warrants extra vigilance for lymphomagenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Oral Dis ; 25(6): 1564-1572, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A novel Oral Lichen Planus Symptom Severity Measure was developed as a clinical outcome assessment of the daily symptom experience of patients with oral lichen planus. METHODS: A literature review and expert input were followed by open-ended concept elicitation interviews with 17 adults with oral lichen planus in the United States and Ireland. Item content was generated, and the interviews continued until input saturation was reached. The final electronic version of the measure was cognitively debriefed in 6 US patients and subsequently translated and linguistically validated in Germany and Denmark. RESULTS: Concept elicitation interviews demonstrated content validity and saturation in identifying symptoms and daily activities that generate symptoms in patients with oral lichen planus. The content and electronic daily diary format demonstrated content validity during cognitive debriefing interviews. Linguistic validation of the 7-item Oral Lichen Planus Symptom Severity Measure in Germany and Denmark confirmed the content validity of the German and Danish versions. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative research methods generated evidence that the 7-item Oral Lichen Planus Symptom Severity Measure version 1.0 is a well-defined assessment tool to characterize the severity, specificity and variations of symptoms in patients with oral lichen planus.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if salivary hypofunction increases the incidence of oral fungal infections (OFIs) after topical steroid use for the management of oral lichen planus (OLP). STUDY DESIGN: Patients with a diagnosis of OLP, treated for at least 2 weeks with topical steroids, had baseline salivary flow evaluations completed, and had a follow-up visit within 5 weeks of steroids being prescribed were assessed. Patients were evaluated for clinical signs of fungal infection at follow-up visits. RESULTS: Forty-Seven patients (91% female) met the inclusion criteria, with 21.3% developing an OFI after topical steroid use. Demographic characteristics, type of OLP, steroid used, and antifungal used did not impact the development of an OFI. The mean stimulated salivary flow was significantly lower in the group that developed an OFI compared with the group that did not develop an OFI (8.31 mL/15min vs 15.4 mL/15min, respectively; P = 0.0006). A higher incidence of OFIs occurred in the low stimulated flow group versus the normal flow group (39% vs 4%, respectively). Most patients in the OFI group received a preventative antifungal (90%). CONCLUSIONS: OFIs increased after steroid treatment in patients with OLP who had low stimulated salivary flows. Antifungals (90%) were not effective in preventing OFIs in patients with OLP who had salivary hypofunction and were treated with topical steroids.

10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 7(4): e103, 2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral cavity is a common site of complications related to the cytotoxic effect of high-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Considering our limited understanding of the burden of illness in the oral cavity from various cytotoxic therapies, it is difficult to produce evidence-based, preventive and management protocols. A prospective multicenter study is necessary to collect data on the burden of illness from various cytotoxic regimens. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this prospective international observational multicenter study in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients are to establish the nature, incidence and temporal relationship of oral complications related to conditioning regimens (chemotherapy with or without total body irradiation), stem cell transplantation and the immunologic reactions (mainly graft-vs-host-disease) that may follow, and to determine what subjective and objective oral complications related to treatment can predict negative clinical and economic outcomes and reduced quality of life. METHODS: Adult patients at six study sites receiving full intensity conditioning, reduced intensity conditioning or nonmyeloablative conditioning, followed by autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell infusion, are included. A pre-treatment assessment includes medical conditions, planned chemo- and radiation therapy regimen, medications, allergies, social history, patient report of oral problems, dental history, subjective oral complaints, objective measures of oral conditions, current laboratory values, dental treatment recommended and untreated dental disease. Starting 1-3 days after hematopoietic stem cell infusion, a bedside assessment is completed 3 days per week until resolution of neutropenia. A patient questionnaire is also completed during hospitalization. Beyond this time, patients with continued oral mucositis or other oral problems are followed 1 day per week in an inpatient or outpatient setting. Additional visits for urgent care for acute oral problems after hospitalization are documented. Autologous transplant patients are being followed up at 100 days (SD 30 days) and at 1 year (SD 30 days) post-transplantation to identify any long-term side effects. Patients treated with allogeneic transplantation are being followed at 100 days (SD 30 days), 6 months (SD 30 days), and 12 months (SD 30 days). The follow-up assessments include cancer response to therapy, current medical conditions, medications, subjective and objective oral findings, quality of life measures and laboratory values. The targeted enrollment is 254 patients who have received HSCT. RESULTS: A total of 260 participants have been enrolled, with 233 (91%) who have received HSCT. We anticipate enrollment of 20-30 additional participants to obtain the sample size of 254 enrolled participants who have received HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the ongoing prospective study will provide a unique dataset to understand the impact of oral complications on patients undergoing HSCT and provide needed evidence for guidelines regarding the management of this patient cohort.

12.
Dent Clin North Am ; 62(1): 143-154, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126491

RESUMO

The clinical manifestations of oral cancer and the effects of treatment can have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life. Physiologic functions, cosmetic appearance, and psychological well-being can become compromised during the diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship of patients with oral cancer. This article addresses the relationship of oral cancer and quality of life, as well as the different aspects affected by this condition.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais/complicações , Neoplasias Bucais/psicologia , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Sobreviventes/psicologia
13.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 148(12): 868-877, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines exist for preventive dental care before radiation therapy (RT) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). An ongoing multicenter, prospective cohort study, Clinical Registry of Dental Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancer Patients (OraRad), is addressing this knowledge gap. The authors evaluated the level of dental disease before RT in the OraRad cohort, factors associated with dental disease, and dental treatment recommendations made before RT. METHODS: As part of OraRad, the authors assessed caries, periodontal disease, dental recommendations, and dental interventions performed before RT. RESULTS: Baseline measures were reported for 356 participants (77% men) with mean (standard deviation) age of 59.9 (11.0) years. Measures included mean number of teeth (22.9), participants with at least 1 tooth with caries (37.2%), and participants with at least 1 tooth with probing depth 5 millimeters or greater (47.4%). Factors associated with less extensive dental disease before RT included having at least a high school diploma, having dental insurance, history of routine dental care, and a smaller tumor size (T1 or T2). Based on the dental examination before RT, 163 (49.5%) participants had dental treatment recommended before RT, with extractions recommended most frequently. CONCLUSION: Many patients with HCN require dental treatment before RT; more than one-third require extractions. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Most patients have some level of dental disease at the start of RT, indicating the importance of dental evaluation before RT. By observing dental outcomes after RT, OraRad has the potential to determine the best dental treatment recommendations for patients with HCN.

14.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 19(1): 192, 2017 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) shares many clinical and pathological similarities with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These autoimmune diseases mostly affect women. In this study, concept profile analysis (CPA) and gene expression meta-analysis were used to identify genes potentially involved in SS pathogenesis. METHODS: Human genes associated with SS, SLE, and RA were identified using the CPA tool, Anni 2.1. The differential mRNA expression of genes common to SS and SLE (SS-SLE) was determined in female peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using NCBI-GEO2R. Differentially expressed (DE) SS-SLE PBMC genes in common with the SS-SLE CPA-identified genes were analyzed for differential expression in salivary glands or synovial biopsies, and for genes common to SS and RA and SLE and RA, analyzing differential expression in salivary glands in SS, synovial fibroblasts in RA, and synovial fluid in SLE. Among common genes, DE genes found in salivary gland mRNA expression in patients with SS were used for gene enrichment and SS molecular network construction. Secondary analysis was performed to identify DE genes unique to the disease site tissues, by excluding PBMC and CPA common DE genes to complement the SS network. RESULTS: We identified 22 DE genes in salivary gland datasets in SS that have not previously been clearly associated with SS pathogenesis. Among these, higher levels of checkpoint kinase 1 (CHEK1), V-Ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1), and lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1) were significantly correlated with higher matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) levels. Higher MMP9 levels have been implicated in degradation of salivary gland structural integrity, leading to hypo-salivation in patients with SS. Salivary gland mRNA expression of MMP9 and the expression of cytokine CXCL10 were higher in patients with SS. CXCL10 has been shown to increase MMP9 expression and therefore may also play an important role in SS pathogenesis. CONCLUSION: Using CPA and gene expression analysis, we identified factors targeting MMP9 expression and/or function, namely CHEK1, CXCL10, ETS1, LEF1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1; altered mRNA expression of these could increase expression/activity of MMP9 in a concerted manner, thereby potentially impacting SS pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Semântica , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia
15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(11): 2187-2192, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are related by clinical and serologic manifestations as well as genetic risks. Both diseases are more commonly found in women than in men, at a ratio of ~10 to 1. Common X chromosome aneuploidies, 47,XXY and 47,XXX, are enriched among men and women, respectively, in either disease, suggesting a dose effect on the X chromosome. METHODS: We examined cohorts of SS and SLE patients by constructing intensity plots of X chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles, along with determining the karyotype of selected patients. RESULTS: Among ~2,500 women with SLE, we found 3 patients with a triple mosaic, consisting of 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX. Among ~2,100 women with SS, 1 patient had 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX, with a triplication of the distal p arm of the X chromosome in the 47,XXX cells. Neither the triple mosaic nor the partial triplication was found among the controls. In another SS cohort, we found a mother/daughter pair with partial triplication of this same region of the X chromosome. The triple mosaic occurs in ~1 in 25,000-50,000 live female births, while partial triplications are even rarer. CONCLUSION: Very rare X chromosome abnormalities are present among patients with either SS or SLE and may inform the location of a gene(s) that mediates an X dose effect, as well as critical cell types in which such an effect is operative.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Mosaicismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Alelos , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Cariótipo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Trissomia/genética , Síndrome de Turner/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Turner/genética
16.
PLoS Genet ; 13(6): e1006820, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640813

RESUMO

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a common, autoimmune exocrinopathy distinguished by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Patients frequently develop serious complications including lymphoma, pulmonary dysfunction, neuropathy, vasculitis, and debilitating fatigue. Dysregulation of type I interferon (IFN) pathway is a prominent feature of SS and is correlated with increased autoantibody titers and disease severity. To identify genetic determinants of IFN pathway dysregulation in SS, we performed cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses focusing on differentially expressed type I IFN-inducible transcripts identified through a transcriptome profiling study. Multiple cis-eQTLs were associated with transcript levels of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) peaking at rs10774671 (PeQTL = 6.05 × 10-14). Association of rs10774671 with SS susceptibility was identified and confirmed through meta-analysis of two independent cohorts (Pmeta = 2.59 × 10-9; odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.86). The risk allele of rs10774671 shifts splicing of OAS1 from production of the p46 isoform to multiple alternative transcripts, including p42, p48, and p44. We found that the isoforms were differentially expressed within each genotype in controls and patients with and without autoantibodies. Furthermore, our results showed that the three alternatively spliced isoforms lacked translational response to type I IFN stimulation. The p48 and p44 isoforms also had impaired protein expression governed by the 3' end of the transcripts. The SS risk allele of rs10774671 has been shown by others to be associated with reduced OAS1 enzymatic activity and ability to clear viral infections, as well as reduced responsiveness to IFN treatment. Our results establish OAS1 as a risk locus for SS and support a potential role for defective viral clearance due to altered IFN response as a genetic pathophysiological basis of this complex autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/genética , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/biossíntese , Alelos , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome de Sjogren/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/patologia , Viroses/genética , Viroses/virologia
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 17(1): 59, 2017 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28241807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most head and neck (H&N) cancer patients receive high-dose external beam radiation therapy (RT), often in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Unfortunately, high-dose RT has significant adverse effects on the oral and maxillofacial tissues, some of which persist for the life of the patient. However, dental management of these patients is based largely on individual and expert opinion, as few studies have followed patients prospectively to determine factors that predict adverse oral sequelae. In addition, many previous studies were conducted before wide-spread adoption of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. The objective of this multi-center study is to systematically evaluate the oral health of subjects for 2 years after commencement of RT, with the goal of identifying risk factors that predict adverse oral outcomes post-RT. METHODS: This is a prospective multi-center longitudinal cohort study of H&N cancer patients who receive high-dose RT with curative intent. Planned enrollment is 756 subjects at 6 primary clinical sites (and their affiliated sites) in the USA. A baseline visit is conducted prior to the beginning of RT. Follow-up visits are conducted at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months from the start of RT. The primary outcome measure is the 2-year rate of tooth loss in patients who have received at least one session of external beam RT for H&N cancer. Secondary outcome measures include the incidence of exposed intraoral bone; incidence of post-extraction complications; change in Decayed Missing and Filled Surfaces (DMFS); change in periodontal measures; change in stimulated whole salivary flow rates; change in mouth opening; topical fluoride utilization; chronic oral mucositis incidence; changes in RT-specific quality of life measures; and change in oral pain scores. DISCUSSION: This study will contribute to a better understanding of the dental complications experienced by these patients. It will also enable identification of risk factors associated with adverse outcomes such as tooth loss and osteoradionecrosis. These findings will support the development of evidence-based guidelines and inform the planning of future interventional studies, with the goal of advancing improvements in patient care and outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02057510 , registered 5 February 2014.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Osteorradionecrose/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Perda de Dente/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos de Coortes , Índice CPO , Humanos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteorradionecrose/epidemiologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Doses de Radiação , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0170249, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of smoking habits with the clinical, serological, and histopathological manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and non-Sjögren's sicca (non-SS sicca). METHODS: Cross-sectional case-control study of 1288 patients with sicca symptoms (587 SS and 701 non-SS sicca) evaluated in a multi-disciplinary research clinic. Smoking patterns were obtained from questionnaire data and disease-related clinical and laboratory data were compared between current, past, ever, and never smokers. RESULTS: Current smoking rates were 4.6% for SS patients compared to 14.1% in non-SS sicca (p = 5.17x10E-09), 18% in a local lupus cohort (p = 1.13x10E-14) and 16.8% in the community (p = 4.12x10E-15). Current smoking was protective against SS classification (OR 0.35, 95%CI 0.22-0.56, FDR q = 1.9E10-05), focal lymphocytic sialadenitis (OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.15-0.44, FDR q = 1.52x10E-06), focus score ≥1 (OR 0.22, 95%CI 0.13-0.39, FDR q = 1.43x10E-07), and anti-Ro/SSA(+) (OR 0.36, 95%CI 0.2-0.64, FDR q = 0.0009); ever smoking was protective against the same features and against anti-La/SSB(+) (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.39-0.70, FDR q = 5.82x10E-05). Duration of smoking was inversely correlated with SS even after controlling for socioeconomic status, BMI, alcohol and caffeine consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Current tobacco smoking is negatively and independently associated with SS, protecting against disease-associated humoral and cellular autoimmunity. The overall smoking rate amongst SS patients is significantly lower than in matched populations and the effects of smoking are proportional to exposure duration. In spite of the protective effects of tobacco on SS manifestations, it is associated with other serious comorbidities such as lung disease, cardiovascular risk and malignancy, and should thus be strongly discouraged in patients with sicca.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Sjogren/sangue , Síndrome de Sjogren/patologia , Fumar , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Fumar/efeitos adversos
19.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 69(4): 517-527, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27390247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Sjögren's Syndrome Foundation clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are designed to improve quality and consistency of care in Sjögren's syndrome by offering recommendations for management. METHODS: Management questions for the systemic manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome were posed by the CPG committee with input from patients and rheumatologists. Clinical questions were assigned to a topic review group that performed systematic reviews and data extraction and drafted guidelines. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were rated using the American Society of Clinical Oncology's modification of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Guideline recommendations were reviewed by a consensus expert panel (CEP) composed of 30-40 clinicians from academia and community practices, as well as registered nurses and patients, using a modified Delphi process. A CEP agreement level of 75% was set as a minimum for adoption of a guideline recommendation. RESULTS: Consensus was achieved for 19 recommendations; for 11 additional modules, available data were insufficient to allow a recommendation to be formulated. Of the 19 recommendations, 15 required 1 Delphi round, 2 required 2 rounds, and 2 required 3 rounds. CONCLUSION: Key recommendations include a decision tree for the use of oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for inflammatory musculoskeletal pain, use of self-care measures and advice regarding exercise to reduce fatigue, and the use of rituximab in selected clinical settings for oral and ocular dryness and for certain extraglandular manifestations, including vasculitis, severe parotid swelling, inflammatory arthritis, pulmonary disease, and mononeuritis multiplex. The CPG committee strongly discouraged the use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors for sicca symptoms and for the majority of clinical contexts in primary Sjögren's syndrome.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Musculoesquelética/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Consenso , Árvores de Decisões , Técnica Delfos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Fadiga/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/etiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/diagnóstico , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Autocuidado , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 42(3): 531-51, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27431353

RESUMO

Sjögren's disease is associated with a high burden of illness, diminished quality of life, and increased health care costs. The Sjögren's Syndrome Foundation developed the first US clinical practice guidelines for management of the oral, ocular, and rheumatologic or systemic manifestations. Guideline recommendations were reviewed by a consensus expert panel using a modified Delphi process. This initiative should improve the quality and consistency of care for Sjögren's disease in the United States, guide insurance reimbursement, and define areas for future study. Guidelines will be periodically reviewed and revised as new information becomes available.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Técnica Delfos , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Autocuidado , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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