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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13805, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226613

RESUMO

Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40-80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was - 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI - 0.98; - 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m2 increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.

2.
Talanta ; 233: 122568, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215064

RESUMO

Proteomics of human tissues and isolated cellular subpopulations create new opportunities for therapy and monitoring of a patients' treatment in the clinic. Important considerations in such analysis include recovery of adequate amounts of protein for analysis and reproducibility in sample collection. In this study we compared several protocols for proteomic sample preparation: i) filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), ii) in-solution digestion (ISD) and iii) a pressure-assisted digestion (PCT) method. PCT method is known for already a decade [1], however it is not widely used in proteomic research. We assessed protocols for proteome profiling of isolated immune cell subsets and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. Our results show that the ISD method has very good efficiency of protein and peptide identification from the whole proteome, while the FASP method is particularly effective in identification of membrane proteins. Pressure-assisted digestion methods generally provide lower numbers of protein/peptide identifications, but have gained in popularity due to their shorter digestion time making them considerably faster than for ISD or FASP. Furthermore, PCT does not result in substantial sample loss when applied to samples of 50 000 cells. Analysis of FFPE tissues shows comparable results. ISD method similarly yields the highest number of identifications. Furthermore, proteins isolated from FFPE samples show a significant reduction of cleavages at lysine sites due to chemical modifications with formaldehyde-such as methylation (+14 Da) being among the most common. The data we present will be helpful for making decisions about the robust preparation of clinical samples for biomarker discovery and studies on pathomechanisms of various diseases.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Proteômica , Digestão , Formaldeído , Humanos , Inclusão em Parafina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299799

RESUMO

Biomarkers of tobacco exposure are known to be associated with disease risk but previous studies are limited in number and restricted to certain regions. We conducted a nested case-control study examining baseline levels and subsequent lung cancer incidence among current male exclusive cigarette smokers in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran. We calculated geometric mean biomarker concentrations for 28 matched cases and 52 controls for the correlation of biomarker levels among controls and for adjusted odds' ratios (ORs) for lung cancer incidence by biomarker concentration, accounting for demographic characteristics, smoking quantity and duration, and opium use. Lung cancer cases had higher average levels of most biomarkers including total nicotine equivalents (TNE-2), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and 3-hydroxyfluorene (3-FLU). Many biomarkers correlated highly with one another including TNE-2 with NNAL and N-Acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (2CYEMA), and N-Acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (t4HBEMA) with N-Acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl-1-methyl)-L-cysteine (3HMPMA) and N-Acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (4HMBEMA). Lung cancer risk increased with concentration for several biomarkers, including TNE-2 (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.03, 4.78) and NNN (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.13, 5.27), and estimates were significant after further adjustment for demographic and smoking characteristics for 2CYEMA (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 4.55), N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (2CAEMA) (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.01, 4.55), and N-Acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (2HPMA) (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.04, 7.81). Estimates were not significant with adjustment for opium use. Concentrations of many biomarkers were higher at the baseline for participants who subsequently developed lung cancer than among the matched controls. Odds of lung cancer were higher for several biomarkers including with adjustment for smoking exposure for some but not with adjustment for opium use.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested positive associations for iron and red meat intake with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Inherited pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway are known to cause iron overload and hemochromatosis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway is associated with PDAC. METHODS: We conducted a pathway analysis of the hepcidin-regulating genes using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics generated from 4 genome-wide association studies in 2 large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method. Our population consisted of 9253 PDAC cases and 12,525 controls of European descent. Our analysis included 11 hepcidin-regulating genes [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), ferritin light chain (FTL), hepcidin (HAMP), homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)] and their surrounding genomic regions (±20 kb) for a total of 412 SNPs. RESULTS: The hepcidin-regulating gene pathway was significantly associated with PDAC (P = 0.002), with the HJV, TFR2, TFR1, BMP6, and HAMP genes contributing the most to the association. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that genetic susceptibility related to the hepcidin-regulating gene pathway is associated with PDAC risk and suggest a potential role of iron metabolism in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to evaluate effect modification by intake of iron-rich foods on this association.

5.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and about one half of patients with lung cancer are active smokers at diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether quitting smoking after diagnosis of lung cancer affects the risk for disease progression and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective study of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were recruited between 2007 and 2016 and followed annually through 2020. SETTING: N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology and City Clinical Oncological Hospital No. 1, Moscow, Russia. PATIENTS: 517 current smokers who were diagnosed with early-stage (IA-IIIA) NSCLC. MEASUREMENTS: Probabilities of overall survival, progression-free survival, and lung cancer-specific mortality and hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. RESULTS: During an average of 7 years of follow-up, 327 (63.2%) deaths, 273 (52.8%) cancer-specific deaths, and 172 (33.7%) cases of tumor progression (local recurrence or metastasis) were recorded. The adjusted median overall survival time was 21.6 months higher among patients who had quit smoking than those who continued smoking (6.6 vs. 4.8 years, respectively; P = 0.001). Higher 5-year overall survival (60.6% vs. 48.6%; P = 0.001) and progression-free survival (54.4% vs. 43.8%; P = 0.004) were observed among patients who quit than those who continued smoking. After adjustments, smoking cessation remained associated with decreased risk for all-cause mortality (HR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.53 to 0.85]), cancer-specific mortality (HR, 0.75 [CI, 0.58 to 0.98]), and disease progression (HR, 0.70 [CI, 0.56 to 0.89]). Similar effects were observed among mild to moderate and heavy smokers and patients with earlier and later cancer stages. LIMITATION: Exposure measurements were based on self-reported questionnaires. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation after diagnosis materially improved overall and progression-free survival among current smokers with early-stage lung cancer.

6.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244212

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by large intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) containing free and esterified cholesterol; however, the functional significance of cholesterol accumulation in ccRCC cells is unknown. We demonstrate that, surprisingly, genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes are repressed in ccRCC, suggesting a dependency on exogenous cholesterol. Mendelian randomization analyses performed on 31,000 individuals indicate a causal link between elevated circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ccRCC risk. Depriving ccRCC cells of either cholesterol or HDL compromises proliferation and survival in vitro and tumor growth in vivo; in contrast, elevated dietary cholesterol promotes tumor growth. Scavenger Receptor B1 (SCARB1) is uniquely required for cholesterol import, and inhibiting SCARB1 is sufficient to cause ccRCC cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and decreased PI3K/AKT signaling. Collectively, we reveal a cholesterol dependency in ccRCC and implicate SCARB1 as a novel therapeutic target for treating kidney cancer.

7.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(6): 512-520, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117479

RESUMO

Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are essential building blocks for the synthesis of ceramides and sphingolipids. The first step in the fatty acid elongation cycle is catalyzed by the 3-keto acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthases (in mammals, ELOVL elongases). Although ELOVLs are implicated in common diseases, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and Parkinson's, their underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here we report the structure of the human ELOVL7 elongase, which comprises an inverted transmembrane barrel surrounding a 35-Å long tunnel containing a covalently attached product analogue. The structure reveals the substrate-binding sites in the narrow tunnel and an active site deep in the membrane. We demonstrate that chain elongation proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate involving the second histidine in the canonical HxxHH motif. The unusual substrate-binding arrangement and chemistry suggest mechanisms for selective ELOVL inhibition, relevant for diseases where VLCFAs accumulate, such as X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152285

RESUMO

Summary: Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder that has an estimated incidence of 1 in 5000. It is caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene, which encodes the extracellular matrix protein type 1 fibrillin. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), also inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, is a rare benign disorder characterised by hypercalcaemia, hypocalciuria and relative hyperparathyroidism with normal or high plasma PTH levels, with an estimated incidence of between 1 in 10 000 to 1 in 100 000. We report a unique case of a 26-year-old man referred for investigation of hypercalcaemia, who also had clinical features of Marfan syndrome but no previous genetic investigations. Calculated fractional urinary excretion of calcium was low (0.0005) following correction of vitamin D deficiency, raising the possibility of FHH. Genetic testing for Marfan syndrome and FHH, via a hyperparathyroidism multiplex gene panel test, revealed a novel truncating variant in the FBN1 gene (c.8481T>G; p.(Tyr2827Ter)), consistent with Marfan syndrome; and a pathogenic truncating variant in the CaSR gene (c.741dupT; p.[Asp248Ter]), which confirmed the diagnosis of FHH. The patient's mother was subsequently found to have mild hypercalcaemia (adjusted calcium 2.76 mmol/L) and is also heterozygous for the same CaSR mutation. Genetic testing of his father confirmed the presence of the same FBN1 gene mutation. This case illustrates the importance of making robust diagnoses in the era of modern genomic medicine, confirming FHH as the cause of hypercalcaemia means that no treatment is warranted and the patient can be reassured. Learning points: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) should always be excluded during the investigation of hypercalcaemia by measuring urinary calcium: creatinine clearance ratio. Diagnosing FHH is important as the condition is benign and misdiagnosing patients with primary hyperparathyroidism could potentially lead to unnecessary morbidity from parathyroid surgery. Genetic testing is increasingly available for a variety of inherited conditions including Marfan syndrome and FHH. Patients who present with clinical features suggestive of a particular genetic condition should undergo prompt, appropriate confirmatory testing wherever possible. Taking a thorough family history is vital when assessing patients presenting with endocrine conditions, as this could prompt cascade testing and appropriate genetic counselling where necessary.

9.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(4): 1902-1917, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gliomas in dogs remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinicopathologic findings, diagnostic imaging features and survival of a large sample of dogs with glioma using the Comparative Brain Tumor Consortium diagnostic classification. ANIMALS: Ninety-one dogs with histopathological diagnosis of glioma. METHODS: Multicentric retrospective case series. Signalment, clinicopathologic findings, diagnostic imaging characteristics, treatment, and outcome were used. Tumors were reclassified according to the new canine glioma diagnostic scheme. RESULTS: No associations were found between clinicopathologic findings or survival and tumor type or grade. However, definitive treatments provided significantly (P = .03) improved median survival time (84 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 45-190) compared to palliative treatment (26 days; 95% CI, 11-54). On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), oligodendrogliomas were associated with smooth margins and T1-weighted hypointensity compared to astrocytomas (odds ratio [OR], 42.5; 95% CI, 2.42-744.97; P = .04; OR, 45.5; 95% CI, 5.78-333.33; P < .001, respectively) and undefined gliomas (OR, 84; 95% CI, 3.43-999.99; P = .02; OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.51-500.00; P = .008, respectively) and were more commonly in contact with the ventricles than astrocytomas (OR, 7.47; 95% CI, 1.03-53.95; P = .049). Tumor spread to neighboring brain structures was associated with high-grade glioma (OR, 6.02; 95% CI, 1.06-34.48; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Dogs with gliomas have poor outcomes, but risk factors identified in survival analysis inform prognosis and the newly identified MRI characteristics could refine diagnosis of tumor type and grade.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Doenças do Cão , Glioma , Oligodendroglioma , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/veterinária , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Oligodendroglioma/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073316

RESUMO

Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is emerging as a potential tumor biomarker. CfDNA-based biomarkers may be applicable in tumors without an available non-invasive screening method among at-risk populations. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and residents of the Asian cancer belt are examples of those malignancies and populations. Previous epidemiological studies using cfDNA have pointed to the need for high volumes of good quality plasma (i.e., >1 mL plasma with 0 or 1 cycles of freeze-thaw) rather than archival serum, which is often the main available source of cfDNA in retrospective studies. Here, we have investigated the concordance of TP53 mutations in tumor tissue and cfDNA extracted from archival serum left-over from 42 cases and 39 matched controls (age, gender, residence) in a high-risk area of Northern Iran (Golestan). Deep sequencing of TP53 coding regions was complemented with a specialized variant caller (Needlestack). Overall, 23% to 31% of mutations were concordantly detected in tumor and serum cfDNA (based on two false discovery rate thresholds). Concordance was positively correlated with high cfDNA concentration, smoking history (p-value = 0.02) and mutations with a high potential of neoantigen formation (OR; 95%CI = 1.9 (1.11-3.29)), suggesting that tumor DNA release in the bloodstream might reflect the effects of immune and inflammatory context on tumor cell turnover. We identified TP53 mutations in five controls, one of whom was subsequently diagnosed with ESCC. Overall, the results showed that cfDNA mutations can be reliably identified by deep sequencing of archival serum, with a rate of success comparable to plasma. Nonetheless, 70% non-identifiable mutations among cancer patients and 12% mutation detection in controls are the main challenges in applying cfDNA to detect tumor-related variants when blindly targeting whole coding regions of the TP53 gene in ESCC.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Mutação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/sangue , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soro , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/sangue
11.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(6): 785-793, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037709

RESUMO

Recently, ovarian cancer research has evolved considerably because of the emerging recognition that rather than a single disease, ovarian carcinomas comprise several different histotypes that vary by etiologic origin, risk factors, molecular profiles, therapeutic approaches and clinical outcome. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, as well as important clinical advances, it remains the eighth most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and the most fatal gynecologic cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the United States National Cancer Institute jointly convened an expert panel on ovarian carcinoma to develop consensus research priorities based on evolving scientific discoveries. Expertise ranged from etiology, prevention, early detection, pathology, model systems, molecular characterization and treatment/clinical management. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge and highlights expert consensus on future directions to continue advancing etiologic, epidemiologic and prognostic research on ovarian carcinoma.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058014

RESUMO

The ccA and ccB molecular subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have well-characterized prognostic relevance. However, it is not known whether they possess distinct etiologies. We investigated the relationships between these subtypes and RCC risk factors within a case-control study conducted in Eastern Europe. We analyzed risk factor data for ccA (n = 144) and ccB (n = 106) cases and 1476 controls through case-only and case-control comparisons to assess risk factor differences across subtypes using logistic and polytomous regression models. We also performed a meta-analysis summarizing case-only results from our study and three patient cohorts. Patients with ccB tumors had poorer survival than those with ccA tumors and were more likely to be male (case-only odds ratio [OR] 2.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-5.03). In case-control analyses, body mass index was significantly associated with ccA tumors (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.18-5.10 for ≥35 vs <25 kg/m2 ) but not with ccB tumors (1.52, 0.56-4.12), while trichloroethylene was associated with ccB but not ccA (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.11-8.65 and 1.25, 0.36-4.39 respectively for ≥1.58 ppm-years vs unexposed). A polygenic risk score of genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies was associated with both ccA and, in particular, ccB (OR 1.82, 1.11-2.99 and 2.87, 95% CI 1.64-5.01 respectively for 90th vs 10th percentile). In a meta-analysis of case-only results including three patient cohorts, we still observed the ccB excess for male sex and the ccA excess for obesity. In conclusion, our findings suggest the existence of etiologic heterogeneity across ccRCC molecular subtypes for several risk factors.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is an established risk factor for several cancers, but modest alcohol-cancer associations may be missed due to measurement error in self-reported assessments. Biomarkers of habitual alcohol intake may provide novel insight into the relationship between alcohol and cancer risk. METHODS: Untargeted metabolomics was used to identify metabolites correlated with self-reported habitual alcohol intake in a discovery dataset from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; n = 454). Statistically significant correlations were tested in independent datasets of controls from case-control studies nested within EPIC (n = 280) and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC; n = 438) study. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of alcohol-associated metabolites and self-reported alcohol intake with risk of pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver cancer, and liver disease mortality in the contributing studies. RESULTS: Two metabolites displayed a dose-response association with self-reported alcohol intake 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid and an unidentified compound. A 1-SD (log2) increase in levels of 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid was associated with risk of HCC (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.51-4.27) and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.03-1.99) in EPIC and liver cancer (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.44-2.77) and liver disease mortality (OR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.63-2.86) in ATBC. Conversely, a 1-SD (log2) increase in questionnaire-derived alcohol intake was not associated with HCC or pancreatic cancer in EPIC or liver cancer in ATBC but was associated with liver disease mortality (OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.60-2.98) in ATBC. CONCLUSIONS: 2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid is a candidate biomarker of habitual alcohol intake that may advance the study of alcohol and cancer risk in population-based studies.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 72: 101925, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main risk factors for head and neck cancer (HNC) are tobacco and alcohol use. However, an important fraction of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV), a subgroup with increasing incidence in several western countries. METHODS: As part of the HPV-AHEAD study, we assessed the role of HPV infection in 772 archived tissue specimens of Belgian HNC patients: 455 laryngeal (LC), 106 oral cavity (OCC), 99 OPC, 76 hypopharyngeal (HC), and 36 unspecified parts of the head and neck. All specimens were tested for HPV DNA (21 genotypes); whereof all HPV DNA-positives, all HPV DNA-negative OPCs and a random subset of HPV DNA-negatives of the other HNC-sites were tested for the presence of type-specific HPV RNA and p16INK4a over-expression. RESULTS: The highest HPV DNA prevalence was observed in OPC (36.4 %), and was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the other HNCs (OCC:7.5 %, LC:6.6 %). HPV16 was the most common HPV-genotype in all HNCs. Approximately 83.0 % of the HPV DNA-positive OPCs tested HPV RNA or p16-positive, compared to about 37.5 % and 44.0 % in OCC and LC, respectively. Estimation of the attributable fraction of an HPV infection in HNC was very similar for HPV RNA or p16 in addition to DNA-positivity; with 30 % for OPC, and 3 % for OCC and LC. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the heterogeneity of HPV DNA prevalence across anatomical sites in HNC, with a predominance of HPV16 in all sites. The estimated proportion of HPV-driven HNC in Belgium, during the period 1980-2014, was 10 times higher in OPC compared to OCC and LC.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , RNA Mensageiro/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Feminino , Genótipo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/genética , Coloração e Rotulagem
15.
Microvasc Res ; 136: 104167, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common live birth defect and a proportion of these patients have chronic hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia leads to secondary erythrocytosis resulting in microvascular dysfunction and increased thrombosis risk. The conjunctival microcirculation is easily accessible for imaging and quantitative assessment. It has not previously been studied in adult CHD patients with cyanosis (CCHD). METHODS: We assessed the conjunctival microcirculation and compared CCHD patients and matched healthy controls to determine if there were differences in measured microcirculatory parameters. We acquired images using an iPhone 6s and slit-lamp biomicroscope. Parameters measured included diameter, axial velocity, wall shear rate and blood volume flow. The axial velocity was estimated by applying the 1D + T continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Results are for all vessels as they were not sub-classified into arterioles or venules. RESULTS: 11 CCHD patients and 14 healthy controls were recruited to the study. CCHD patients were markedly more hypoxic compared to the healthy controls (84% vs 98%, p = 0.001). A total of 736 vessels (292 vs 444) were suitable for analysis. Mean microvessel diameter (D) did not significantly differ between the CCHD patients and controls (20.4 ± 2.7 µm vs 20.2 ± 2.6 µm, p = 0.86). Axial velocity (Va) was lower in the CCHD patients (0.47 ± 0.06 mm/s vs 0.53 ± 0.05 mm/s, p = 0.03). Blood volume flow (Q) was lower for CCHD patients (121 ± 30pl/s vs 145 ± 50pl/s, p = 0.65) with the greatest differences observed in vessels >22 µm diameter (216 ± 121pl/s vs 258 ± 154pl/s, p = 0.001). Wall shear rate (WSR) was significantly lower for the CCHD group (153 ± 27 s-1 vs 174 ± 22 s-1, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This iPhone and slit-lamp combination assessment of conjunctival vessels found lower axial velocity, wall shear rate and in the largest vessel group, lower blood volume flow in chronically hypoxic patients with congenital heart disease. With further study this assessment method may have utility in the evaluation of patients with chronic hypoxia.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7660, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828174

RESUMO

Microcirculatory dysfunction occurs early in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a late consequence of CVD. The conjunctival microcirculation is readily-accessible for quantitative assessment and has not previously been studied in MI patients. We compared the conjunctival microcirculation of acute MI patients and age/sex-matched healthy controls to determine if there were differences in microcirculatory parameters. We acquired images using an iPhone 6s and slit-lamp biomicroscope. Parameters measured included diameter, axial velocity, wall shear rate and blood volume flow. Results are for all vessels as they were not sub-classified into arterioles or venules. The conjunctival microcirculation was assessed in 56 controls and 59 inpatients with a presenting diagnosis of MI. Mean vessel diameter for the controls was 21.41 ± 7.57 µm compared to 22.32 ± 7.66 µm for the MI patients (p < 0.001). Axial velocity for the controls was 0.53 ± 0.15 mm/s compared to 0.49 ± 0.17 mm/s for the MI patients (p < 0.001). Wall shear rate was higher for controls than MI patients (162 ± 93 s-1 vs 145 ± 88 s-1, p < 0.001). Blood volume flow did not differ significantly for the controls and MI patients (153 ± 124 pl/s vs 154 ± 125 pl/s, p = 0.84). This pilot iPhone and slit-lamp assessment of the conjunctival microcirculation found lower axial velocity and wall shear rate in patients with acute MI. Further study is required to correlate these findings further and assess long-term outcomes in this patient group with a severe CVD phenotype.

17.
Cell ; 184(9): 2454-2470.e26, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857425

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor for which current immunotherapy approaches have been unsuccessful. Here, we explore the mechanisms underlying immune evasion in GBM. By serially transplanting GBM stem cells (GSCs) into immunocompetent hosts, we uncover an acquired capability of GSCs to escape immune clearance by establishing an enhanced immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Mechanistically, this is not elicited via genetic selection of tumor subclones, but through an epigenetic immunoediting process wherein stable transcriptional and epigenetic changes in GSCs are enforced following immune attack. These changes launch a myeloid-affiliated transcriptional program, which leads to increased recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages. Furthermore, we identify similar epigenetic and transcriptional signatures in human mesenchymal subtype GSCs. We conclude that epigenetic immunoediting may drive an acquired immune evasion program in the most aggressive mesenchymal GBM subtype by reshaping the tumor immune microenvironment.

18.
PLoS Genet ; 17(4): e1009525, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886544

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which includes cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, is a cause of substantial global morbidity and mortality. Strategies to reduce disease burden include discovery of novel therapies and repurposing of existing drugs. Statins are commonly prescribed for lowering circulating cholesterol by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR). Results from some observational studies suggest that statin use may reduce HNSCC risk. We appraised the relationship of genetically-proxied cholesterol-lowering drug targets and other circulating lipid traits with oral (OC) and oropharyngeal (OPC) cancer risk using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). For the primary analysis, germline genetic variants in HMGCR, NPC1L1, CETP, PCSK9 and LDLR were used to proxy the effect of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering therapies. In secondary analyses, variants were used to proxy circulating levels of other lipid traits in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 188,578 individuals. Both primary and secondary analyses aimed to estimate the downstream causal effect of cholesterol lowering therapies on OC and OPC risk. The second sample for MR was taken from a GWAS of 6,034 OC and OPC cases and 6,585 controls (GAME-ON). Analyses were replicated in UK Biobank, using 839 OC and OPC cases and 372,016 controls and the results of the GAME-ON and UK Biobank analyses combined in a fixed-effects meta-analysis. We found limited evidence of a causal effect of genetically-proxied LDL-C lowering using HMGCR, NPC1L1, CETP or other circulating lipid traits on either OC or OPC risk. Genetically-proxied PCSK9 inhibition equivalent to a 1 mmol/L (38.7 mg/dL) reduction in LDL-C was associated with an increased risk of OC and OPC combined (OR 1.8 95%CI 1.2, 2.8, p = 9.31 x10-05), with good concordance between GAME-ON and UK Biobank (I2 = 22%). Effects for PCSK9 appeared stronger in relation to OPC (OR 2.6 95%CI 1.4, 4.9) than OC (OR 1.4 95%CI 0.8, 2.4). LDLR variants, resulting in genetically-proxied reduction in LDL-C equivalent to a 1 mmol/L (38.7 mg/dL), reduced the risk of OC and OPC combined (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.5, 1.0, p = 0.006). A series of pleiotropy-robust and outlier detection methods showed that pleiotropy did not bias our findings. We found limited evidence for a role of cholesterol-lowering in OC and OPC risk, suggesting previous observational results may have been confounded. There was some evidence that genetically-proxied inhibition of PCSK9 increased risk, while lipid-lowering variants in LDLR, reduced risk of combined OC and OPC. This result suggests that the mechanisms of action of PCSK9 on OC and OPC risk may be independent of its cholesterol lowering effects; however, this was not supported uniformly across all sensitivity analyses and further replication of this finding is required.

19.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100521, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684443

RESUMO

The human dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family consists of 11 structurally conserved proteins that serve as atypical RHO guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RHO GEFs). These regulatory proteins act as mediators in numerous cellular cascades that promote cytoskeletal remodeling, playing roles in various crucial processes such as differentiation, migration, polarization, and axon growth in neurons. At the molecular level, DOCK DHR2 domains facilitate nucleotide dissociation from small GTPases, a process that is otherwise too slow for rapid spatiotemporal control of cellular signaling. Here, we provide an overview of the biological and structural characteristics for the various DOCK proteins and describe how they differ from other RHO GEFs and between DOCK subfamilies. The expression of the family varies depending on cell or tissue type, and they are consequently implicated in a broad range of disease phenotypes, particularly in the brain. A growing body of available structural information reveals the mechanism by which the catalytic DHR2 domain elicits nucleotide dissociation and also indicates strategies for the discovery and design of high-affinity small-molecule inhibitors. Such compounds could serve as chemical probes to interrogate the cellular function and provide starting points for drug discovery of this important class of enzymes.

20.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(7): 709-718, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731409

RESUMO

Tooth loss and periodontal disease have been associated with several cancers, and poor oral health may be an important risk factor for upper gastrointestinal (UGI, i.e., esophageal and gastric) cancers. We assessed the relationship between oral health and UGI cancers using a large prospective study of over 50,000 adults living in Golestan Province, Iran, a high-incidence area for these cancers. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association between three different measures of oral health [frequency of tooth brushing; number of missing teeth; and the sum of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)] and UGI cancers. During a median follow-up duration of 13 years, there were 794 incident UGI cancers (396 esophageal and 398 gastric cancers). Daily tooth brushing was associated with a decreased risk of developing both esophageal (HR = 0.670; 95% CI: 0.486-0.924) and gastric (HR = 0.741; 95% CI: 0.544-1.01) cancers (combined UGI cancer HR = 0.697; 95% CI: 0.558-0.871) compared with never brushing. Tooth loss in excess of the loess smoothed, age- and sex-specific median number of teeth lost was significantly associated with esophageal (HR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.08-2.47) and gastric cancers (HR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.05-2.38). There were some adverse associations between DMFT and UGI cancers but most were not statistically significant. These results suggest increased risk of developing UGI cancers among individuals with poor oral health, and those who do not perform regular oral hygiene. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Poor oral health is associated with the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers, and oral hygiene practices may help prevent these cancers.

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