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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(25): e202202895, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384196

RESUMO

Separation of olefins from their paraffin analogs relies on energy-intensive cryogenic distillation. Facilitated transport-based membranes that reversibly and selectively bind olefins, but not paraffins, could save considerable amounts of energy. However, the chemical instability of the silver ion olefin-binding carriers in such membranes has been a longstanding roadblock for this approach. We discovered long-term carrier stability against extended exposure to hydrogen, a common contaminant in such streams. Based on UV/Vis absorption and Raman spectroscopy, along with XRD analysis results, certain ionic liquids solubilize silver ions, and anion aggregates surrounding the silver ion carriers greatly attenuate their reduction by hydrogen. Here, we report the stability of olefin/paraffin separation properties under continuous exposure to high pressure hydrogen, which addresses a critical technical roadblock in membrane-based olefin/paraffin separation.

2.
Langmuir ; 38(13): 4036-4047, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313730

RESUMO

The molecular-level orientation and structure of ionic liquids (ILs) at liquid-solid interfaces are significantly different than in the bulk. The interfacial ordering influences both IL properties, such as dielectric constants and viscosity, and their efficacy in devices, such as fuel cells and electrical capacitors. Here, we report the layered structures of four ILs on unbiased, highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and Pt(111) surfaces, as determined by atomic force microscopy. The ILs investigated are 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([emim][Tf2N]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium perfluorobutylsulfonate ([emim][C4F9SO3]), 7-methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([MTBD][Tf2N]), and 7-methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene perfluorobutylsulfonate ([MTBD][C4F9SO3]). Molecular dynamics simulations provide complementary information on the position and orientation of the ions. These ILs form a cation layer at the IL-solid interface, followed by a layer of anions. [Emim]+ and [MTBD]+ have similar orientations at the surface, but [MTBD]+ forms a thinner layer compared to [emim]+ on both HOPG and Pt(111). In addition, [Tf2N]- shows stronger interactions with Pt(111) surfaces than [C4F9SO3]-.

3.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(24): 6649-6657, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124908

RESUMO

Phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) paired with aprotic heterocyclic anions (AHAs) are found to react with CO2 to form both a carbamate product and a carboxyl product. The carboxyl product is formed primarily at elevated temperatures through the formation of a phosphonium ylide intermediate. The formation of the carboxyl product leads to the formation of the neutral azole, which can lead to an irreversible process if the neutral azole is sufficiently volatile. To understand how the ILs would behave in a CO2 capture process operated at elevated temperatures, it was necessary to quantify the two reaction products. CO2 was reacted with seven different AHA ILs to determine the equilibrium amounts of carbamate and carboxyl, the equilibrium constants for both reactions, and the rate of CO2 absorption by each reaction path. The reactions were tracked and quantified in situ by using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, while NMR spectroscopy was used after equilibrium was reached to determine the extent of each reaction at multiple temperatures and pressures. It was found that both the basicity and molecular size of the anion play key roles in the formation of the phosphonium ylide. In the extreme case of [P66614][4-Triaz] only half of the reacted product was the desired carbamate at 60 °C. Although there is a significant amount of the carboxyl product formed, the carbamate is kinetically favored.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos , Ânions , Dióxido de Carbono , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura
4.
RSC Adv ; 12(1): 413-419, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35424509

RESUMO

In this work, we perform atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments to evaluate in situ the dependence of the structural morphology of trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate ([P6,6,6,14][DEHP]) ionic liquid (IL) on applied pressure. The experimental results obtained upon sliding a diamond-like-carbon-coated silicon AFM tip on mechanically polished steel at an applied pressure up to 5.5 ± 0.3 GPa indicate a structural transition of confined [P6,6,6,14][DEHP] molecules. This pressure-induced morphological change of [P6,6,6,14][DEHP] IL leads to the generation of a lubricious, solid-like interfacial layer, whose growth rate increases with applied pressure and temperature. The structural variation of [P6,6,6,14][DEHP] IL is proposed to derive from the well-ordered layering of the polar groups of ions separated by the apolar tails. These results not only shed new light on the structural organization of phosphonium-based ILs under elevated pressure, but also provide novel insights into the normal pressure-dependent lubrication mechanisms of ILs in general.

5.
Chem Rev ; 120(23): 12873-12902, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026798

RESUMO

The extent to which cations and anions in ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid solutions are dissociated is of both fundamental scientific interest and practical importance because ion dissociation has been shown to impact viscosity, density, surface tension, volatility, solubility, chemical reactivity, and many other important chemical and physical properties. When mixed with solvents, ionic liquids provide the unique opportunity to investigate ion dissociation from infinite dilution in the solvent to a completely solvent-free state, even at ambient conditions. The most common way to estimate ion dissociation in ILs and IL solutions is by comparing the molar conductivity determined from ionic conductivity measurements such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) (which measure the movement of only the charged, i.e., dissociated, ions) with the molar conductivity calculated from ion diffusivities measured by pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PFG-NMR, which gives movement of all of the ions). Because the NMR measurements are time-consuming, the number of ILs and IL solutions investigated by this method is relatively limited. We have shown that use of the Stokes-Einstein equation with estimates of the effective ion Stokes radii allows ion dissociation to be calculated from easily measured density, viscosity, and ionic conductivity data (ρ, η, λ), which is readily available in the literature for a much larger number of pure ILs and IL solutions. Therefore, in this review, we present values of ion dissociation for ILs and IL solutions (aqueous and nonaqueous) determined by both the traditional molar conductivity/PFG-NMR method and the ρ, η, λ method. We explore the effect of cation and anion alkyl chain length, structure, and interaction motifs of the cation and anion, temperature, and the strength of the solvent in IL solutions.

6.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(40): 8877-8887, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914976

RESUMO

Ionic liquids with aprotic heterocyclic anions (AHAs) have been developed for postcombustion CO2 capture applications. The anions of AHA ILs play a significant role in tuning anion-CO2 complexation. In addition, AHAs are able to trigger the abstraction of acidic protons located at the α position of phosphonium cations by forming hydrogen bonds between cations and anions, eventually leading to cation-driven CO2 complexation. Here we investigate the role of the anion in cation-anion hydrogen bonding and ylide formation. Using CO2 uptake measurements, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) deuterium exchange equilibrium and rates, two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (2D NOESY), and density functional theory calculations, we show that the key is the proximity of the negatively charged nitrogen atoms on the anion to the α protons, which is governed not just by anion basicity but by sterics. Thus, we show that triethyl(octyl)phosphonium 3-methyl-5-trifluoromethylpyrazolide is much more effective in hydrogen-bonding with and deprotonating the cation than the equivalent [P2228] ILs with more basic 2-cyanopyrrolide and 3-trifluoromethylpyrazolide anions.

8.
Langmuir ; 36(30): 8904-8913, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623898

RESUMO

Virtually, every investigation and application of ionic liquids (ILs) involves gas-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-solid interactions. Therefore, understanding the behavior of ILs at those interfaces is critical. In this work, we studied the interfacial properties of protic and aprotic ILs with N-alkylimidazolium and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium as cations and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, methanesulfonate, and trifluoromethanesulfonate as anions. The surface tension of these ILs is measured with the pendant drop method in a temperature range of 293.15-343.15 K and at atmospheric pressure. The contact angle measurements are performed at 293.15 K on three solid substrates: polytetrafluoroethylene, glassy carbon, and platinum. Dispersive and nondispersive components of the IL surface energy are determined from the experimental data using Fowkes theory. The most interesting result is that the protic ILs have lower surface tension and smaller contact angles than the equivalent aprotic ILs, despite the presence of high charge density on the proton associated with one of the nitrogens of the cation. Higher charge density on the anion results in a higher surface tension, and decreasing surface tension and contact angles are observed for increasing alkyl chain length on the cation.

11.
Science ; 369(6501): 254-255, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675363
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