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1.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is more prevalent in breast cancer (BC) survivors than in the general population. However, little is known about depression in long-term survivors. Study objectives were: (1) to compare the age-specific prevalence of depressive symptoms (a) in BC survivors vs female population controls, (b) in disease-free BC survivors vs BC survivors with self-reported recurrence vs controls, and (2) to explore determinants of depression in BC survivors. METHODS: About 3010 BC survivors (stage I-III, 5-16 years post-diagnosis), and 1005 population controls were recruited in German multi-regional population-based studies. Depression was assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale-15. Prevalence of mild/severe and severe depression only were estimated via logistic regression, controlling for age and education. Multinomial logistic regression was used to explore determinants of mild and severe depression. RESULTS: Compared with population controls, BC survivors were more likely to report mild/severe depression (30.4% vs 23.8%, p = .0003), adjusted for age and education. At all age groups <80 years, prevalence of both mild/severe and severe depression only was significantly higher in BC survivors, while BC survivors ≥80 years reported severe depression less frequently than controls. BC survivors with recurrence reported significantly higher prevalence of mild/severe depression than disease-free survivors and controls, but prevalence in disease-free survivors and controls was comparable. Age, income, living independently, recurrence, and BMI were significant determinants of mild depression in BC survivors. Age, education, employment, income, recurrence, and BMI were significant determinants of severe depression. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term BC survivors <80 years report significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than controls, which might be explained by recurrence and individual factors. The findings suggest that depression in BC survivors is common, and even more after BC recurrence. Clinicians should routinize screening and normalize referral to psychological care.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with CRC prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3 593 CRC patients, we assessed the association of 771 SNPs in 58 T-reg related genes with overall and CRC-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated since tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2 047 CRC patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable CRC-specific survival (hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.94, p-value: 0.0033) was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.98, p-value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of CRC patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in four novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In nine known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered nine genes that have not been previously reported, whereas four genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < 0.01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

4.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063116

RESUMO

Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression is often applied to select the most promising set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a molecular phenotype of interest. While the penalization parameter λ restricts the number of selected SNPs and the potential model overfitting, the least-squares loss function of standard LASSO regression translates into a strong dependence of statistical results on a small number of individuals with phenotypes or genotypes divergent from the majority of the study population-typically comprised of outliers and high-leverage observations. Robust methods have been developed to constrain the influence of divergent observations and generate statistical results that apply to the bulk of study data, but they have rarely been applied to genetic association studies. In this article, we review, for newcomers to the field of robust statistics, a novel version of standard LASSO that utilizes the Huber loss function. We conduct comprehensive simulations and analyze real protein, metabolite, mRNA expression and genotype data to compare the stability of penalization, the cross-iteration concordance of the model, the false-positive and true-positive rates and the prediction accuracy of standard and robust Huber-LASSO. Although the two methods showed controlled false-positive rates ≤2.1% and similar true-positive rates, robust Huber-LASSO outperformed standard LASSO in the accuracy of predicted protein, metabolite and gene expression levels using individual SNP data. The conducted simulations and real-data analyses show that robust Huber-LASSO represents a valuable alternative to standard LASSO in genetic studies of molecular phenotypes.

5.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(10): e00243, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To quantify the association of self-reported lower gastrointestinal endoscopy use measured in 2004/05 with colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality changes over 2004-2015 in Europe. METHODS: An ecological analysis was performed using endoscopy utilization data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in 11 European countries in 2004/05 and CRC mortality data from the World Health Organization Mortality Database over 2004-2015. Mortality trends were compared through annual mortality changes from joinpoint regression models. Cross-national variations in mortality trends with respect to endoscopy use were tested for statistical significance by negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: The proportion of respondents who reported having had an endoscopy within 10 years varied widely across countries, from 6.1% to 25.1%. Large disparities in CRC mortality trends were also observed, with annual mortality change ranging from a decline of 3.3% to an increase of 0.9% for men and from a decline of 3.3% to a decline of 0.6% for women. Endoscopy uptake was negatively associated with the magnitude of annual mortality change over 2004-2015 (rate ratio for a 10-year mortality change per 10% higher endoscopy use, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.94). DISCUSSION: This analysis provides quantitative evidence on the contributions of endoscopy use to CRC mortality declines in European countries over the past decade. A considerable fraction of protection is likely to be delivered through endoscopic removal of adenomas and sessile serrated lesions. With many European countries having recently implemented CRC screening programs, an increase in endoscopy use and a subsequent reduction in CRC mortality would be expected.

6.
Heart Lung ; 49(6): 829-835, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) and cancer patients share similarities in symptom burden and depression prevalence. Coping resources, such as optimism have been associated with improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental health. OBJECTIVES: To investigate a wide range of resources in a large population-based sample of HF patients; to compare resources between three groups: HF patients, cancer patients, and individuals having no chronic condition. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis was performed among n = 2761 subjects who participated in home visits during the 11-year follow-up of the epidemiological ESTHER study. Resources were assessed by trained medical doctors through a questionnaire that lists 26 items. One-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) controlled for sociodemographic variables and depression were performed to compare resources between groups. RESULTS: Family and self-efficacy were the most frequently reported resources in all groups. HF patients reported optimism significantly less frequently as a resource in comparison to cancer patients (p=.031). HF patients showed significantly lower levels of resource factor 3 (positive attitude), compared to cancer patients (p=.006), and not chronically ill participants (p=.037). CONCLUSIONS: Family and self-efficacy seem to be the most important resources, regardless of diagnosis. HF patients appear to have significantly lower levels of resources concerning positive attitude, compared to cancer patients, and not chronically ill individuals. We suggest the development of psychosocial interventions to enhance optimism in HF.

7.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-20, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040757

RESUMO

Human milk fatty acid composition varies during lactation and is influenced by maternal diet, maternal lifestyle-related factors and genetic background. This is one of the first studies to investigate a period effect, i.e. the impact of lifestyle-related changes on human milk fatty acid composition, in two different cohorts. Lactating women were recruited from the general population a decade apart in Ulm, Germany, using similar methodology. Human milk samples collected 6 weeks post-partum were analysed [Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS (2000)), n=567; Ulm SPATZ Health Study (SPATZ (2012)), n=458)]. Centred log ratio transformation was applied to fatty acid data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine study-dependent fatty acid profiles. A general linear model was used to determine the study (or period) effect on fatty acid profiles adjusting for duration of gestation, age, education, delivery mode, smoking and pre-pregnancy BMI. Two principal components were retained (PC1 and PC2). PC1 was associated with UBCS, while PC2 was associated with SPATZ. PC1 comprised high saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and low monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). The inverse was true for PC2. Although human milk remains a source of essential fatty acids, infants could be at risk of inadequate n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA intake through human milk. The differences in the human milk fatty acid profiles also reflect changes in maternal dietary habits in the more recent cohort, which may comprise lower intakes of dietary TFAs, SFAs and higher intakes of vegetable oils.

8.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) and its treatment can lead to several physical and psychosocial impairments. Cancer rehabilitation aims to reduce morbidity and improve quality of life. The objective of this review was to summarize and evaluate evidence on changes in health-related outcomes among CRC patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation therapy and on the effectiveness of such treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search including the electronic databases Pubmed and Web of Science to find observational and interventional studies, which investigated changes in health-related outcomes among CRC patients undergoing multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation programs or treatment effects. Study findings were synthesized narratively. RESULTS: Eleven studies were eligible and included in this review. Eight patient cohort studies addressed outcomes such as physical and functional status, fecal incontinence, anxiety and depression, and quality of life. Positive changes during rehabilitation therapy were observed for physical health (functional and physical status, fecal incontinence), and several dimensions of quality of life. Study findings concerning anxiety and depression were not conclusive. Studies that additionally conducted long-term follow-ups indicated that the improved health status after rehabilitative treatment waned over time. One RCT reported no effect of inpatient rehabilitation on distress and two randomized trials reported effects of exercise intensity on oxidative stress and immune response. Sample sizes were low (<100 included CRC patients) in eight studies and only the RCT included a comparison group (non-rehabilitants). CONCLUSION: The scientific evidence level was very limited. Due to the lack of a comparison group in most studies, we were only able to evaluate changes during/after inpatient rehabilitation therapy but not the effectiveness of treatment. However, study findings suggest that physical health and functional independence improve during inpatient rehabilitation, but improvements wane over time. Further large representative studies, in particular RCTs with long-term follow-up, are essential to evaluate the effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation and identify determinants of treatment success.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14388, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873877

RESUMO

To describe the 5 years' trajectories in functionality and pain of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis and arthroplasty and analyze the association of these with long-term patients survival. Patients with OA receiving total hip or knee arthroplasty were recruited and completed two sets of standardized questionnaires for functionality and pain 6, 12, and 60 months postoperatively. Multivariate mixed models were conducted to assess trajectories over time and the resulting improvement per month during the last time period was included in a landmark-model to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for mortality. In total 809 patients with joint replacement were included (mean age 65.0 years, 62.2% female), 407 patients died (median follow-up 18.4 years). Both instruments of functionality and pain showed extensive improvement during the first 6 months. Baseline and change in functionality (both p < 0.001) and pain (p = 0.02) during the first 6 months were associated with mortality. Better values in functionality corresponded with improved survival whereas the association with the pain scores was inverse. In patients with hip and knee OA, an explicit improvement in function is seen within the first 6 months after arthroplasty. In addition, especially the functionality scores at baseline as well as their improvement showed an association with long-term patient survival.

10.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study. RESULTS: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (Pheterogeneity = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (Pheterogeneity ≥ 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.

11.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In rectal cancer, prediction of tumor response and pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant treatment could contribute to refine selection of patients who might benefit from a delayed- or no-surgery approach. The aim of this study was to explore the association of clinical and molecular characteristics of rectal cancer with response to neoadjuvant treatment and to compare patient survival according to level of response. METHODS: Resected rectal cancer patients were selected from a population-based cohort study. Molecular tumor markers were determined from the surgical specimen. Tumor response and pCR were defined as downstaging in T or N stage and absence of tumor cells upon pathological examination, respectively. The associations of patient and tumor characteristics with tumor response and pCR were explored, and patient survival was determined by degree of response to neoadjuvant treatment. RESULTS: Among 1536 patients with rectal cancer, 602 (39%) received neoadjuvant treatment. Fifty-five (9%) patients presented pCR, and 239 (49%) and 250 (53%) patients showed downstaging of the T and N stages, respectively. No statistically significant associations were observed between patient or tumor characteristics and tumor response or pCR. Patients who presented any type of response to neoadjuvant treatment had significantly better cancer-specific and overall survival compared with non-responders. CONCLUSION: In this study, patient characteristics were not associated with response to neoadjuvant treatment, and molecular characteristics determined after surgical resection of the tumor were not predictive of pCR or tumor downstaging. Future studies should include molecular biomarkers from biopsy samples before neoadjuvant treatment.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2801-2810, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875553

RESUMO

BRAF V600E mutations have been reported as a marker of sporadic microsatellite instability (MSI) colorectal cancer (CRC). Current international diagnostic guidelines recommend BRAF mutation testing in MSI CRC patients to predict low risk of Lynch syndrome (LS). We evaluated the age-specific performance of BRAF testing in LS diagnostics. We systematically compared the prevalence of BRAF mutations in LS-associated CRCs and unselected MSI CRCs in different age groups as available from published studies, databases and population-based patient cohorts. Sensitivity/specificity analysis of BRAF testing for exclusion of LS and cost calculations were performed. Among 969 MSI CRCs from LS carriers in the literature and German HNPCC Consortium, 15 (1.6%) harbored BRAF mutations. Six of seven LS patients with BRAF-mutant CRC and reported age were <50 years. Among 339 of 756 (44.8%) of BRAF mutations detected in unselected MSI CRC, only 2 of 339 (0.6%) BRAF mutations were detected in patients <50 years. The inclusion of BRAF testing led to high risk of missing LS patients and increased costs at age <50 years. BRAF testing in patients <50 years carries a high risk of missing a hereditary cancer predisposition and is cost-inefficient. We suggest direct referral of MSI CRC patients <50 years to genetic counseling without BRAF testing.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 323, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958748

RESUMO

The role of self-perceived general health in predicting morbidity and mortality among older people is established. The predictive value of self-perceived mental health and of its possible biological underpinnings for future depressive symptoms is unexplored. This study aimed to assess the role of mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and of its epigenetic markers in predicting depressive symptoms among older people without lifetime history of depression. Data were based on a subgroup (n = 1 492) of participants of the longitudinal ESTHER study. An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of mental HRQOL was conducted using DNA from baseline whole blood samples and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the predictive value of methylation beta values of EWAS identified CpGs for incidence of depressive symptoms in later life. The methylation analyses were replicated in the independent KORA cohort (n = 890) and a meta-analysis of the two studies was conducted. Results of the meta-analysis showed that participants with beta values of cg27115863 within quartile 1 (Q1) had nearly a two-fold increased risk of developing depressive symptoms compared to participants with beta values within Q4 (ORQ1vsQ4 = 1.80; CI 1.25-2.61). In the ESTHER study the predictive value of subjective mental health for future depressive symptoms was also assessed and for 10-unit increase in mental HRQOL scores the odds for incident depressive symptoms were reduced by 54% (OR 0.46; CI 0.40-0.54). These findings suggest that subjective mental health and hypomethylation at cg27115863 are predictive of depressive symptoms, possibly through the activation of inflammatory signaling pathway.

14.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(25): 423-430, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participation rates in colorectal cancer screening in Germany are low. We therefore investigated the effectiveness of different invitation models for immunological stool blood tests (fecal immunological tests, FITs). METHODS: A randomized controlled trial in 50- to 54-year-old clients of the health insurance provider AOK Baden-Wuerttemberg. A total of 17 532 insured persons were randomized to receive: (A) an invitation letter including a FIT (n = 5850); (B) an invitation letter including an option to request a FIT (n = 5844); or (C) an invitation letter only (n = 5838; control group, routine practice). Reminder letters were sent to half the members of groups A and B, selected at random, after 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the use of a FIT within 1 year of the date of the invitation letter. IRRID: RR2-10.2196/16413. Registration: DRKS00011858. RESULTS: The invitation letter with a FIT enclosed (A) increased usage from 10% to 29.7% compared with the control group (+19.7% points, p < 0.0001; men: +19.4%, women: +18.8%). The invitation letter with a FIT request option (B) increased usage from 10% to 27.7% (+17.7% points, p < 0.0001; men: +17.7%, women: +17.4%). Reminders increased usage in group A by 7.5% points and in group B by 8.5% points. Participation among women was higher than among men in all groups. The FIT positivity rate was 6.9%. A subsequent colonoscopy was reported for 64.3% of FIT-positive participants, and advanced neoplasia was found in 21.3% of these cases. CONCLUSION: Letters of invitation that include a FIT and those that offer low-threshold access to a FIT achieve strong, comparable increases in the usage of FIT in the context of colorectal cancer screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Hepatology ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a neglected disease with substantial geographical variability: Chile shows the highest incidence worldwide, while GBC is relatively rare in Europe. Here we investigate the causal effects of risk factors considered in current GBC prevention programmes as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a marker of chronic inflammation. APPROACH & RESULTS: We applied two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using publicly available data and our own data from a retrospective Chilean and a prospective European study. Causality was assessed by inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger regression and weighted median estimates complemented with sensitivity analyses on potential heterogeneity and pleiotropy, two-step MR and mediation analysis. We found evidence for a causal effect of gallstone disease on GBC risk in Chileans (p = 9 × 10-5 ) and Europeans (p = 9 × 10-5 ). A genetically elevated body mass index (BMI) increased GBC risk in Chileans (p = 0.03), while higher CRP concentrations increased GBC risk in Europeans (p = 4.1 × 10-6 ). European results suggest causal effects of BMI on gallstone disease (p = 0.008); public Chilean data were not, however, available to enable assessment of the mediation effects among causal GBC risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Two risk factors considered in the current Chilean programme for GBC prevention are causally linked to GBC risk: gallstones and BMI. For Europeans, BMI showed a causal effect on gallstone risk, which was itself causally linked to GBC risk.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 139: 27-36, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the major preventable cause of cancer. Despite the longstanding decline in smoking prevalence, lung cancer remains one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in both sexes. We aimed to estimate the current cancer burden attributable to smoking in Europe. METHODS: Smoking-related cancer incidence by country, cancer type, sex and age in Europe was estimated from GLOBOCAN 2018. We applied a modified version of the indirect method to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) for lung cancer and applied Levin's formula to estimate the PAF for other smoking-related cancer sites. RESULTS: In Europe in 2018, 572,000 and 186,000 cancer cases were attributable to tobacco smoking in males and females respectively, accounting for 28% (males) and 10% (females) of all cancer cases. By region, the largest and the lowest PAF due to smoking in males occurred in Eastern Europe (35% of all cancer cases) and Northern Europe (21%), respectively. Among women, this pattern was reversed (16% in Northern Europe and 6% in Eastern Europe). Lung cancer accounted for more than half of the total cancer burden attributable to smoking (382,000). Other major contributors to the total PAF were lip, oral cavity and pharynx, bladder and laryngeal cancers in men (27% out of total PAF) and colorectal, pancreatic, oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (21%) in women. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was responsible for one in five cancer cases in Europe in 2018. The introduction and robust implementation of tobacco control programmes are critical to reduce this cancer burden in the future.

17.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In previous studies, the protective effect of colonoscopy was generally stronger for distal colorectal cancer than for proximal colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate whether reduction of CRC risk through colonoscopy varies according to major tumor markers and pathways of CRC. METHODS: This is a population-based case-control study from Germany, including 2,132 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC and information on major molecular tumor markers and 2,486 control participants without CRC. Detailed participant characteristics were collected by standardized questionnaires. Information on previous colonoscopy was derived from medical records. Polytomous logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between previous colonoscopy and subtypes of CRC. RESULTS: Overall, we observed strong risk reduction of CRC after colonoscopy that was weaker for microsatellite instable (MSI) than for non-MSI CRC (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.97 vs OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.24-0.33), for CpG island methylator phenotype high CRC than for CpG island methylator phenotype low/negative CRC (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.34-0.59 vs OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.25-0.34), for BRAF-mutated than for BRAF nonmutated CRC (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.91 vs OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.25-0.35), for KRAS nonmutated than for KRAS-mutated CRC (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.29-0.40 vs OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.20-0.32), and for CRC classified into the sessile serrated pathway than for CRC of the traditional pathway (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.91 vs OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.25-0.37). After colonoscopy with the detection of adenomas or hyperplastic polyps, no risk reduction was found for sessile serrated pathway CRC, MSI, and BRAF-mutated subtypes. DISCUSSION: Our study extends the molecular understanding of existing differences in risk reduction of proximal and distal CRCs reported by previous studies and may imply important information for improving strategies for timely detection of relevant precursors.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer treatment has changed tremendously over the last decades. In addition, the use of mammography screening for early detection has increased strongly. To evaluate the impact of these developments, long-term trends in incidence, mortality, stage distribution and survival were investigated for Germany and the United States (US). METHODS: Using population-based cancer registry data, long-term incidence and mortality trends (1975-2015), shifts in stage distributions (1998-2015), and trends in five-year relative survival (1979-2015) were estimated. Additionally, trends in five-year relative survival after standardization for stage were explored (2004-2015). RESULTS: Age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates were much higher in the US than in Germany in all periods, whereas age-standardized mortality began to lower in the US from the 1990s on. The largest and increasing differences were observed for patients aged 70+ years with a 19% lower incidence but 45% higher mortality in Germany in 2015. For this age group, large differences in stage distributions were observed, with 29% (Germany) compared to 15% (US) stage III and IV patients. Age-standardized five-year relative survival increased strongly between 1979-1983 and 2013-2015 in Germany (+17% units) and the US (+19% units) but was 9% units lower in German patients aged 70+ years in 2013-2015. This difference was entirely explained by differences in stage distributions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results are in line with a later uptake and less extensive utilization of mammography screening in Germany. Further studies and efforts are highly needed to further explore and overcome the increased breast cancer mortality among elderly women in Germany.

20.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 739, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related fatigue represents one major cause of reduced quality of life in cancer patients and can seriously affect the physical, emotional, and cognitive functioning impeding coping with the disease. Options for effective treatment of cancer-related fatigue are limited, consisting only of non-pharmacologic interventions like physical activity, psychosocial, and mind-body interventions. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D3 supplementation might alleviate cancer-related fatigue. However, confirmation in a randomized controlled trial is needed. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 456 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients aged 18 years and older are being recruited in three German rehabilitation clinics. Study inclusion requires hospitalization of at least 3 weeks at such a clinic, a diagnosis of non-metastatic CRC (stage I-III), surgical removal of the tumor within the past 9 months, and season-adapted vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Eligible patients are randomly assigned to a personalized regimen of vitamin D3 or placebo for 12 weeks. In the intervention group, a loading dose of 20,000 or 40,000 IU vitamin D3 will be administered daily during the first 11 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 2000 IU daily. Patients will complete questionnaires for secondary outcomes (fatigue subdomains, quality of life and subdomains, depression, functional well-being, and infection frequency). Blood and urine samples will be collected for analyses of safety parameters (hypervitaminosis D, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and renal impairment) and efficacy biomarkers (25-hydroxyvitamin D, HbA1c, white blood cell count, leukocyte subtype counts, serum C-reactive protein, uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, total, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). DISCUSSION: This trial tests whether a personalized vitamin D3 dosing regimen reduces or prevents fatigue among non-metastatic CRC patients by treating the underlying vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. If efficacy can be confirmed, personalized vitamin D3 supplementation could be used as a tertiary prevention measure in addition to non-pharmacological treatments of cancer-related fatigue in CRC patients. We expect to detect an effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on secondary outcomes like quality of life, depression, functional well-being, infections, inflammatory biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: European Clinical Trials Database: EudraCT-No: 2019-000502-30, January 21, 2019; German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS): DRKS00019907 , April 30, 2019.

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