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1.
Shock ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080059

RESUMO

Mortality secondary to trauma related hemorrhagic shock has not improved for several decades. Underlying the stall in progress is the conundrum of effective pre-hospital interventions for hemorrhage control. As we know, neither pressing hard on the gas nor "Stay and play" have changed mortality over the last 20 years. For this reason, when dealing with effective changes that will improve severe hemorrhage mortality outcomes, there is a need for the creation of a hybrid pre-hospital model.Improvements in mortality outcomes for patients with severe hemorrhage based on evidence for common civilian prehospital procedures such as in-field intubation and immediate fluid resuscitation with crystalloid solution is weak at best. The use of tourniquets, once considered too risky to use, however, has risen dramatically in large part due success seen during their use in the military. Their use in the civilian setting shows promising results. Recently updated military Advanced Resuscitative Care (ARC) guidelines propose the use of prehospital whole blood transfusion as well as in-field use of Zone 1 Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA). Several case studies from Europe suggest these strategies are feasible for use in the civilian population, but could they be implemented in the U.S.?

2.
Shock ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080064

RESUMO

In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in hemorrhage control by endovascular methods. Traumatic and non-traumatic hemorrhage is being more frequently managed with endografts, embolization agents and minimal invasive methods. These methods initially were used in hemodynamically stable patients only, whereas now are being implemented in acute settings and hemodynamically unstable patients. The strategy of using endovascular and combined open-endo methods approach for hemodynamic instability in trauma and non-trauma patients has been named EVTM- EndoVascular resuscitation and Trauma Management. The EVTM concept will be presented in this article, describing how it is developed and used, as well as its limitations and future aspects.

3.
Shock ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977958

RESUMO

PURPOSE: REBOA is now performed in many trauma centers, it is used at more than 250 hospitals in the United States and there is an increase rate of publications with the experience in these centers, but there is a gap of knowledge regarding the use of REBOA in Latin-America. This paper endeavour to describe the utilization of REBOA at a high level Latin-American Trauma Center and the transition from a large caliber to a low-profile device with the concomitant reduction in the groin access complications. METHODS: a prospective, observational, single-center study was conducted. We included all trauma patients who underwent REBOA. Data from admission parameters, complications and clinical outcomes we recorded. RESULTS: 50 patients were included. Most of the REBOA catheters were inserted in the Operating Room (OR) [47 (94%)], and the arterial access was done by surgical cutdown [40 (80%)]. All the complications were associated to the catheter of 11 Fr Sheath used in 36 patients [n = 8/36 (22%) vs. n = 0/14 (0%); p = 0.05]. CONCLUSION: REBOA can be used safely in blunt or penetrating thoracic, abdominal and pelvic trauma. The insertion of a 7 Fr Sheath was associated with lower complications, so its use should be preferred over larger calibers.

4.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(5): e20192334, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859727

RESUMO

Currently, resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is used in trauma surgery for controlling non-compressible torso hemorrhages, as a less invasive option and with fewer physiologic disturbances compared with an invasive emergent thoracotomy for aortic cross-clamping. This can allow improvements in hemodynamic parameters until definitive surgery is performed. REBOA is also used in trauma to prevent hemodynamic collapse in patients who are in severe hemorrhagic shock, as a method to maintain perfusion of the brain and heart while decreasing distal bleeding until hemorrhage control can take place. The major complications reported are acute kidney injury, lower leg amputations, and even death. As experience with REBOA in emergency surgery grows, new indications have been described in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the expansion of the use of REBOA in other areas of medicine, as well as evaluating the current published series. We performed an online search of PubMed, Medline and SciELO with the term "REBOA" in the last five years, and the articles included were the 14 specifically describing the use of REBOA for non-traumatic conditions. The results suggest that the use of REBOA led to improved bleeding control and increased arterial pressure, reducing blood transfusion requirements and allowing patients to survive to definitive treatment of injuries. In conclusion, the expanded use of REBOA for non-traumatic emergencies appears to be effective. However, prospective studies and well-established protocols for specific indications should be developed to maximize patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Ressuscitação/métodos , Humanos
5.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 4(1): e000376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673635

RESUMO

This is a joint statement from the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the National Association of Emergency Medical Services Physicians and the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians regarding the clinical use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in civilian trauma systems in the USA. This statement addresses the system of care needed to manage trauma patients requiring the use of REBOA, in light of the current evidence available in this patient population. This statement was developed by an expert panel following a comprehensive review of the literature with representation from all sponsoring organizations and the US Military. This is an update to the previous statement published in 2018. It has been formally endorsed by the four sponsoring organizations.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 129(5): e146-e149, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634204

RESUMO

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a temporizing maneuver for noncompressible torso hemorrhage. To our knowledge, this single-center brief report provides the most extensive anesthetic data published to date on patients who received REBOA. As anticipated, patients were critically ill, exhibiting lactic acidosis, hypotension, hyperglycemia, hypothermia, and coagulopathy. All patients received blood products during their index operations and received less inhaled anesthetic gas than normally required for healthy patients of the same age. This study serves as an important starting point for clinician education and research into anesthetic management of patients undergoing REBOA.

7.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1129-1133, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657308

RESUMO

Best management for acute appendicitis (AA) in adults with liver cirrhosis is controversial and needs more investigation. We aimed to examine the impact of different treatment modalities on outcomes in this complex patient population. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2012 to 2014 was queried to identify AA patients with no cirrhosis, compensated cirrhosis (CC), and decompensated cirrhosis (DC). Each cohort was further stratified according to the treatment type: nonoperative management, open appendectomy, and laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). Chi-square, ANOVA, and binary regression analyses were used to determine differences between groups and risk factors for mortality and complications, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. A total of 108,289 AA patients were analyzed; of those, 304 with CC and 134 with DC were identified. Compared with CC and no cirrhosis, DC patients had significantly higher mortality, higher cost, and longer hospital length of stay. LA is accompanied by higher survival, lower cost, shorter duration of hospitalization, and lower incidence of complications across all groups. We conclude that LA is the best management strategy for AA in cirrhotic patients. Even in decompensated cirrhotics, which are associated with worse clinical outcomes, LA is still a favorable option over open appendectomy and nonoperative management.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicectomia/economia , Apendicectomia/mortalidade , Apendicite/complicações , Apendicite/mortalidade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Preços Hospitalares , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Laparoscopia/economia , Laparoscopia/mortalidade , Tempo de Internação/economia , Cirrose Hepática/classificação , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Epilepsy Behav ; 98(Pt A): 249-257, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398689

RESUMO

Comorbidities associated with epilepsy greatly reduce patients' quality of life. Since antiepilepsy drugs show limited success in ameliorating cognitive and behavioral symptoms, there is a need to better understand the mechanisms underlying epilepsy-related cognitive and behavioral impairments. Most prior research addressing this problem has focused on chronic epilepsy, wherein many factors can simultaneously impact cognition and behavior. The purpose of the present study was to develop a testing paradigm using mice that can provide new insight into how short-term biological changes underlying acute seizures impact cognition and behavior. In Experiment 1, naïve C57BL/6J mice were subjected to either three brief, generalized electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) or three sham treatments equally spaced over the course of 30 min. Over the next 2 h, mice were tested in a novel object recognition paradigm. Follow-up studies examined locomotor activity immediately before and after (Experiment 2), immediately after (Experiment 3), and 45 min after (Experiment 4) a set of three ECS or sham treatments. Whereas results demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference in recognition memory acquisition between ECS and sham-treated mice, measures of anxiety-like behavior were increased and novel object interest was decreased in ECS-treated mice compared with that in sham. Interestingly, ECS also produced a delayed inhibitory effect on locomotion, decreasing open-field activity 45-min posttreatment compared to sham. We conclude that a small cluster of brief seizures can have acute, behaviorally relevant effects in mice, and that greater emphasis should be placed on events that take place before chronic epilepsy is established in order to better understand epilepsy-related cognitive and behavioral impairments. Future research would benefit from using the paradigms defined above to study the effects of individual seizures on mouse cognition and behavior.

9.
Ann Surg ; 270(4): 612-619, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a recently active endovascular trauma service (ETS) on case volume and time to hemostasis, as a complement to an existing interventional radiology (IR) service. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Endovascular techniques are vital for trauma care, but timely access can be a challenge. There is a paucity of data on the effect of a multispecialty team for delivery of endovascular hemorrhage control. METHODS: The electronic medical record of trauma patients undergoing endovascular procedures between 2013 and 2018 was queried for provider type (IR or ETS). Case volume and rates were expressed per 100 monthly admissions, normalizing for seasonal variation. Interrupted time series analysis was used to model the case rate pre- and post-introduction of the ETS. Admission-to-procedure-time data were collected for pelvic angioembolization as a marker of patients requiring emergency hemostasis. RESULTS: During 6 years, 1274 admission episodes required endovascular interventions. Overall case volume increased from 2.7 to 3.6 at a rate of 0.006 (P = 0.734) after introduction of the ETS. IR case volume decreased from 3.3 to 2.6 at a rate of 0.03 (P = 0.063). ETS case volume increased at a rate of 0.048 (P < 0.001), which was significantly different from the IR trend (P < 0.001). Median (interquartile range) time-to-procedure (hours) was significantly shorter for pelvic angioembolization [3.0 (4.4) vs 4.3 (3.6); P < 0.001] when ETS was compared to IR. CONCLUSION: A surgical ETS increases case volume and decreases time to hemostasis for trauma patients requiring time sensitive interventions. Further work is required to assess patient outcome following this change.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172200

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-operative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injury (BSI) uses angioembolization (AE) or observation (OBS). AE improves the success of NOM. However, how AE improves BSI is unknown. We hypothesized AE would decrease rate of pseudoaneurysm (PSA) presence, PSA size, PSA number, and rate of active extravasation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of computerized tomography (CT)-diagnosed BSI over a 2-year period. Patients undergoing NOM with an initial and repeat CT were included. Patients were excluded if they underwent primary splenectomy after BSI diagnosis or did not have repeat CT imaging. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients with BSI had repeat CT imaging; 55/115 (47.8%) had AE; and 60/115 (52.2%) had OBS. On the initial CT, AE patients had more frequent PSA presence (52.7% vs. 6.7%, p < 0.001), higher median number of PSA (1.0 vs. 0, p < 0.001), higher median PSA size (1.15 mm vs. 0 mm, p < 0.001), and more frequent rates of active extravasation (10.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.01) compared with OBS patients. On repeat CT compared to the initial CT, AE patients had significant decrease in rate of PSA presence (21.8% vs. 52.7%, p < 0.001), median PSA size (0 mm vs. 1.15 mm, p < 0.001), median PSA number (p < 0.001), and rate of active extravasation (0% vs. 10.9%, p = 0.03). On repeat CT compared to the initial CT, OBS patients had an increase in rate of PSA presence (18.3% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: AE significantly decreases PSA presence, number, and size as well as rates of active extravasation. AE should be standard practice in vascular injuries undergoing NOM to maximize splenic salvage.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721339

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiographic indications for primary splenectomy (PS) in blunt splenic injury (BSI) after radiographic diagnosis are unknown. Improved understanding of radiographic characteristics of patients requiring splenectomy will help to appropriately triage patients to PS or non-operative management (NOM). METHODS: A retrospective, single-center review was performed of BSI diagnosed with computerized tomography (CT). Patients undergoing splenectomy prior to CT diagnosis were excluded. RESULTS: BSI was identified in 195 patients. On logistic regression, only subcapsular hematoma presence (OR 7.521, p = 0.002) and left upper quadrant hemoperitoneum (OR 6.146, p = 0.03) were associated with need for PS, while splenic laceration length, number of pseudoaneurysms (PSA), and active contrast extravasation (NS for all) were not. CONCLUSIONS: Need for PS is predicted by extra-parenchymal pathology in subcapsular hematoma and hemoperitoneum. Splenic vascular injuries through PSA and active contrast extravasation do not predict the need for PS and can be considered for NOM.

12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(2): 337-343, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694985

RESUMO

Resuscitative endovascular occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a rapidly evolving technology which requires careful system-wide multidisciplinary implementation for optimal success. These guidelines developed by experienced REBOA practitioners provide a framework for a key practitioner to use in the development of a REBOA program in their institution. They detail the importance of involving doctors, nurses, and staff across departments and disciplines in the application of this technique.

13.
Open Access Emerg Med ; 11: 29-38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666171

RESUMO

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has recently gained popularity as a minimally invasive alternative to open aortic cross-clamping in the management of patients with non-compressible hemorrhage arising below the diaphragm. The purpose of this review is to provide a description of the technical aspects of REBOA use along with an overview of the current animal and clinical data regarding its use.

14.
Injury ; 50(5): 1042-1048, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic effects of aortic occlusion (AO) during Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) using a sophisticated continuous vital sign (CVS) monitoring tool. METHODS: Patients admitted between February 2013 and May 2017 at a tertiary center that received REBOA were included. Patients in cardiac arrest before or at the time of REBOA were excluded. Time of AO was documented by time-stamped videography and correlated with CVS data. RESULTS: 28 patients were included, mean (standard deviation) ISS was 38 (11). 18 received Zone 1 (distal thoracic aorta) and 10 received Zone 3 (distal abdominal aorta) AO. Among Zone 1 patients the pre-AO systolic blood pressure (SBP) nadir was 64 (19) mmHg, which increased to a mean of 124 (29) mmHg within 5 min after AO (p < 0.01). Among Zone 3 patients the pre-AO SBP nadir was 75 (19) mmHg, which increased to a mean of 98 (14) mmHg within 5 min after AO (p < 0.01). 72% of Zone 1 patients had episodes during AO where SBP was less than 90 mmHg as compared to 80% of Zone 3 patients (p = 0.51). 100% of Zone 1 patients had periods during AO where SBP was greater than 140 mmHg as compared to 70% Zone 3 patients (p = 0.04). The overall mean decrease in SBP after balloon deflation was 13 (20) mmHg (p < 0.01), with similar decreases among groups (14 (21) mmHg vs 12 (18) mmHg for Zone 1 and 3 patients, respectively (p = 0.85)). Patients undergoing Zone 1 AO were more likely to have an acute change (increase or decrease) in their heart rate immediately after AO as compared to Zone 3 AO (p = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Significant hemodynamic alterations occur before, during, and after AO. The effects of Zone 1 AO on blood pressure and heart rate appear different than Zone 3 AO. This may have important implications for cardiac or cerebral function and perfusion goals, particularly with concomitant injuries such as cardiac contusion or traumatic brain injury.

15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(1): 79-85, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a torso hemorrhage control adjunct. Aortic branch vessel flow (BVF) during REBOA is poorly characterized and has implications for ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study is to quantify BVF in hypovolemic shock with and without REBOA. METHODS: Female swine (79-90 kg) underwent anesthesia, 40% controlled hemorrhage and sonographic flow monitoring of the carotid, hepatic, superior mesenteric, renal, and femoral arteries. Animals were randomized to REBOA (n = 5) or no-REBOA (n = 5) for 4 hours, followed by full resuscitation and balloon deflation for 1 hour. RESULTS: All animals were successfully induced into hemorrhagic shock with a mean decrease of flow in all vessels of 50% from baseline (p < 0.001). Deployment of REBOA resulted in a 200% to 400% increase in carotid flow, but near complete abolition of BVF distal to the balloon. The no-REBOA group saw recovery of BVF to 100% of baseline in all measured vessels, except the hepatic at 50% to 75%. two-way analysis of variance confirmed a significant difference between the groups throughout the protocol (p < 0.001). During resuscitation, the REBOA group saw BVF restore to between 25% and 50%, but never achieving baseline values. The lactate at 4 hours was significantly higher in the REBOA versus no-REBOA group (17.2 ± 0.1 vs. 4.9 ± 1.4; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: REBOA not only abolishing BVF during occlusion, but appears to have a post-REBOA effect, reducing visceral perfusion. This may be a source of REBOA associated ischemia-reperfusion injury and warrants further investigation in order to mitigate this effect.

16.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 45(6): 1097-1105, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032348

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aortic occlusion (AO) increases proximal perfusion and may improve rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The objective of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and AO by REBOA on patients in traumatic cardiac arrest. METHODS: Patients admitted between February 2013 and May 2017 at a tertiary center who suffered traumatic arrest, had an arterial line placed during resuscitation, and received CPR and REBOA which were included. In-hospital CPR data were obtained from videography. Arterial waveforms were recorded at 240 Hz. RESULTS: 11 consecutive patients were included, 82% male; mean (± SD) age 37 ± 19 years. 55% suffered blunt trauma and the remaining penetrating injuries. 64% arrested out of hospital. During compressions with AO, the mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 70 ± 22 mmHg, mean arterial pressure (MAP) 43 ± 19 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 26 ± 17 mmHg. Nine (82%) had ROSC, with eight having multiple periods of ROSC and arrest in the initial period. In-hospital mortality was 82%. Cardiac ultrasonography was used during arrest in 73%. In two patients with arterial line data before and after AO, SBP (mmHg) improved from 51 to 73 and 55 to 96 during arrest after AO. CONCLUSIONS: High-quality chest compressions coupled with aortic occlusion may generate adequate perfusion pressures to increase the rate of ROSC. New technology capable of transducing central arterial pressure may help us to understand the effectiveness of CPR with and without aortic occlusion. REBOA may be a useful adjunct to high-quality chest compressions during arrest.

17.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 45(4): 713-718, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic shock is the second leading cause of death in blunt trauma and a significant cause of mortality in non-trauma patients. The increased use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) as a bridge to definitive control for massive hemorrhage has provided promising results in the trauma population. We describe an extension of this procedure to our hemodynamically unstable non-trauma patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients requiring REBOA for end stage non-traumatic abdominal hemorrhage from our tertiary care facility. After excluding patients with trauma, supradiaphragmatic bleed and thoracic/abdominal aortic aneurysms, demographics, etiology of bleed, REBOA placement specifics, complications and outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: From August 2013 to August 2016, 11 patients were identified requiring REBOA placement for hemodynamic instability from non-traumatic abdominal hemorrhage. Average patient age was 54.9 (SD 15.2). Sixty-four percent suffered cardiac arrest prior to REBOA, with mean shock index of 1.29. Average time from diagnosis of shock (MAP ≤ 65) or signs of bleeding to placement of REBOA was 177 min. The leading etiologies of hemorrhage were ruptured visceral aneurysm and massive upper gastrointestinal bleed. REBOA was placed by both acute care and vascular surgeons. The procedure was mainly completed in the operating room in 82% of the patients and at the bedside in 18%. One patient expired before operative repair. Definitive surgical control of the source of bleeding was obtained by open surgical approach (n = 6) and combined surgical and endovascular approach (n = 4). In-hospital survival was 64%. There were no local complications related to REBOA placement. CONCLUSION: Similar to the trauma population, REBOA is an adjunctive technique for proximal control of bleeding as well as resuscitation in end stage non-traumatic intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We propose an algorithmic approach to REBOA use in this population and a larger prospective review is necessary to determine both the timing of REBOA placement and which non-traumatic patients may benefit from this technique. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V. STUDY TYPE: Brief report.

19.
Am J Surg ; 217(6): 1126-1129, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lower profile, FDA-approved device for aortic occlusion (AO) is available for REBOA. METHODS: Patients who received AO with the new device from February 2016 to February 2017 at 2 urban tertiary care centers were enrolled. RESULTS: 60 consecutive patients underwent REBOA; 44 (73.3%) following blunt trauma. 52 (88.1%) were male; mean age of 40 ±â€¯18 years. 49 REBOAs were deployed in Zone 1, 11 in Zone 3.67.7% of patients in arrest achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Overall in-hospital survival was 43%; 19% for patients in arrest and 69% for patients with refractory hypotension. Access and vascular procedural complications included iliac intimal injury requiring stent-graft (1), patch angioplasty of the CFA (1), and balloon ruptures (3). 5 amputations were required; 2 immediate completion amputations due to initial injury, and 3 delayed amputations after efforts to salvage severely mangled extremities were unsuccessful. CONCLUSION: Smaller introducer sheaths for REBOA are safe and effective but do not eliminate the need for surgical common femoral artery access. Patients can benefit from REBOA with acceptable survival rates.


Assuntos
Aorta , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
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