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1.
JCI Insight ; 4(20)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536480

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pathologic T cell-B cell interactions and autoantibody production. Defining the T cell populations that drive B cell responses in SLE may enable design of therapies that specifically target pathologic cell subsets. Here, we evaluated the phenotypes of CD4+ T cells in the circulation of 52 SLE patients drawn from multiple cohorts and identified a highly expanded PD-1hiCXCR5-CD4+ T cell population. Cytometric, transcriptomic, and functional assays demonstrated that PD-1hiCXCR5-CD4+ T cells from SLE patients are T peripheral helper (Tph) cells, a CXCR5- T cell population that stimulates B cell responses via IL-21. The frequency of Tph cells, but not T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, correlated with both clinical disease activity and the frequency of CD11c+ B cells in SLE patients. PD-1hiCD4+ T cells were found within lupus nephritis kidneys and correlated with B cell numbers in the kidney. Both IL-21 neutralization and CRISPR-mediated deletion of MAF abrogated the ability of Tph cells to induce memory B cell differentiation into plasmablasts in vitro. These findings identify Tph cells as a highly expanded T cell population in SLE and suggest a key role for Tph cells in stimulating pathologic B cell responses.

3.
EMBO J ; 38(14): e101260, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304630

RESUMO

Tissue-resident iNKT cells maintain tissue homeostasis and peripheral surveillance against pathogens; however, studying these cells is challenging due to their low abundance and poor recovery from tissues. We here show that iNKT transnuclear mice, generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer, have increased tissue resident iNKT cells. We examined expression of PLZF, T-bet, and RORγt, as well as cytokine/chemokine profiles, and found that both monoclonal and polyclonal iNKT cells differentiated into functional subsets that faithfully replicated those seen in wild-type mice. We detected iNKT cells from tissues in which they are rare, including adipose, lung, skin-draining lymph nodes, and a previously undescribed population in Peyer's patches (PP). PP-NKT cells produce the majority of the IL-4 in Peyer's patches and provide indirect help for B-cell class switching to IgG1 in both transnuclear and wild-type mice. Oral vaccination with α-galactosylceramide shows enhanced fecal IgG1 titers in iNKT cell-sufficient mice. Transcriptional profiling reveals a unique signature of PP-NKT cells, characterized by tissue residency. We thus define PP-NKT as potentially important for surveillance for mucosal pathogens.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Switching de Imunoglobulina , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Galactosilceramidas/administração & dosagem , Galactosilceramidas/imunologia , Interleucina-4/genética , Camundongos , Células T Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear , Proteína com Dedos de Zinco da Leucemia Promielocítica/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Vacinação
4.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 902-914, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209404

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease for which the current treatment is ineffective and often toxic. To develop mechanistic hypotheses of disease, we analyzed kidney samples from patients with lupus nephritis and from healthy control subjects using single-cell RNA sequencing. Our analysis revealed 21 subsets of leukocytes active in disease, including multiple populations of myeloid cells, T cells, natural killer cells and B cells that demonstrated both pro-inflammatory responses and inflammation-resolving responses. We found evidence of local activation of B cells correlated with an age-associated B-cell signature and evidence of progressive stages of monocyte differentiation within the kidney. A clear interferon response was observed in most cells. Two chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CX3CR1, were broadly expressed, implying a potentially central role in cell trafficking. Gene expression of immune cells in urine and kidney was highly correlated, which would suggest that urine might serve as a surrogate for kidney biopsies.


Assuntos
Rim/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interferons/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
5.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 928-942, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061532

RESUMO

To define the cell populations that drive joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), mass cytometry, bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and flow cytometry to T cells, B cells, monocytes, and fibroblasts from 51 samples of synovial tissue from patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA). Utilizing an integrated strategy based on canonical correlation analysis of 5,265 scRNA-seq profiles, we identified 18 unique cell populations. Combining mass cytometry and transcriptomics revealed cell states expanded in RA synovia: THY1(CD90)+HLA-DRAhi sublining fibroblasts, IL1B+ pro-inflammatory monocytes, ITGAX+TBX21+ autoimmune-associated B cells and PDCD1+ peripheral helper T (TPH) cells and follicular helper T (TFH) cells. We defined distinct subsets of CD8+ T cells characterized by GZMK+, GZMB+, and GNLY+ phenotypes. We mapped inflammatory mediators to their source cell populations; for example, we attributed IL6 expression to THY1+HLA-DRAhi fibroblasts and IL1B production to pro-inflammatory monocytes. These populations are potentially key mediators of RA pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Biomarcadores , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fluxo de Trabalho
6.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(491)2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068444

RESUMO

Macrophages tailor their function according to the signals found in tissue microenvironments, assuming a wide spectrum of phenotypes. A detailed understanding of macrophage phenotypes in human tissues is limited. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we defined distinct macrophage subsets in the joints of patients with the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which affects ~1% of the population. The subset we refer to as HBEGF+ inflammatory macrophages is enriched in RA tissues and is shaped by resident fibroblasts and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). These macrophages promoted fibroblast invasiveness in an epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent manner, indicating that intercellular cross-talk in this inflamed setting reshapes both cell types and contributes to fibroblast-mediated joint destruction. In an ex vivo synovial tissue assay, most medications used to treat RA patients targeted HBEGF+ inflammatory macrophages; however, in some cases, medication redirected them into a state that is not expected to resolve inflammation. These data highlight how advances in our understanding of chronically inflamed human tissues and the effects of medications therein can be achieved by studies on local macrophage phenotypes and intercellular interactions.

7.
Nature ; 570(7760): 246-251, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142839

RESUMO

The identification of lymphocyte subsets with non-overlapping effector functions has been pivotal to the development of targeted therapies in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs)1,2. However, it remains unclear whether fibroblast subclasses with non-overlapping functions also exist and are responsible for the wide variety of tissue-driven processes observed in IMIDs, such as inflammation and damage3-5. Here we identify and describe the biology of distinct subsets of fibroblasts responsible for mediating either inflammation or tissue damage in arthritis. We show that deletion of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAPα)+ fibroblasts suppressed both inflammation and bone erosions in mouse models of resolving and persistent arthritis. Single-cell transcriptional analysis identified two distinct fibroblast subsets within the FAPα+ population: FAPα+THY1+ immune effector fibroblasts located in the synovial sub-lining, and FAPα+THY1- destructive fibroblasts restricted to the synovial lining layer. When adoptively transferred into the joint, FAPα+THY1- fibroblasts selectively mediate bone and cartilage damage with little effect on inflammation, whereas transfer of FAPα+ THY1+ fibroblasts resulted in a more severe and persistent inflammatory arthritis, with minimal effect on bone and cartilage. Our findings describing anatomically discrete, functionally distinct fibroblast subsets with non-overlapping functions have important implications for cell-based therapies aimed at modulating inflammation and tissue damage.

8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(6): 1516-1524, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876808

RESUMO

Cadherins are homophilic cell-to-cell adhesion molecules that help cells respond to environmental changes. Newly formed cadherin junctions are associated with increased cell phosphorylation, but the pathways driving this signaling response are largely unknown. Since cadherins have no intrinsic signaling activity, this phosphorylation must occur through interactions with other signaling molecules. We previously reported that cadherin-11 engagement activates joint synovial fibroblasts, promoting inflammatory and degradative pathways important in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. Our objective in this study was to discover interacting partners that mediate cadherin-11 signaling. Protein array screening showed that cadherin-11 extracellular binding domains linked to an Fc domain (cad11Fc) induced platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR)-α phosphorylation in synovial fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells. PDGFRs are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases that promote cell proliferation, survival, and migration in mesodermally derived cells. Increased PDGFR activity is implicated in RA pathology and associates with poor prognosis in several cancers, including sarcoma and glioblastoma. PDGFRα activation by cadherin-11 signaling promoted fibroblast proliferation, a signaling pathway independent from cadherin-11-stimulated IL-6 or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 release. PDGFRα phosphorylation mediated most of the cad11Fc-induced phosphatidyl-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation, but only part of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) response. PDGFRα-dependent signaling did not require cell cadherin-11 expression. Rather, cad11Fc immunoprecipitated PDGFRα, indicating a direct interaction between cadherin-11 and PDGFRα extracellular domains. This study is the first to report an interaction between cadherin-11 and PDGFRα and adds to our growing understanding that cadherin-growth factor receptor interactions help balance the interplay between tissue growth and adhesion.

9.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 373, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728493

RESUMO

In the version of this article initially published, three authors (Hui-Fern Kuoy, Adam P. Uldrich and Dale. I. Godfrey) and their affiliations, acknowledgments and contributions were not included. The correct information is as follows:Ayano C. Kohlgruber1,2, Shani T. Gal-Oz3, Nelson M. LaMarche1,2, Moto Shimazaki1, Danielle Duquette4, Hui-Fern Koay5,6, Hung N. Nguyen1, Amir I. Mina4, Tyler Paras1, Ali Tavakkoli7, Ulrich von Andrian2,8, Adam P. Uldrich5,6, Dale I. Godfrey5,6, Alexander S. Banks4, Tal Shay3, Michael B. Brenner1,10* and Lydia Lynch1,4,9,10*1Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. 2Division of Medical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. 3Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, Israel. 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. 5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia. 6ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia. 7Department of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. 8Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. 9School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. 10These authors jointly supervised this work: Michael B. Brenner, Lydia Lynch. *e-mail: mbrenner@research.bwh.harvard.edu; llynch@bwh.harvard.eduAcknowledgementsWe thank A.T. Chicoine, flow cytometry core manager at the Human Immunology Center at BWH, for flow cytometry sorting. We thank D. Sant'Angelo (Rutgers Cancer Institute) for providing Zbtb16-/- mice and R. O'Brien (National Jewish Health) for providing Vg4/6-/- mice. Supported by NIH grant R01 AI11304603 (to M.B.B.), ERC Starting Grant 679173 (to L.L.), the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (1013667), an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT140100278 for A.P.U.) and a National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Senior Principal Research Fellowship (1117766 for D.I.G.).Author contributionsA.C.K., L.L., and M.B.B. conceived and designed the experiments, and wrote the manuscript. A.C.K., N.M.L., L.L., H.N.N., M.S., T.P., and D.D. performed the experiments. S.T.G.-O. and T.S. performed the RNA-seq analysis. A.S.B. and A.I.M. provided advice and performed the CLAMS experiments. A.T. provided human bariatric patient samples. Parabiosis experiments were performed in the laboratory of U.v.A. H.-F.K., A.P.U. and D.I.G provided critical insight into the TCR chain usage of PLZF+ γδ T cells. M.B.B., N.M.L., and L.L. critically reviewed the manuscript.The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF version of the article.Correction to: Nature Immunology doi:10.1038/s41590-018-0094-2 (2018), published online 18 April 2018.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 687, 2019 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737409

RESUMO

How innate T cells (ITC), including invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and γδ T cells, maintain a poised effector state has been unclear. Here we address this question using low-input and single-cell RNA-seq of human lymphocyte populations. Unbiased transcriptomic analyses uncover a continuous 'innateness gradient', with adaptive T cells at one end, followed by MAIT, iNKT, γδ T and natural killer cells at the other end. Single-cell RNA-seq reveals four broad states of innateness, and heterogeneity within canonical innate and adaptive populations. Transcriptional and functional data show that innateness is characterized by pre-formed mRNA encoding effector functions, but impaired proliferation marked by decreased baseline expression of ribosomal genes. Together, our data shed new light on the poised state of ITC, in which innateness is defined by a transcriptionally-orchestrated trade-off between rapid cell growth and rapid effector function.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Imunofenotipagem , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/fisiologia , Masculino , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
11.
Blood ; 133(6): 605-614, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429159

RESUMO

More than 1 million apheresis platelet collections are performed annually in the United States. After 2 healthy plateletpheresis donors were incidentally found to have low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts, we investigated whether plateletpheresis causes lymphopenia. We conducted a cross-sectional single-center study of platelet donors undergoing plateletpheresis with the Trima Accel, which removes leukocytes continuously with its leukoreduction system chamber. We recruited 3 groups of platelet donors based on the total number of plateletpheresis sessions in the prior 365 days: 1 or 2, 3 to 19, or 20 to 24. CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were <200 cells per microliter in 0/20, 2/20, and 6/20 donors, respectively (P = .019), and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts were low in 0/20, 4/20, and 11/20 donors, respectively (P < .001). The leukoreduction system chamber's lymphocyte-extraction efficiency was ∼15% to 20% for all groups. Immunophenotyping showed decreases in naive CD4+ T-lymphocyte and T helper 17 (Th17) cell percentages, increases in CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory, Th1, and regulatory T cell percentages, and stable naive CD8+ and Th2 percentages across groups. T-cell receptor repertoire analyses showed similar clonal diversity in all groups. Donor screening questionnaires supported the good health of the donors, who tested negative at each donation for multiple pathogens, including HIV. Frequent plateletpheresis utilizing a leukoreduction system chamber is associated with CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia in healthy platelet donors. The mechanism may be repeated extraction of these cells during plateletpheresis. The cytopenias do not appear to be harmful.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Plaquetas/citologia , Linfopenia/etiologia , Plaquetoferese/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Immunol ; 19(12): 1330-1340, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420624

RESUMO

Up to 49% of certain types of cancer are attributed to obesity, and potential mechanisms include overproduction of hormones, adipokines, and insulin. Cytotoxic immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells, are important in tumor surveillance, but little is known about the impact of obesity on immunosurveillance. Here, we show that obesity induces robust peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-driven lipid accumulation in NK cells, causing complete 'paralysis' of their cellular metabolism and trafficking. Fatty acid administration, and PPARα and PPARδ (PPARα/δ) agonists, mimicked obesity and inhibited mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated glycolysis. This prevented trafficking of the cytotoxic machinery to the NK cell-tumor synapse. Inhibiting PPARα/δ or blocking the transport of lipids into mitochondria reversed NK cell metabolic paralysis and restored cytotoxicity. In vivo, NK cells had blunted antitumor responses and failed to reduce tumor growth in obesity. Our results demonstrate that the lipotoxic obese environment impairs immunosurveillance and suggest that metabolic reprogramming of NK cells may improve cancer outcomes in obesity.


Assuntos
Vigilância Imunológica/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/complicações , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(463)2018 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333237

RESUMO

High-dimensional single-cell analyses have improved the ability to resolve complex mixtures of cells from human disease samples; however, identifying disease-associated cell types or cell states in patient samples remains challenging because of technical and interindividual variation. Here, we present mixed-effects modeling of associations of single cells (MASC), a reverse single-cell association strategy for testing whether case-control status influences the membership of single cells in any of multiple cellular subsets while accounting for technical confounders and biological variation. Applying MASC to mass cytometry analyses of CD4+ T cells from the blood of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and controls revealed a significantly expanded population of CD4+ T cells, identified as CD27- HLA-DR+ effector memory cells, in RA patients (odds ratio, 1.7; P = 1.1 × 10-3). The frequency of CD27- HLA-DR+ cells was similarly elevated in blood samples from a second RA patient cohort, and CD27- HLA-DR+ cell frequency decreased in RA patients who responded to immunosuppressive therapy. Mass cytometry and flow cytometry analyses indicated that CD27- HLA-DR+ cells were associated with RA (meta-analysis P = 2.3 × 10-4). Compared to peripheral blood, synovial fluid and synovial tissue samples from RA patients contained about fivefold higher frequencies of CD27- HLA-DR+ cells, which comprised ~10% of synovial CD4+ T cells. CD27- HLA-DR+ cells expressed a distinctive effector memory transcriptomic program with T helper 1 (TH1)- and cytotoxicity-associated features and produced abundant interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granzyme A protein upon stimulation. We propose that MASC is a broadly applicable method to identify disease-associated cell populations in high-dimensional single-cell data.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Idoso , Proliferação de Células , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Th1/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
14.
J Immunol ; 201(7): 1827-1834, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224362

RESUMO

During the past 25 y, the immune system has appeared as a key regulator of adipose tissue biology and metabolic homeostasis. In lean animals, adipose-resident leukocytes maintain an anti-inflammatory microenvironment that preserves the proper functioning of the tissue. In this review, we describe two populations of innate T cells enriched in adipose tissue, invariant NKT and γδ T cells, and how they serve overlapping and nonredundant roles in controlling adipose tissue functions. These cells interact with and expand anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells and M2 macrophages, thereby driving a metabolically beneficial tissue milieu. Surprisingly, we have found that adipose invariant NKT and γδ T cells also promote weight loss and heat production in a process called "nonshivering thermogenesis." The data surrounding these two cell types highlight their powerful ability to regulate not only other leukocytes, but also tissue-wide processes that affect an entire organism.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Macrófagos/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Microambiente Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Obesidade/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia
15.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 139, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed molecular analyses of cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium hold promise in identifying cellular phenotypes that drive tissue pathology and joint damage. The Accelerating Medicines Partnership RA/SLE Network aims to deconstruct autoimmune pathology by examining cells within target tissues through multiple high-dimensional assays. Robust standardized protocols need to be developed before cellular phenotypes at a single cell level can be effectively compared across patient samples. METHODS: Multiple clinical sites collected cryopreserved synovial tissue fragments from arthroplasty and synovial biopsy in a 10% DMSO solution. Mechanical and enzymatic dissociation parameters were optimized for viable cell extraction and surface protein preservation for cell sorting and mass cytometry, as well as for reproducibility in RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Cryopreserved synovial samples were collectively analyzed at a central processing site by a custom-designed and validated 35-marker mass cytometry panel. In parallel, each sample was flow sorted into fibroblast, T-cell, B-cell, and macrophage suspensions for bulk population RNA-seq and plate-based single-cell CEL-Seq2 RNA-seq. RESULTS: Upon dissociation, cryopreserved synovial tissue fragments yielded a high frequency of viable cells, comparable to samples undergoing immediate processing. Optimization of synovial tissue dissociation across six clinical collection sites with ~ 30 arthroplasty and ~ 20 biopsy samples yielded a consensus digestion protocol using 100 µg/ml of Liberase™ TL enzyme preparation. This protocol yielded immune and stromal cell lineages with preserved surface markers and minimized variability across replicate RNA-seq transcriptomes. Mass cytometry analysis of cells from cryopreserved synovium distinguished diverse fibroblast phenotypes, distinct populations of memory B cells and antibody-secreting cells, and multiple CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation states. Bulk RNA-seq of sorted cell populations demonstrated robust separation of synovial lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages. Single-cell RNA-seq produced transcriptomes of over 1000 genes/cell, including transcripts encoding characteristic lineage markers identified. CONCLUSIONS: We have established a robust protocol to acquire viable cells from cryopreserved synovial tissue with intact transcriptomes and cell surface phenotypes. A centralized pipeline to generate multiple high-dimensional analyses of synovial tissue samples collected across a collaborative network was developed. Integrated analysis of such datasets from large patient cohorts may help define molecular heterogeneity within RA pathology and identify new therapeutic targets and biomarkers.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Criopreservação , Humanos
16.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1180-1188, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013183

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many disease-associated noncoding variants, but cannot distinguish functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (fSNPs) from others that reside incidentally within risk loci. To address this challenge, we developed an unbiased high-throughput screen that employs type IIS enzymatic restriction to identify fSNPs that allelically modulate the binding of regulatory proteins. We coupled this approach, termed SNP-seq, with flanking restriction enhanced pulldown (FREP) to identify regulation of CD40 by three disease-associated fSNPs via four regulatory proteins, RBPJ, RSRC2 and FUBP-1/TRAP150. Applying this approach across 27 loci associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, we identified 148 candidate fSNPs, including two that regulate STAT4 via the regulatory proteins SATB2 and H1.2. Together, these findings establish the utility of tandem SNP-seq/FREP to bridge the gap between GWAS and disease mechanism.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Artrite Juvenil/genética , Antígenos CD40/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Células Jurkat
17.
Nat Immunol ; 19(5): 464-474, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670241

RESUMO

γδ T cells are situated at barrier sites and guard the body from infection and damage. However, little is known about their roles outside of host defense in nonbarrier tissues. Here, we characterize a highly enriched tissue-resident population of γδ T cells in adipose tissue that regulate age-dependent regulatory T cell (Treg) expansion and control core body temperature in response to environmental fluctuations. Mechanistically, innate PLZF+ γδ T cells produced tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL) 17 A and determined PDGFRα+ and Pdpn+ stromal-cell production of IL-33 in adipose tissue. Mice lacking γδ T cells or IL-17A exhibited decreases in both ST2+ Treg cells and IL-33 abundance in visceral adipose tissue. Remarkably, these mice also lacked the ability to regulate core body temperature at thermoneutrality and after cold challenge. Together, these findings uncover important physiological roles for resident γδ T cells in adipose tissue immune homeostasis and body-temperature control.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/fisiologia
18.
J Immunol ; 200(9): 3160-3169, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29592961

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an extremely successful pathogen, and its success is widely attributed to its ability to manipulate the intracellular environment of macrophages. A central phenomenon of tuberculosis pathology enabling immune evasion is the capacity of virulent M. tuberculosis (H37Rv) to induce macrophage necrosis, which facilitates the escape of the mycobacteria from the macrophage and spread of infection. In contrast, avirulent M. tuberculosis (H37Ra) induces macrophage apoptosis, which permits Ag presentation and activation of adaptive immunity. Previously, we found that H37Rv induces plasma membrane microdisruptions, leading to necrosis in the absence of plasma membrane repair. In contrast, H37Ra permits plasma membrane repair, which changes the host cell death modality to apoptosis, suggesting that membrane repair is critical for sequestering the pathogen in apoptotic vesicles. However, mechanisms of plasma membrane repair induced in response to M. tuberculosis infection remain unknown. Plasma membrane repair is known to induce a Ca2+-mediated signaling, which recruits lysosomes to the area of damaged plasma membrane sites for its resealing. In this study, we found that the small GTPase Arl8b is required for plasma membrane repair by controlling the exocytosis of lysosomes in cell lines and in human primary macrophages. Importantly, we found that the Arl8b secretion pathway is crucial to control the type of cell death of the M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. Indeed, Arl8b-depleted macrophages infected with avirulent H37Ra undergo necrotic instead of apoptotic cell death. These findings suggest that membrane repair mediated by Arl8b may be an important mechanism distinguishing avirulent from virulent M. tuberculosis-induced necrotic cell death.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Necrose/metabolismo , Necrose/microbiologia , Virulência/fisiologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 789, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476097

RESUMO

Fibroblasts regulate tissue homeostasis, coordinate inflammatory responses, and mediate tissue damage. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), synovial fibroblasts maintain chronic inflammation which leads to joint destruction. Little is known about fibroblast heterogeneity or if aberrations in fibroblast subsets relate to pathology. Here, we show functional and transcriptional differences between fibroblast subsets from human synovial tissues using bulk transcriptomics of targeted subpopulations and single-cell transcriptomics. We identify seven fibroblast subsets with distinct surface protein phenotypes, and collapse them into three subsets by integrating transcriptomic data. One fibroblast subset, characterized by the expression of proteins podoplanin, THY1 membrane glycoprotein and cadherin-11, but lacking CD34, is threefold expanded in patients with RA relative to patients with osteoarthritis. These fibroblasts localize to the perivascular zone in inflamed synovium, secrete proinflammatory cytokines, are proliferative, and have an in vitro phenotype characteristic of invasive cells. Our strategy may be used as a template to identify pathogenic stromal cellular subsets in other complex diseases.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Membrana Sinovial/citologia , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Antígenos Thy-1/genética , Antígenos Thy-1/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
20.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 30(1): 65-71, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984647

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stroma is a broad term referring to the connective tissue matrix in which other cells reside. It is composed of diverse cell types with functions such as extracellular matrix maintenance, blood and lymph vessel development, and effector cell recruitment. The tissue microenvironment is determined by the molecular characteristics and relative abundances of different stromal cells such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, pericytes, and mesenchymal precursor cells. Stromal cell heterogeneity is explained by embryonic developmental lineage, stages of differentiation to other cell types, and activation states. Interaction between immune and stromal cell types is critical to wound healing, cancer, and a wide range of inflammatory diseases. Here, we review recent studies of inflammatory diseases that use functional genomics and single-cell technologies to identify and characterize stromal cell types associated with pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: High dimensional strategies using mRNA sequencing, mass cytometry, and fluorescence activated cell-sorting with fresh primary tissue samples are producing detailed views of what is happening in diseased tissue in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Fibroblasts positive for CD90 (Thy-1) are enriched in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Single-cell RNA-seq studies will lead to more discoveries about the stroma in the near future. SUMMARY: Stromal cells form the microenvironment of inflamed and diseased tissues. Functional genomics is producing an increasingly detailed view of subsets of stromal cells with pathogenic functions in rheumatic diseases and cancer. Future genomics studies will discover disease mechanisms by perturbing molecular pathways with chemokines and therapies known to affect patient outcomes. Functional genomics studies with large sample sizes of patient tissues will identify patient subsets with different disease phenotypes or treatment responses.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Estromais/citologia , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Quimiocinas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Genômica , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Pericitos/citologia , Pericitos/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/genética , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Células Estromais/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/citologia , Antígenos Thy-1/imunologia
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