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1.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 5: 176-186, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570999

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chromosomal aberration and DNA copy number change are robust hallmarks of cancer. The gold standard for detecting copy number changes in tumor cells is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using locus-specific probes that are imaged as fluorescent spots. However, spot counting often does not perform well on solid tumor tissue sections due to partially represented or overlapping nuclei. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To overcome these challenges, we have developed a computational approach called FrenchFISH, which comprises a nuclear volume correction method coupled with two types of Poisson models: either a Poisson model for improved manual spot counting without the need for control probes or a homogeneous Poisson point process model for automated spot counting. RESULTS: We benchmarked the performance of FrenchFISH against previous approaches using a controlled simulation scenario and tested it experimentally in 12 ovarian carcinoma FFPE-tissue sections for copy number alterations at three loci (c-Myc, hTERC, and SE7). FrenchFISH outperformed standard spot counting with 74% of the automated counts having < 1 copy number difference from the manual counts and 17% having < 2 copy number differences, while taking less than one third of the time of manual counting. CONCLUSION: FrenchFISH is a general approach that can be used to enhance clinical diagnosis on sections of any tissue by both speeding up and improving the accuracy of spot count estimates.

2.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607245

RESUMO

Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) encompasses distinct histological, molecular and genomic entities that determine intrinsic sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. Current management of each subtype is determined by factors including tumour grade and stage, but only a small number of biomarkers can predict treatment response. The recent incorporation of PARP inhibitors into routine clinical practice has underscored the need to personalise ovarian cancer treatment based on tumour biology. In this article, we review the strengths and limitations of predictive biomarkers in current clinical practice and highlight integrative strategies that may inform the development of future personalised medicine programs and composite biomarkers.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) potentially interrogates site-specific response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: Participants with newly diagnosed EOC due for platinum-based chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery were recruited prospectively in a multicentre study (n = 47 participants). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and solid tumour volume (up to 10 lesions per participant) were obtained from DW-MRI before and after NAC (including double-baseline for repeatability assessment in n = 19). Anatomically matched lesions were analysed after surgical excision (65 lesions obtained from 25 participants). A trained algorithm determined tumour cell fraction, percentage tumour and percentage necrosis on histology. Whole-lesion post-NAC ADC and pre/post-NAC ADC changes were compared with histological metrics (residual tumour/necrosis) for each tumour site (ovarian, omental, peritoneal, lymph node). RESULTS: Tumour volume reduced at all sites after NAC. ADC increased between pre- and post-NAC measurements. Post-NAC ADC correlated negatively with tumour cell fraction. Pre/post-NAC changes in ADC correlated positively with percentage necrosis. Significant correlations were driven by peritoneal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Following NAC in EOC, the ADC (measured using DW-MRI) increases differentially at disease sites despite similar tumour shrinkage, making its utility site-specific. After NAC, ADC correlates negatively with tumour cell fraction; change in ADC correlates positively with percentage necrosis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01505829.

4.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315123

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a precision tissue sampling technique that uses computed tomography (CT)-based radiomic tumour habitats for ultrasound (US)-guided targeted biopsies that can be integrated in the clinical workflow of patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). METHODS: Six patients with suspected HGSOC scheduled for US-guided biopsy before starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included in this prospective study from September 2019 to February 2020. The tumour segmentation was performed manually on the pre-biopsy contrast-enhanced CT scan. Spatial radiomic maps were used to identify tumour areas with similar or distinct radiomic patterns, and tumour habitats were identified using the Gaussian mixture modelling. CT images with superimposed habitat maps were co-registered with US images by means of a landmark-based rigid registration method for US-guided targeted biopsies. The dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to assess the tumour-specific CT/US fusion accuracy. RESULTS: We successfully co-registered CT-based radiomic tumour habitats with US images in all patients. The median time between CT scan and biopsy was 21 days (range 7-30 days). The median DSC for tumour-specific CT/US fusion accuracy was 0.53 (range 0.79 to 0.37). The CT/US fusion accuracy was high for the larger pelvic tumours (DSC: 0.76-0.79) while it was lower for the smaller omental metastases (DSC: 0.37-0.53). CONCLUSION: We developed a precision tissue sampling technique that uses radiomic habitats to guide in vivo biopsies using CT/US fusion and that can be seamlessly integrated in the clinical routine for patients with HGSOC. KEY POINTS: • We developed a prevision tissue sampling technique that co-registers CT-based radiomics-based tumour habitats with US images. • The CT/US fusion accuracy was high for the larger pelvic tumours (DSC: 0.76-0.79) while it was lower for the smaller omental metastases (DSC: 0.37-0.53).

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212885

RESUMO

Purpose: Develop an integrated intra-site and inter-site radiomics-clinical-genomic marker of high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) outcomes and explore the biological basis of radiomics with respect to molecular signaling pathways and the tumor microenvironment (TME). Method: Seventy-five stage III-IV HGSOC patients from internal (N = 40) and external factors via the Cancer Imaging Archive (TCGA) (N = 35) with pre-operative contrast enhanced CT, attempted primary cytoreduction, at least two disease sites, and molecular analysis performed within TCGA were retrospectively analyzed. An intra-site and inter-site radiomics (cluDiss) measure was combined with clinical-genomic variables (iRCG) and compared against conventional (volume and number of sites) and average radiomics (N = 75) for prognosticating progression-free survival (PFS) and platinum resistance. Correlation with molecular signaling and TME derived using a single sample gene set enrichment that was measured. Results: The iRCG model had the best platinum resistance classification accuracy (AUROC of 0.78 [95% CI 0.77 to 0.80]). CluDiss was associated with PFS (HR 1.03 [95% CI: 1.01 to 1.05], p = 0.002), negatively correlated with Wnt signaling, and positively to immune TME. Conclusions: CluDiss and the iRCG prognosticated HGSOC outcomes better than conventional and average radiomic measures and could better stratify patient outcomes if validated on larger multi-center trials.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers. METHODS: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e. inverse-variance meta-analysis, co-localization, and M-values), and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data. RESULTS: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers (rG = 0.43, P = 2.66 × 10-5). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers (PBonferroni < 2.4 × 10-9). In addition, four novel sub-genome wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12 and 11q13.3 were identified (P < 5 × 10-7). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation. CONCLUSION: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis. IMPACT: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.

7.
Insights Imaging ; 11(1): 94, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer survival rates have not changed in the last 20 years. The majority of cases are High-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs), which are typically diagnosed at an advanced stage with multiple metastatic lesions. Taking biopsies of all sites of disease is infeasible, which challenges the implementation of stratification tools based on molecular profiling. MAIN BODY: In this review, we describe how these challenges might be overcome by integrating quantitative features extracted from medical imaging with the analysis of paired genomic profiles, a combined approach called radiogenomics, to generate virtual biopsies. Radiomic studies have been used to model different imaging phenotypes, and some radiomic signatures have been associated with paired molecular profiles to monitor spatiotemporal changes in the heterogeneity of tumours. We describe different strategies to integrate radiogenomic information in a global and local manner, the latter by targeted sampling of tumour habitats, defined as regions with distinct radiomic phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Linking radiomics and biological correlates in a targeted manner could potentially improve the clinical management of ovarian cancer. Radiogenomic signatures could be used to monitor tumours during the course of therapy, offering additional information for clinical decision making. In summary, radiogenomics may pave the way to virtual biopsies and treatment monitoring tools for integrative tumour analysis.

8.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724153

RESUMO

TP53 mutations are implicated in the progression of mucinous borderline tumors (MBOT) to mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Optimized immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TP53 has been established as a proxy for the TP53 mutation status in other ovarian tumor types. We aimed to confirm the ability of TP53 IHC to predict TP53 mutation status in ovarian mucinous tumors and to evaluate the association of TP53 mutation status with survival among patients with MBOT and MOC. Tumor tissue from an initial cohort of 113 women with MBOT/MOC was stained with optimized IHC for TP53 using tissue microarrays (75.2%) or full sections (24.8%) and interpreted using established criteria as normal or abnormal (overexpression, complete absence, or cytoplasmic). Cases were considered concordant if abnormal IHC staining predicted deleterious TP53 mutations. Discordant tissue microarray cases were re-evaluated on full sections and interpretational criteria were refined. The initial cohort was expanded to a total of 165 MBOT and 424 MOC for the examination of the association of survival with TP53 mutation status, assessed either by TP53 IHC and/or sequencing. Initially, 82/113 (72.6%) cases were concordant using the established criteria. Refined criteria for overexpression to account for intratumoral heterogeneity and terminal differentiation improved concordance to 93.8% (106/113). In the expanded cohort, 19.4% (32/165) of MBOT showed evidence for TP53 mutation and this was associated with a higher risk of recurrence, disease-specific death, and all-cause mortality (overall survival: HR = 4.6, 95% CI 1.5-14.3, p = 0.0087). Within MOC, 61.1% (259/424) harbored a TP53 mutation, but this was not associated with survival (overall survival, p = 0.77). TP53 IHC is an accurate proxy for TP53 mutation status with refined interpretation criteria accounting for intratumoral heterogeneity and terminal differentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors. TP53 mutation status is an important biomarker to identify MBOT with a higher risk of mortality.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639993

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) remains the deadliest form of epithelial ovarian cancer and despite major efforts little improvement in overall survival has been achieved. Identification of recurring "driver" genetic lesions has the potential to enable design of novel therapies for cancer. Here, we report on a study to find such new therapeutic targets for HGSOC using exome-capture sequencing approach targeting all kinase genes in 127 patient samples. Consistent with previous reports, the most frequently mutated gene was TP53 (97% mutation frequency) followed by BRCA1 (10% mutation frequency). The average mutation frequency of the kinase genes mutated from our panel was 1.5%. Intriguingly, after BRCA1, JAK3 was the most frequently mutated gene (4% mutation frequency). We tested the transforming properties of JAK3 mutants using the Ba/F3 cell-based in vitro functional assay and identified a novel gain-of-function mutation in the kinase domain of JAK3 (p.T1022I). Importantly, p.T1022I JAK3 mutants displayed higher sensitivity to the JAK3-selective inhibitor Tofacitinib compared to controls. For independent validation, we re-sequenced the entire JAK3 coding sequence using tagged amplicon sequencing (TAm-Seq) in 463 HGSOCs resulting in an overall somatic mutation frequency of 1%. TAm-Seq screening of CDK12 in the same population revealed a 7% mutation frequency. Our data confirms that the frequency of mutations in kinase genes in HGSOC is low and provides accurate estimates for the frequency of JAK3 and CDK12 mutations in a large well characterized cohort. Although p.T1022I JAK3 mutations are rare, our functional validation shows that if detected they should be considered as potentially actionable for therapy. The observation of CDK12 mutations in 7% of HGSOC cases provides a strong rationale for routine somatic testing, although more functional and clinical characterization is required to understand which nonsynonymous mutations alterations are associated with homologous recombination deficiency.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
10.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 582-593, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483290

RESUMO

In metastatic cancer, the degree of heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and its molecular underpinnings remain largely unstudied. To characterize the tumor-immune interface at baseline and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), we performed immunogenomic analysis of treatment-naive and paired samples from before and after treatment with chemotherapy. In treatment-naive HGSOC, we found that immune-cell-excluded and inflammatory microenvironments coexist within the same individuals and within the same tumor sites, indicating ubiquitous variability in immune cell infiltration. Analysis of TME cell composition, DNA copy number, mutations and gene expression showed that immune cell exclusion was associated with amplification of Myc target genes and increased expression of canonical Wnt signaling in treatment-naive HGSOC. Following NACT, increased natural killer (NK) cell infiltration and oligoclonal expansion of T cells were detected. We demonstrate that the tumor-immune microenvironment of advanced HGSOC is intrinsically heterogeneous and that chemotherapy induces local immune activation, suggesting that chemotherapy can potentiate the immunogenicity of immune-excluded HGSOC tumors.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Cisplatino/imunologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/imunologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes myc , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
11.
Comput Biol Med ; 120: 103751, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer typically exhibits genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity, which can have prognostic significance and influence therapy response. Computed Tomography (CT)-based radiomic approaches calculate quantitative features of tumour heterogeneity at a mesoscopic level, regardless of macroscopic areas of hypo-dense (i.e., cystic/necrotic), hyper-dense (i.e., calcified), or intermediately dense (i.e., soft tissue) portions. METHOD: With the goal of achieving the automated sub-segmentation of these three tissue types, we present here a two-stage computational framework based on unsupervised Fuzzy C-Means Clustering (FCM) techniques. No existing approach has specifically addressed this task so far. Our tissue-specific image sub-segmentation was tested on ovarian cancer (pelvic/ovarian and omental disease) and renal cell carcinoma CT datasets using both overlap-based and distance-based metrics for evaluation. RESULTS: On all tested sub-segmentation tasks, our two-stage segmentation approach outperformed conventional segmentation techniques: fixed multi-thresholding, the Otsu method, and automatic cluster number selection heuristics for the K-means clustering algorithm. In addition, experiments showed that the integration of the spatial information into the FCM algorithm generally achieves more accurate segmentation results, whilst the kernelised FCM versions are not beneficial. The best spatial FCM configuration achieved average Dice similarity coefficient values starting from 81.94±4.76 and 83.43±3.81 for hyper-dense and hypo-dense components, respectively, for the investigated sub-segmentation tasks. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed intelligent framework could be readily integrated into clinical research environments and provides robust tools for future radiomic biomarker validation.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2189, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366847

RESUMO

While most testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) exhibit exquisite sensitivity to platinum chemotherapy, ~10% are platinum resistant. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms, we undertake whole exome sequencing and copy number analysis in 40 tumours from 26 cases with platinum-resistant TGCT, and combine this with published genomic data on an additional 624 TGCTs. We integrate analyses for driver mutations, mutational burden, global, arm-level and focal copy number (CN) events, and SNV and CN signatures. Albeit preliminary and observational in nature, these analyses provide support for a possible mechanistic link between early driver mutations in RAS and KIT and the widespread copy number events by which TGCT is characterised.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Genômica/métodos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Platina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Proteínas ras/genética , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
13.
Hum Pathol ; 101: 40-52, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360491

RESUMO

The current World Health Organization classification does not distinguish transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC) from conventional tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), despite evidence suggesting improved prognosis for patients with TCC; instead, it is considered a morphologic variant of HGSC. The immunohistochemical (IHC) markers applied to date do not distinguish between TCC and HGSC. Therefore, we sought to compare the proteomic profiles of TCC and conventional HGSC to identify proteins enriched in TCC. Prognostic biomarkers in HGSC have proven to be elusive, and our aim was to identify biomarkers of TCC as a way of reliably and reproducibly identifying patients with a favorable prognosis and better response to chemotherapy compared with those with conventional HGSC. Quantitative global proteome analysis was performed on archival material of 12 cases of TCC and 16 cases of HGSC using SP3 (single-pot, solid phase-enhanced, sample preparation)-Clinical Tissue Proteomics, a recently described protocol for full-proteome analysis from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. We identified 430 proteins that were significantly enriched in TCC over HGSC. Unsupervised co-clustering perfectly distinguished TCC from HGSC based on protein expression. Pathway analysis showed that proteins associated with cell death, necrosis, and apoptosis were highly expressed in TCCs, whereas proteins associated with DNA homologous recombination, cell mitosis, proliferation and survival, and cell cycle progression pathways had reduced expression. From the proteomic analysis, three potential biomarkers for TCC were identified, claudin-4 (CLDN4), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (UCHL1), and minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7), and tested by IHC analysis on tissue microarrays. In agreement with the proteomic analysis, IHC expression of those proteins was stronger in TCC than in HGSC (p < 0.0001). Using global proteomic analysis, we are able to distinguish TCC from conventional HGSC. Follow-up studies will be necessary to confirm that these molecular and morphologic differences are clinically significant.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 122(12): 1803-1810, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In colorectal and breast cancer, the density and localisation of immune infiltrates provides strong prognostic information. We asked whether similar automated quantitation and combined analysis of immune infiltrates could refine prognostic information in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) and tested associations between patterns of immune response and genomic driver alterations. METHODS: Epithelium and stroma were semi-automatically segmented and the infiltration of CD45RO+, CD8+ and CD68+ cells was automatically quantified from images of 332 HGSOC patient tissue microarray cores. RESULTS: Epithelial CD8 [p = 0.027, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.83], stromal CD68 (p = 3 × 10-4, HR = 0.44) and stromal CD45RO (p = 7 × 10-4, HR = 0.76) were positively associated with survival and remained so when averaged across the tumour and stromal compartments. Using principal component analysis, we identified optimised multiparameter survival models combining information from all immune markers (p = 0.016, HR = 0.88). There was no significant association between PTEN expression, type of TP53 mutation or presence of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and immune infiltrate densities or principal components. CONCLUSIONS: Combining measures of immune infiltration provided improved survival modelling and evidence for the multiple effects of different immune factors on survival. The presence of stromal CD68+ and CD45RO+ populations was associated with survival, underscoring the benefits evaluating stromal immune populations may bring for prognostic immunoscores in HGSOC.

15.
Clin Chem ; 66(5): 697-705, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the study and clinical applications of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) are limited by practical considerations of sample collection. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used for analysis of ctDNA, identifying copy-number alterations and fragmentation patterns. We hypothesized that low-depth/shallow WGS (sWGS) data may be generated from minute amounts of cell-free DNA, and that fragment-size selection may remove contaminating genomic DNA from small blood volumes. Dried blood spots have practical advantages for sample collection, may facilitate serial sampling, and could support novel study designs in humans and animal models. METHODS: We developed a protocol for the isolation and analysis of cell-free DNA from dried blood spots using filter paper cards and bead-based size selection. DNA extracted and size-selected from dried spots was analyzed using sWGS and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Analyzing a 50 µL dried blood spot from frozen whole blood of a patient with melanoma, we identified ctDNA based on the presence of tumor-specific somatic copy-number alterations, and found a fragment-size profile similar to that observed in plasma DNA. We found alterations in different chromosomes in blood spots from 2 patients with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Extending this approach to serial dried blood spots from mouse xenograft models, we detect tumor-derived cell-free DNA and identified ctDNA from the originally grafted ascites. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that ctDNA can be detected and monitored in dried blood spots from archived and fresh blood samples, enabling new approaches for sample collection and novel study/trial designs for both patients and in vivo models.

16.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075097

RESUMO

Identifying cancer drivers and actionable mutations is critical for precision oncology. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) the majority of mutations lack biological or clinical validation. We fully characterized 43 lines of Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDXs) and performed copy number analysis and whole exome sequencing of 12 lines derived from naïve, high grade EOCs. Pyrosequencing allowed quantifying mutations in the source tumours. Drug response was assayed on PDX Derived Tumour Cells (PDTCs) and in vivo on PDXs. We identified a PIK3R1W624R variant in PDXs from a high grade serous EOC. Allele frequencies of PIK3R1W624R in all the passaged PDXs and in samples of the source tumour suggested that it was truncal and thus possibly a driver mutation. After inconclusive results in silico analyses, PDTCs and PDXs allowed the showing actionability of PIK3R1W624R and addiction of PIK3R1W624R carrying cells to inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. It is noteworthy that PIK3R1 encodes the p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K, that is very rarely mutated in EOC. The PIK3R1W624R mutation is located in the cSH2 domain of the p85α that has never been involved in oncogenesis. These data show that patient-derived models are irreplaceable in their role of unveiling unpredicted driver and actionable variants in advanced ovarian cancer.

17.
J Pathol ; 250(3): 336-345, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829441

RESUMO

TP53 mutations are considered a surrogate biomarker of the serous-like 'copy number high' molecular subtype of endometrial carcinoma (EC). In ovarian carcinoma, p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) accurately reflects mutational status with almost 100% specificity but its performance in EC has not been established. This study tested whether p53 IHC reliably predicts TP53 mutations identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in EC biopsy samples for all ECs and as part of a molecular classification algorithm after exclusion of cases harbouring mismatch repair defects (MMRd) or pathogenic DNA polymerase epsilon exonuclease domain mutations (POLEmut). A secondary aim assessed inter-laboratory variability in p53 IHC. From a total of 207 cases from five centres (37-49 cases per centre), p53 IHC carried out at a central reference laboratory was compared with local IHC (n = 164) and curated tagged-amplicon NGS TP53 sequencing results (n = 177). Following consensus review, local and central p53 IHC results were concordant in 156/164 (95.1%) tumours. Discordant results were attributable to both interpretive and technical differences in staining between the local and central laboratories. When results were considered as any mutant pattern versus wild-type pattern staining, however, there was disagreement between local and central review in only one case. The concordance between p53 IHC and TP53 mutation was 155/168 (92.3%) overall, and 117/123 (95.1%) after excluding MMRd and POLEmut EC. Three (3/6) discordant results were in serous carcinomas with complete absence of p53 staining but no detectable TP53 mutation. Subclonal mutant p53 IHC expression was observed in 9/177 (5.1%) cases, of which four were either MMRd or POLEmut. Mutant pattern p53 IHC was observed in 63/63 (100%) serous carcinomas that were MMR-proficient/POLE exonuclease domain wild-type. Optimised p53 IHC performs well as a surrogate test for TP53 mutation in EC biopsies, demonstrates excellent inter-laboratory reproducibility, and has high clinical utility for molecular classification algorithms in EC. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mutação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
18.
Lancet ; 394(10214): 2084-2095, 2019 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carboplatin and paclitaxel administered every 3 weeks is standard-of-care first-line chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer. The Japanese JGOG3016 trial showed a significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival with dose-dense weekly paclitaxel and 3-weekly carboplatin. In this study, we aimed to compare efficacy and safety of two dose-dense weekly regimens to standard 3-weekly chemotherapy in a predominantly European population with epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, women with newly diagnosed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IC-IV epithelial ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to group 1 (carboplatin area under the curve [AUC]5 or AUC6 and 175 mg/m2 paclitaxel every 3 weeks), group 2 (carboplatin AUC5 or AUC6 every 3 weeks and 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel weekly), or group 3 (carboplatin AUC2 and 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel weekly). Written informed consent was provided by all women who entered the trial. The protocol had the appropriate national research ethics committee approval for the countries where the study was conducted. Patients entered the trial after immediate primary surgery, or before neoadjuvant chemotherapy with subsequent planned delayed primary surgery. The trial coprimary outcomes were progression-free survival and overall survival. Data analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis, and were powered to detect a hazard ratio of 0·75 in progression-free survival. The main comparisons were between the control group (group 1) and each of the weekly research groups (groups 2 and 3). FINDINGS: Between June 6, 2011, and Nov 28, 2014, 1566 women were randomly assigned to treatment. 72% (365), completed six protocol-defined treatment cycles in group 1, 60% (305) in group 2, and 63% (322) in group 3, although 90% (454), 89% (454), and 85% (437) completed six platinum-based chemotherapy cycles, respectively. Paclitaxel dose intensification was achieved with weekly treatment (median total paclitaxel dose 1010 mg/m2 in group 1; 1233 mg/m2 in group 2; 1274 mg/m2 in group 3). By February, 2017, 1018 (65%) patients had experienced disease progression. No significant progression-free survival increase was observed with either weekly regimen (restricted mean survival time 24·4 months [97·5% CI 23·0-26·0] in group 1, 24·9 months [24·0-25·9] in group 2, 25·3 months [23·9-26·9] in group 3; median progression-free survival 17·7 months [IQR 10·6-not reached] in group 1, 20·8 months [11·9-59·0] in group 2, 21·0 months [12·0-54·0] in group 3; log-rank p=0·35 for group 2 vs group 1; group 3 vs 1 p=0·51). Although grade 3 or 4 toxic effects increased with weekly treatment, these effects were predominantly uncomplicated. Febrile neutropenia and sensory neuropathy incidences were similar across groups. INTERPRETATION: Weekly dose-dense chemotherapy can be delivered successfully as first-line treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer but does not significantly improve progression-free survival compared with standard 3-weekly chemotherapy in predominantly European populations. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, Medical Research Council, Health Research Board in Ireland, Irish Cancer Society, Cancer Australia.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
19.
Radiology ; 293(2): 374-383, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573402

RESUMO

Background Treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer results in a relapse rate of 75%. Early markers of response would enable optimization of management and improved outcome in both primary and recurrent disease. Purpose To assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), derived from diffusion-weighted MRI, as an indicator of response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival. Materials and Methods This prospective multicenter trial (from 2012-2016) recruited participants with stage III or IV ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer (newly diagnosed, cohort one; relapsed, cohort two) scheduled for platinum-based chemotherapy, with interval debulking surgery in cohort one. Cohort one underwent two baseline MRI examinations separated by 0-7 days to assess ADC repeatability; an additional MRI was performed after three treatment cycles. Cohort two underwent imaging at baseline and after one and three treatment cycles. ADC changes in responders and nonresponders were compared (Wilcoxon rank sum tests). PFS and overall survival were assessed by using a multivariable Cox model. Results A total of 125 participants (median age, 63.3 years [interquartile range, 57.0-70.7 years]; 125 women; cohort one, n = 47; cohort two, n = 78) were included. Baseline ADC (range, 77-258 × 10-5mm2s-1) was repeatable (upper and lower 95% limits of agreement of 12 × 10-5mm2s-1 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 6 × 10-5mm2s-1 to 18 × 10-5mm2s-1] and -15 × 10-5mm2s-1 [95% CI: -21 × 10-5mm2s-1 to -9 × 10-5mm2s-1]). ADC increased in 47% of cohort two after one treatment cycle, and in 58% and 53% of cohorts one and two, respectively, after three cycles. Percentage change from baseline differed between responders and nonresponders after three cycles (16.6% vs 3.9%; P = .02 [biochemical response definition]; 19.0% vs 6.2%; P = .04 [radiologic definition]). ADC increase after one cycle was associated with longer PFS in cohort two (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98; P = .03). ADC change was not indicative of overall survival for either cohort. Conclusion After three cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes are indicative of response. After one treatment cycle, increased ADC is indicative of improved progression-free survival in relapsed disease. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license. Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/terapia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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