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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(4): 47009, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal tobacco smoke exposure has been associated with altered DNA methylation. However, previous studies largely used methylation arrays, which cover a small fraction of CpGs, and focused on whole cord blood. OBJECTIVES: The current study examined the impact of in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoke on the cord blood [Formula: see text] DNA methylome. METHODS: The methylomes of 20 Hispanic white newborns ([Formula: see text] exposed to any maternal tobacco smoke in pregnancy; [Formula: see text] unexposed) from the Maternal and Child Health Study (MACHS) were profiled by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (median coverage: [Formula: see text]). Statistical analyses were conducted using the Regression Analysis of Differential Methylation (RADMeth) program because it performs well on low-coverage data (minimizes false positives and negatives). RESULTS: We found that 10,381 CpGs were differentially methylated by tobacco smoke exposure [neighbor-adjusted p-values that are additionally corrected for multiple testing based on the Benjamini-Hochberg method for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]]. From these CpGs, RADMeth identified 557 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that were overrepresented ([Formula: see text]) in important regulatory regions, including enhancers. Of nine DMRs that could be queried in a reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) study of adult [Formula: see text] cells ([Formula: see text] smokers; [Formula: see text] nonsmokers), four replicated ([Formula: see text]). Additionally, a CpG in the promoter of SLC7A8 (percent methylation difference: [Formula: see text] comparing exposed to unexposed) replicated ([Formula: see text]) in an EPIC (Illumina) array study of cord blood [Formula: see text] cells ([Formula: see text] exposed to sustained maternal tobacco smoke; [Formula: see text] unexposed) and in a study of adult [Formula: see text] cells across two platforms (EPIC: [Formula: see text] smokers; [Formula: see text] nonsmokers; 450K: [Formula: see text] smokers; [Formula: see text] nonsmokers). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal tobacco smoke exposure in pregnancy is associated with cord blood [Formula: see text] DNA methylation in key regulatory regions, including enhancers. While we used a method that performs well on low-coverage data, we cannot exclude the possibility that some results may be false positives. However, we identified a differentially methylated CpG in amino acid transporter SLC7A8 that is highly reproducible, which may be sensitive to cigarette smoke in both cord blood and adult [Formula: see text] cells. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3398.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
5.
Mitochondrion ; 46: 22-29, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980914

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA is sensitive to damage by exogenous reactive oxygen sources, including traffic-related air pollution (TRAP). Given the important role for mitochondria in human disease, we hypothesized that prenatal air pollution exposure may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and that mitochondrial-derived peptides (MDPs) might protect against these effects. In in vitro studies, 24-hour exposure to nanoparticulate matter (nPM) increased oxidation of mtDNA, decreased mitochondrial consumption rate (OCR), and decreased mtDNAcn in SH-SY5Y cells. Addition of MDPs rescued these effects to varying degrees. Liver tissue taken from C57Bl/6 males exposed for 10 weeks to nPM had lower OCR, lower mtDNAcn and higher MDP levels, similar to in vitro studies. In newborn cord blood, MDP levels were positively associated with prenatal TRAP exposures. Moreover, DNA methylation of two distinct regions of the D-Loop in the mitochondria genome was associated with levels of several MDPs. Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that TRAP can directly affect mitochondrial respiratory function and mtDNAcn. Treatment of cells with MDPs can counteract TRAP induced-effects. Lastly, we present evidence that suggests MDPs may be regulated in part by mitochondrial DNA methylation in humans.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Metilação de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 253, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disproportionately high rates of maternal overweight and obesity among the Hispanic population before, during, and after pregnancy pose serious health concerns for both mothers (e.g., preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, weight retention) and children (e.g., elevated lifelong obesity risk). A growing body of evidence implicates environmental exposures (e.g., air pollution, metals) and social stressors (e.g., poverty, violence) in contributing to obesity-related biobehavioral processes, such as physical activity, dietary intake, perceived stress, and cortisol regulation. However, current understanding of the role of environmental exposures and social stressors on obesity-related biobehavioral processes is limited by infrequent, inter-individual measurement, and lack of personal exposure monitoring. METHODS: The "Maternal and Developmental Risks from Environmental and Social Stressors" (MADRES) real-time and personal sampling study examines the within-subject day-level effects of environmental and social stressors on maternal pre- and post-partum obesity-related biobehavioral responses. Among a cohort of 65 low-income, Hispanic women in urban Los Angeles, this study uses innovative personal, real-time data capture strategies (e.g., ecological momentary assessment [EMA], personal exposure monitoring, geolocation monitoring, accelerometry) to repeatedly assess obesity-related processes during the 1st and 3rd trimester, and at 4-6 months postpartum. Day-level effects of environmental exposures and social stressors on women's physical activity, diet, perceived stress and salivary cortisol measured across repeated days will be tested using multilevel modeling. DISCUSSION: Hispanic women of childbearing age bear a disproportionately high burden of obesity, and this population is also unduly exposed to numerous obesogenic settings. By using innovative real-time data capture strategies, the current study will uncover the daily impacts of environmental and social stressor exposures on women's obesity-related biobehavioral responses, which over time can lead to excessive gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention and can pose serious consequences for both mother and child. Findings from the real-time and personal sampling study will identify key mechanistic targets for policy, clinical, and programmatic interventions, with the potential for broad-reaching public health impacts.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Los Angeles , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Ganho de Peso
7.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765504

RESUMO

RATIONALE: We aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in cord blood DNA associated with childhood lung function, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across the life course. METHODS: We meta-analysed epigenome-wide data of 1688 children from five cohorts to identify cord blood DMRs and their annotated genes, in relation to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC at ages 7-13 years. Identified DMRs were explored for associations with childhood asthma, adult lung function and COPD, gene expression and involvement in biological processes. RESULTS: We identified 59 DMRs associated with childhood lung function, of which 18 were associated with childhood asthma and nine with COPD in adulthood. Genes annotated to the top 10 identified DMRs were HOXA5, PAOX, LINC00602, ABCA7, PER3, CLCA1, VENTX, NUDT12, PTPRN2 and TCL1A. Differential gene expression in blood was observed for 32 DMRs in childhood and 18 in adulthood. Genes related with 16 identified DMRs were associated with respiratory developmental or pathogenic pathways. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the epigenetic status of the newborn affects respiratory health and disease across the life course.

8.
Curr Epidemiol Rep ; 5(2): 79-91, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319933

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: Diabetes mellitus is a top contributor to the global burden of mortality and disability in adults. There has also been a slow, but steady rise in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in youth. The current review summarizes recent findings regarding the impact of increased exposure to air pollutants on the type 2 diabetes epidemic. Recent Findings: Human and animal studies provide strong evidence that exposure to ambient and traffic-related air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) play an important role in metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes etiology. This work is supported by recent findings that have observed similar effect sizes for increased exposure to air pollutants on clinical measures of risk for type 2 diabetes in children and adults. Further, studies indicate that these effects may be more pronounced among individuals with existing risk factors, including obesity and prediabetes. Summary: Current epidemiological evidence suggests that increased air pollution exposure contributes to alterations in insulin signaling, glucose metabolism, and beta (ß)-cell function. Future work is needed to identify the specific detrimental pollutants that alter glucose metabolism. Additionally, advanced tools and new areas of investigation present unique opportunities to study the underlying mechanisms, including intermediate pathways, that link increased air pollution exposure with type 2 diabetes onset.

9.
Epigenetics ; : 1-12, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277126

RESUMO

AXL is one of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL and MERTK) receptor tyrosine kinases and may be involved in airway inflammation. Little is known about how epigenetic changes in AXL may affect lung development during adolescence. We investigated the association between AXL DNA methylation at birth and lung function growth from 10 to 18 years of age in 923 subjects from the Children's Health Study (CHS). DNA methylation from newborn bloodspots was measured at multiple CpG loci across the regulatory regions of AXL using Pyrosequencing. Linear spline mixed-effects models were fitted to assess the association between DNA methylation and 8-year lung function growth. Findings were evaluated for replication in a separate population of 237 CHS subjects using methylation data from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 (HM450) array when possible. A 5% higher average methylation level of the AXL promoter region at birth was associated with a 48.4 ml decrease in mean FEV1 growth from 10 to 18 years of age in the primary study population (95% CI: -100.2, 3.4), and a 53.9 ml decrease in mean FEV1 growth from 11 to 15 years of age in the replication population (95% CI: -104.3, -3.5). One CpG locus in the promoter region, cg10564498, was significantly associated with decreased growth in FEV1, FVC and MMEF from 10 to 18 years of age and the negative associations were observed in a similar age range in the replication population. These findings suggest a potential association between AXL promoter methylation at birth and lower lung function growth during adolescence.

10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 98, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, act as one potential mechanism underlying the detrimental effects associated with prenatal tobacco smoke (PTS) exposure. Methylation in a gene called AXL was previously reported to differ in response to PTS. METHODS: We investigated the association between PTS and epigenetic changes in AXL and how this was related to childhood asthma phenotypes. We tested the association between PTS and DNA methylation at multiple CpG loci of AXL at birth using Pyrosequencing in two separate study populations, the Children's Health Study (CHS, n = 799) and the Newborn Epigenetic Study (NEST, n = 592). Plasma cotinine concentration was used to validate findings with self-reported smoking status. The inter-relationships among AXL mRNA and miR-199a1 expression, PTS, and AXL methylation were examined. Lastly, we evaluated the joint effects of AXL methylation and PTS on the risk of asthma and related symptoms at age 10 years old. RESULTS: PTS was associated with higher methylation level in the AXL gene body in both CHS and NEST subjects. In the pooled analysis, exposed subjects had a 0.51% higher methylation level in this region compared to unexposed subjects (95% CI 0.29, 0.74; p < 0.0001). PTS was also associated with 21.2% lower expression of miR-199a1 (95% CI - 37.9, - 0.1; p = 0.05), a microRNA known to regulate AXL expression. Furthermore, the combination of higher AXL methylation and PTS exposure at birth increased the risk of recent episodes of bronchitic symptoms in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: PTS was associated with methylation level of AXL and the combination altered the risk of childhood bronchitic symptoms.

12.
Hum Hered ; 83(3): 130-152, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is evidence to suggest that asthma pathogenesis is affected by both genetic and epigenetic variation independently, and there is some evidence to suggest that genetic-epigenetic interactions affect risk of asthma. However, little research has been done to identify such interactions on a genome-wide scale. The aim of this studies was to identify genes with genetic-epigenetic interactions associated with asthma. METHODS: Using asthma case-control data, we applied a novel nonparametric gene-centric approach to test for interactions between multiple SNPs and CpG sites simultaneously in the vicinities of 18,178 genes across the genome. RESULTS: Twelve genes, PF4, ATF3, TPRA1, HOPX, SCARNA18, STC1, OR10K1, UPK1B, LOC101928523, LHX6, CHMP4B, and LANCL1, exhibited statistically significant SNP-CpG interactions (false discovery rate = 0.05). Of these, three have previously been implicated in asthma risk (PF4, ATF3, and TPRA1). Follow-up analysis revealed statistically significant pairwise SNP-CpG interactions for several of these genes, including SCARNA18, LHX6, and LOC101928523 (p = 1.33E-04, 8.21E-04, 1.11E-03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Joint effects of genetic and epigenetic variation may play an important role in asthma pathogenesis. Statistical methods that simultaneously account for multiple variations across chromosomal regions may be needed to detect these types of effects on a genome-wide scale.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epistasia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 1(5): e182172, 2018 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646156

RESUMO

Importance: Thyroid hormones are critical for fetal growth and development. Prenatal particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposure has been associated with altered newborn thyroid function, but other air pollutants have not been evaluated, and critical windows of exposure are unknown. Objectives: To investigate the association of prenatal exposure to ambient and traffic-related air pollutants with newborn thyroid function and identify critical windows of exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from 2050 participants in the Children's Health Study. Statistical analyses were conducted from 2017 to 2018 using pregnancy and birth data from 1994 to 1997 for a subset of participants recruited from schools in 13 southern California communities in 2002 to 2003 when participants were 5 to 7 years of age. Participants were included in statistical analyses if they could be linked to their newborn blood spot and had complete monthly exposure measures for at least 1 air pollutant across pregnancy. Exposures: Prenatal monthly averages of ambient (PM diameter <2.5 µm [PM2.5] or <10 µm [PM10], nitrogen dioxide, and ozone) and traffic-related (freeway, nonfreeway, and total nitrogen oxides) air pollutant exposures were determined using inverse distance-squared weighting of central monitoring data and the California Line Source Dispersion model, respectively. Main Outcomes and Measures: Newborn heel-stick blood spot total thyroxine (TT4) measures were acquired retrospectively from the California Department of Public Health. Results: Participants included 2050 newborns (50.5% male), with a median (interquartile range) age of 20 (15-29) hours. The majority of newborns were Hispanic white (1202 [58.6%]) or non-Hispanic white (638 [31.1%]). Sixty-six (3.2%) were black and 144 (7.0%) were from other racial/ethnic groups. The mean (SD) newborn TT4 measure was 16.2 (4.3) µg/dL. A 2-SD increase in prenatal PM2.5 (16.3 µg/m3) and PM10 (22.2 µg/m3) was associated with a 1.2-µg/dL (95% CI, 0.5-1.8 µg/dL) and 1.5-µg/dL (95% CI, 0.9-2.1 µg/dL) higher TT4 measure, respectively, in covariate-adjusted linear regression models. Other pollutants were not consistently associated with newborn TT4. Distributed lag models revealed that PM2.5 exposure during months 3 to 7 of pregnancy and PM10 exposure during months 1 to 8 of pregnancy were associated with significantly higher newborn TT4 concentrations (P < .05). Conclusions and Relevance: Prenatal PM exposure, particularly in early pregnancy and midpregnancy, is associated with higher newborn TT4 concentrations. Future studies should assess the health implications of PM-associated differences in newborn TT4 concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes de Função Tireóidea/métodos , Testes de Função Tireóidea/estatística & dados numéricos , Tiroxina/análise , Tiroxina/sangue
14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 9: 121, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177020

RESUMO

Background: AXL is one of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL and MERTK) receptor tyrosine kinases and may affect numerous immune-related health conditions. However, the role for AXL in asthma, including its epigenetic regulation, has not been extensively studied. Methods: We investigated the association between AXL DNA methylation at birth and risk of childhood asthma symptoms at age 6 years. DNA methylation of multiple CpG loci across the regulatory regions of AXL was measured in newborn bloodspots using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array on a subset of 246 children from the Children's Health Study (CHS). Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between asthma symptoms and DNA methylation. Findings were evaluated for replication in a separate population of 1038 CHS subjects using Pyrosequencing on newborn bloodspot samples. AXL genotypes were extracted from genome-wide data. Results: Higher average methylation of CpGs in the AXL gene at birth was associated with higher risk of parent-reported wheezing, and the association was stronger in girls than in boys. This relationship reflected the methylation status of the gene-body region near the 5' end, for which a 1% higher methylation level was significantly associated with a 72% increased risk of ever having wheezed by 6 years. The association of one CpG locus, cg00360107 was replicated using Pyrosequencing. Increased AXL methylation was also associated with lower mRNA expression level of this gene in lung tissue from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Furthermore, AXL DNA methylation was strongly linked to underlying genetic polymorphisms. Conclusions: AXL DNA methylation at birth was associated with higher risk for asthma-related symptoms in early childhood.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(4): 511-526, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterization of the epigenome is a primary interest for children's environmental health researchers studying the environmental influences on human populations, particularly those studying the role of pregnancy and early-life exposures on later-in-life health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to consider the state of the science in environmental epigenetics research and to focus on DNA methylation and the collective observations of many studies being conducted within the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers, as they relate to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. METHODS: We address the current laboratory and statistical tools available for epigenetic analyses, discuss methods for validation and interpretation of findings, particularly when magnitudes of effect are small, question the functional relevance of findings, and discuss the future for environmental epigenetics research. DISCUSSION: A common finding in environmental epigenetic studies is the small-magnitude epigenetic effect sizes that result from such exposures. Although it is reasonable and necessary that we question the relevance of such small effects, we present examples in which small effects persist and have been replicated across populations and across time. We encourage a critical discourse on the interpretation of such small changes and further research on their functional relevance for children's health. CONCLUSION: The dynamic nature of the epigenome will require an emphasis on future longitudinal studies in which the epigenome is profiled over time, over changing environmental exposures, and over generations to better understand the multiple ways in which the epigenome may respond to environmental stimuli.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Epigenômica , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Pesquisa
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(1): 104-110, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution is considered to be associated with adverse effects on child health. This may partly be mediated by mechanisms related to DNA methylation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between exposure to air pollution, using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as marker, and epigenome-wide cord blood DNA methylation. METHODS: We meta-analyzed the associations between NO2 exposure at residential addresses during pregnancy and cord blood DNA methylation (Illumina 450K) in four European and North American studies (n = 1,508) with subsequent look-up analyses in children ages 4 (n = 733) and 8 (n = 786) years. Additionally, we applied a literature-based candidate approach for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. To assess influence of exposure at the transcriptomics level, we related mRNA expression in blood cells to NO2 exposure in 4- (n = 111) and 16-year-olds (n = 239). RESULTS: We found epigenome-wide significant associations [false discovery rate (FDR) p < 0.05] between maternal NO2 exposure during pregnancy and DNA methylation in newborns for 3 CpG sites in mitochondria-related genes: cg12283362 (LONP1), cg24172570 (3.8 kbp upstream of HIBADH), and cg08973675 (SLC25A28). The associations with cg08973675 methylation were also significant in the older children. Further analysis of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes revealed differentially methylated CpGs in CAT and TPO in newborns (FDR p < 0.05). NO2 exposure at the time of biosampling in childhood had a significant impact on CAT and TPO expression. CONCLUSIONS: NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with differential offspring DNA methylation in mitochondria-related genes. Exposure to NO2 was also linked to differential methylation as well as expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense pathways. Citation: Gruzieva O, Xu CJ, Breton CV, Annesi-Maesano I, Antó JM, Auffray C, Ballereau S, Bellander T, Bousquet J, Bustamante M, Charles MA, de Kluizenaar Y, den Dekker HT, Duijts L, Felix JF, Gehring U, Guxens M, Jaddoe VV, Jankipersadsing SA, Merid SK, Kere J, Kumar A, Lemonnier N, Lepeule J, Nystad W, Page CM, Panasevich S, Postma D, Slama R, Sunyer J, Söderhäll C, Yao J, London SJ, Pershagen G, Koppelman GH, Melén E. 2017. Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of methylation in children related to prenatal NO2 air pollution exposure. Environ Health Perspect 125:104-110; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP36.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Londres , Gravidez
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 5(8)2016 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of air pollution exposure on atherosclerosis severity or incident clinical events in patients with coronary artery disease is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 6575 Ohio residents undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. Multinomial regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between exposure to fine particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide on coronary artery disease severity at baseline and risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, or all-cause mortality over 3 years of follow-up. Among participants with coronary artery disease, exposure to PM2.5 levels was associated with increased likelihood of having coronary atherosclerosis that was mild (odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.11-1.83, P=0.005) and severe (odds ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.26-2.11, P<0.0001), with the effect on severe coronary artery disease being significantly increased compared with mild disease (Ptrend=0.03). Exposure to higher PM2.5 levels was also significantly associated with increased risk of incident myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.73, P=0.03) but not stroke or all-cause mortality. The association of PM2.5 with incident myocardial infarction was not affected after adjustment for Framingham Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) risk score or statin therapy. In comparison, there were no significant associations between nitrogen dioxide levels and all-cause mortality or risk of stroke after adjustment for Framingham ATP III risk score. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM2.5 increased the likelihood of having severe coronary artery disease and the risk of incident myocardial infarction among patients undergoing elective cardiac evaluation. These results suggest that ambient air pollution exposure may be a modifiable risk factor for risk of myocardial infarction in a highly susceptible patient population.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Óxido Nítrico/efeitos adversos , Ohio/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Bioinformatics ; 32(15): 2364-5, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27153715

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The challenges of successfully applying causal inference methods include: (i) satisfying underlying assumptions, (ii) limitations in data/models accommodated by the software and (iii) low power of common multiple testing approaches. RESULTS: The causal inference test (CIT) is based on hypothesis testing rather than estimation, allowing the testable assumptions to be evaluated in the determination of statistical significance. A user-friendly software package provides P-values and optionally permutation-based FDR estimates (q-values) for potential mediators. It can handle single and multiple binary and continuous instrumental variables, binary or continuous outcome variables and adjustment covariates. Also, the permutation-based FDR option provides a non-parametric implementation. CONCLUSION: Simulation studies demonstrate the validity of the cit package and show a substantial advantage of permutation-based FDR over other common multiple testing strategies. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The cit open-source R package is freely available from the CRAN website (https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/cit/index.html) with embedded C ++ code that utilizes the GNU Scientific Library, also freely available (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/). CONTACT: joshua.millstein@usc.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Genômica , Software , Biblioteca Gênica , Genoma , Modelos Teóricos
19.
Environ Health Perspect ; 124(12): 1905-1912, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27219456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although exposure to ambient air pollutants increases cardiovascular disease risk in adults little is known about the effects of prenatal exposure. Genetic variation and epigenetic alterations are two mechanisms that may influence the effects of early-life exposures on cardiovascular phenotypes. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether genetic and epigenetic variation modify associations between prenatal air pollution on markers of cardiovascular risk in childhood. METHODS: We used linear regression analysis to investigate the associations between prenatal pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE1) and AluYb8 DNA methylation levels measured in newborn blood spot tests, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and blood pressure (BP) in 459 participants as part of the Children's Health Study. Interaction terms were also included to test for effect modification of these associations by genetic variation in methylation reprogramming genes. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to NO2 in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with higher systolic BP in 11-year-old children. Prenatal exposure to multiple air pollutants in the first trimester was associated with lower DNA methylation in LINE1, whereas later exposure to O3 was associated with higher LINE1 methylation levels in newborn blood spots. The magnitude of associations with prenatal air pollution varied according to genotype for 11 SNPs within DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), DNA methyltransferase 3 Beta (DNMT3B), Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2), and Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) genes. Although first-trimester O3 exposure was not associated with CIMT and systolic BP overall, associations within strata of DNMT1 or DNMT3B were observed, and the magnitude and the direction of these associations depended on DNMT1 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic and epigenetic variation in DNA methylation reprogramming genes and in LINE1 retrotransposons may play important roles in downstream cardiovascular consequences of prenatal air pollution exposure. Citation: Breton CV, Yao J, Millstein J, Gao L, Siegmund KD, Mack W, Whitfield-Maxwell L, Lurmann F, Hodis H, Avol E, Gilliland FD. 2016. Prenatal air pollution exposures, DNA methyl transferase genotypes, and associations with newborn LINE1 and Alu methylation and childhood blood pressure and carotid intima-media thickness in the Children's Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1905-1912; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP181.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Elementos Alu , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
20.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0150825, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26950592

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient air pollutants increases risk for adverse cardiovascular health outcomes in adults. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of prenatal air pollutant exposure to cardiovascular health, which has not been thoroughly evaluated. The Testing Responses on Youth (TROY) study consists of 768 college students recruited from the University of Southern California in 2007-2009. Participants attended one study visit during which blood pressure, heart rate and carotid artery arterial stiffness (CAS) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) were assessed. Prenatal residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal air pollutant exposure estimates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System (AQS) database. The associations between CAS, CIMT and air pollutants were assessed using linear regression analysis. Prenatal PM10 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with increased CAS. For example, a 2 SD increase in prenatal PM2.5 was associated with CAS indices, including a 5% increase (ß = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10) in carotid stiffness index beta, a 5% increase (ß = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) in Young's elastic modulus and a 5% decrease (ß = 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99) in distensibility. Mutually adjusted models of pre- and postnatal PM2.5 further suggested the prenatal exposure was most relevant exposure period for CAS. No associations were observed for CIMT. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to elevated air pollutants may increase carotid arterial stiffness in a young adult population of college students. Efforts aimed at limiting prenatal exposures are important public health goals.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fenótipo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
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