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1.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 26(4): 290-298, oct. 2009. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-530952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the visual, spatial, and/or statistical relationships between food availability/dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). METHODS: CVD mortality rates and diet information (the number of kilocalories and amount of alcohol, fats, fish, fruits, meats, sugars, and vegetables available per person daily) were obtained from internationally available databases. The analyses included 32 LAC countries with sufficient data (15 of 47 had been excluded for incomplete data). Pearson's correlations (r) were used to determine relationships between diet and CVD mortality, and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of mortality. ArcGIS version 9.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Redlands, California, United States) was used to construct maps to explore visual relationships between CVD and diet. RESULTS: No relationships were found between CVD and alcohol, fruit, meat, sugar, or vegetable intake. Statistically significant, positive correlations were found between oil-crops (r = 0.680, P = 0.000) and fish and seafood (r = 0.411, P = 0.019) and CVD mortality. Regression analysis revealed that high kilocalorie availability was a predictor of low CVD mortality (P = 0.020). High oil-crop availability was a predictor of high CVD mortality (P = 0.000). Maps constructed show visual relationships between availability of fish and seafood, kilocalories, and oil-crops, and CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Fish and seafood, kilocalorie, and oil-crop availability appear to be related to CVD mortality, but further investigation is needed. Associations between diet and CVD mortality create the opportunity to target specific countries for nutrition education and CVD prevention programs.


OBJETIVOS: Determinar la relación visual, espacial y estadística entre los patrones dietéticos y de disponibilidad alimentaria, y la enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) en América Latina y el Caribe. MÉTODOS: Las kilocalorías y la cantidad de alcohol, grasas, pescado, frutas, carnes, azúcar y vegetales disponibles por persona diariamente, las tasas de mortalidad por ECV y la información dietética se obtuvieron de bases de datos internacionales. El análisis abarcó 32 de los 47 países latinoamericanos y caribeños con datos suficientes (se excluyeron 15 países por datos incompletos). Se determinó la relación entre la dieta y la mortalidad por ECV mediante el análisis de correlación de Pearson (r) y se identificaron los factores de predicción de la mortalidad mediante el análisis de regresión lineal múltiple. Se elaboraron mapas para explorar las relaciones visuales entre la ECV y la dieta con el programa ArcGIS 9.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Redlands, California, Estados Unidos de América). RESULTADOS: No se encontró relación entre la ECV y el consumo de alcohol, frutas, carnes, azúcar o vegetales. Se observó una correlación directa significativa entre la mortalidad por ECV y el consumo de cultivos oleaginosos (r = 0,680; P < 0,001) y pescados y mariscos (r = 0,411; P = 0,019). El análisis de regresión reveló que la elevada disponibilidad calórica fue un factor de predicción de baja mortalidad por ECV (P = 0,020), mientras la alta disponibilidad de cultivos oleaginosos fue un factor de predicción de elevada mortalidad por ECV (P < 0,001). Los mapas elaborados mostraron relaciones visuales entre la disponibilidad de pescados y mariscos, kilocalorías y cultivos oleaginosos, por una parte, y la mortalidad por ECV por la otra. CONCLUSIONES: La disponibilidad de pescados y mariscos, kilocalorías y cultivos oleaginosos parece estar relacionada con la mortalidad por ECV, pero se necesitan estudios adicionales. Las asociaciones ...


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , América Latina/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 26(4): 290-8, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20107676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the visual, spatial, and/or statistical relationships between food availability/dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). METHODS: CVD mortality rates and diet information (the number of kilocalories and amount of alcohol, fats, fish, fruits, meats, sugars, and vegetables available per person daily) were obtained from internationally available databases. The analyses included 32 LAC countries with sufficient data (15 of 47 had been excluded for incomplete data). Pearson's correlations (r) were used to determine relationships between diet and CVD mortality, and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of mortality. ArcGIS version 9.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Redlands, California, United States) was used to construct maps to explore visual relationships between CVD and diet. RESULTS: No relationships were found between CVD and alcohol, fruit, meat, sugar, or vegetable intake. Statistically significant, positive correlations were found between oil-crops (r = 0.680, P = 0.000) and fish and seafood (r = 0.411, P = 0.019) and CVD mortality. Regression analysis revealed that high kilocalorie availability was a predictor of low CVD mortality (P = 0.020). High oil-crop availability was a predictor of high CVD mortality (P = 0.000). Maps constructed show visual relationships between availability of fish and seafood, kilocalories, and oil-crops, and CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Fish and seafood, kilocalorie, and oil-crop availability appear to be related to CVD mortality, but further investigation is needed. Associations between diet and CVD mortality create the opportunity to target specific countries for nutrition education and CVD prevention programs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia
4.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 12(4): 480-9, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12500991

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the metabolic consequences of a moderate variation in dietary fat content of male endurance athletes during submaximal exercise. Six males (age, 29.8 +/- 11 years; weight, 72.3 +/- 10 kg) with an average maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) of 66 +/- 10 ml/kg/min were tested on their normal diet and 3 experimental diets. The energy contributions from protein, carbohydrates, and fats were 16/59/22 (3% alcohol), 14/53/33, 13/72/15, and 16/61/23% for the normal diet (N), fat supplemented diet (F), high carbohydrate diet (C), and adjusted normal diet (AN), respectively. The F diet was designed to significantly increase fat content compared to the normal diet and be easily maintained by the athletes. Caloric content of the F, C, and AN diets were adjusted to meet estimated total daily energy expenditure. The difference between the N and AN diets is that the AN has been adjusted to meet estimated total daily energy expenditure. The diets were randomly assigned after substrate utilization testing on the N diet and were consumed for 7 days prior to testing. Substrate utilization was recorded at steady state (73 +/- 1.4% of VO(2max)) while running on a treadmill for 40 min. There were no significant differences in respiratory exchange ratio between any of the dietary manipulations. No significant differences were observed for lactate, VO2, or HR during submaximal testing on the N, F, C, and AN diets. These data indicate that a fat supplemented diet did not affect substrate utilization during 40 min of steady-state submaximal exercise when compared to a high carbohydrate diet or the participant's normal and adjusted normal diets.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração , Corrida
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