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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 30-34, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945030

RESUMO

Each year, excessive drinking accounts for one in 10 deaths among U.S. adults aged 20-64 years (1), and approximately 90% of adults who report excessive drinking* binge drink (i.e., consume five or more drinks for men or four or more drinks for women on a single occasion) (2). In 2015, 17.1% of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years reported binge drinking approximately once a week and consumed an average of seven drinks per binge drinking episode, resulting in 17.5 billion total binge drinks, or 467 total binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking (3). CDC analyzed 2011-2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data to assess trends in total annual binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking in the United States overall and in the individual states. The age-adjusted† total annual number of binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking increased significantly from 472 in 2011 to 529 in 2017. Total annual binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking also increased significantly from 2011 to 2017 among those aged 35-44 years (26.7%, from 468 to 593) and 45-64 years (23.1%, from 428 to 527). The largest percentage increases in total binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking during this period were observed among those without a high school diploma (45.8%) and those with household incomes <$25,000 (23.9%). Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force§ for reducing excessive drinking (e.g., regulating alcohol outlet density) might reduce binge drinking and related health risks.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(2): 197-208, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200998

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioids were responsible for approximately 17,000 deaths in the U.S. in 2016. One in five prescription opioid deaths also involve alcohol. Drinkers who misuse prescription opioids (i.e., use without a prescription or use only for the experience or feeling it causes) are at a heightened risk of overdose. However, little is known about the relationship between drinking patterns and prescription opioid misuse. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 160,812 individuals (aged ≥12 years) who responded to questions about prescription opioid misuse and alcohol consumption in the 2012, 2013, or 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (analyzed in 2017-2018). The prevalence of self-reported past-30-days prescription opioid misuse was assessed by sociodemographic characteristics, other substance use (i.e., cigarettes, marijuana), and drinking patterns. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate AORs. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2014, 1.6% (95% CI=1.5, 1.7) of all individuals aged ≥12 years (estimated 4.2 million) and 3.5% (95% CI=3.3, 3.8) of binge drinkers (estimated 2.2 million) reported prescription opioid misuse. Prescription opioid misuse was more common among binge drinkers than among nondrinkers (AOR=1.7, 95% CI=1.5, 1.9). Overall, the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse increased significantly with binge drinking frequency (p-value<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the 4.2 million people who misused prescription opioids during 2012-2014 were binge drinkers, and binge drinkers had nearly twice the odds of misusing prescription opioids, compared with nondrinkers. Widespread use of evidence-based strategies for preventing binge drinking might reduce opioid misuse and overdoses involving alcohol.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136416

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Excessive alcohol use is responsible for 88 000 deaths in the United States annually and cost the United States $249 billion in 2010. There is strong scientific evidence that regulating alcohol outlet density is an effective intervention for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms, but there is no standard method for measuring this exposure. PROGRAM: We overview the strategies available for measuring outlet density, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and provide examples of how they can be applied in practice. IMPLEMENTATION: The 3 main approaches for measuring density are container-based (eg, number of outlets in a county), distance-based (eg, average distance between a college and outlets), and spatial access-based (eg, weighted distance between town center and outlets). EVALUATION: While container-based measures are the simplest to calculate and most intuitive, distance-based or spatial access-based measures are unconstrained by geopolitical boundaries and allow for assessment of clustering (an amplifier of certain alcohol-related harms). Spatial access-based measures can also be adjusted for population size/demographics but are the most resource-intensive to produce. DISCUSSION: Alcohol outlet density varies widely across and between locations and over time, which is why it is important to measure it. Routine public health surveillance of alcohol outlet density is important to identify problem areas and detect emerging ones. Distance- or spatial access-based measures of alcohol outlet density are more resource-intensive than container-based measures but provide a much more accurate assessment of exposure to alcohol outlets and can be used to assess clustering, which is particularly important when assessing the relationship between density and alcohol-related harms, such as violent crime.

4.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 15: E151, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522582

RESUMO

Limited information exists about the effectiveness of interventions to enforce laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons in licensed establishments. New Mexico Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were used to evaluate an intervention on binge drinking intensity in licensed (eg, bars) versus unlicensed (eg, homes) locations. The proportion of binge drinkers in licensed locations who consumed 8 or more drinks on a binge drinking occasion decreased from 42.1% in 2004-2005 to 22.6% in 2007-2008 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.9), while the proportion in unlicensed locations was essentially unchanged. Enhanced enforcement of overservice laws may reduce excessive drinking in licensed establishments.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Comércio , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Bebedeira/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Licenciamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 15: E53, 2018 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752804

RESUMO

In 2015, more than 27 million people in the United States reported that they currently used illicit drugs or misused prescription drugs, and more than 66 million reported binge drinking during the previous month. Data from public health surveillance systems on drug and alcohol abuse are crucial for developing and evaluating interventions to prevent and control such behavior. However, public health surveillance for behavioral health in the United States has been hindered by organizational issues and other factors. For example, existing guidelines for surveillance evaluation do not distinguish between data systems that characterize behavioral health problems and those that assess other public health problems (eg, infectious diseases). To address this gap in behavioral health surveillance, we present a revised framework for evaluating behavioral health surveillance systems. This system framework builds on published frameworks and incorporates additional attributes (informatics capabilities and population coverage) that we deemed necessary for evaluating behavioral health-related surveillance. This revised surveillance evaluation framework can support ongoing improvements to behavioral health surveillance systems and ensure their continued usefulness for detecting, preventing, and managing behavioral health problems.


Assuntos
Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Vigilância da População , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos
6.
Am J Prev Med ; 54(4): 486-496, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555021

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Binge drinking (four or more drinks for women, five or more drinks for men on an occasion) accounts for more than half of the 88,000 U.S. deaths resulting from excessive drinking annually. Adult binge drinkers do so frequently and at high intensity; however, there are known disparities in binge drinking that are not well characterized by any single binge-drinking measure. A new measure of total annual binge drinks was used to assess these disparities at the state and national levels. METHODS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2015 data (analyzed in 2016) were used to estimate the prevalence, frequency, intensity, and total binge drinks among U.S. adults. Total annual binge drinks was calculated by multiplying annual binge-drinking episodes by binge-drinking intensity. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 17.1% of U.S. adults (37.4 million) reported an annual average of 53.1 binge-drinking episodes per binge drinker, at an average intensity of 7.0 drinks per binge episode, resulting in 17.5 billion total binge drinks, or 467.0 binge drinks per binge drinker. Although binge drinking was more common among young adults (aged 18-34 years), half of the total binge drinks were consumed by adults aged ≥35 years. Total binge drinks per binge drinker were substantially higher among those with lower educational levels and household incomes than among those with higher educational levels and household incomes. CONCLUSIONS: U.S. adult binge drinkers consume about 17.5 billion total binge drinks annually, or about 470 binge drinks/binge drinker. Monitoring total binge drinks can help characterize disparities in binge drinking and help plan and evaluate effective prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(18): 474-478, 2017 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28493857

RESUMO

Excessive drinking accounted for approximately 4,300 deaths each year among persons aged <21 years during 2006-2010,* and underage drinking cost the United States $24.3 billion in 2010 (1). CDC analyzed data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) for the years 1991-2015 to examine trends in drinking by U.S. high school students, and from the 2015 YRBS to assess the usual source of alcohol consumed† and binge drinking intensity (i.e., the average number of drinks consumed per binge drinking occasion).§ During 1991-2007, the prevalence of current drinking¶ among high school students declined significantly, from 50.8% (1991) to 44.7% (2007), and then significantly declined to 32.8% in 2015. The prevalence of binge drinking** increased from 31.3% in 1991 to 31.5% in 1999, and then significantly declined to 17.7% in 2015. Most high school students who drank were binge drinkers (57.8%), and 43.8% of binge drinkers consumed eight or more drinks in a row. Despite progress, current drinking and binge drinking are common among high school students, and many students who binge drink do so at high intensity (i.e., eight or more drinks in a row). Widespread use of evidence-based strategies for preventing excessive drinking (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes, regulating alcohol outlet density, and having commercial host liability laws) could help reduce underage drinking and related harms.††.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Am J Prev Med ; 51(5): 801-811, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27745678

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Excessive drinking is responsible for one in ten deaths among working-age adults in the U.S. annually. Alcohol screening and brief intervention is an effective but underutilized intervention for reducing excessive drinking among adults. Electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) uses electronic devices to deliver key elements of alcohol screening and brief intervention, with the potential to expand population reach. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Using Community Guide methods, a systematic review of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of e-SBI for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted. The search covered studies published from 1967 to October 2011. A total of 31 studies with 36 study arms met quality criteria and were included in the review. Analyses were conducted in 2012. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twenty-four studies (28 study arms) provided results for excessive drinkers only and seven studies (eight study arms) reported results for all drinkers. Nearly all studies found that e-SBI reduced excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: nine study arms reported a median 23.9% reduction in binge-drinking intensity (maximum drinks/binge episode) and nine study arms reported a median 16.5% reduction in binge-drinking frequency. Reductions in drinking measures were sustained for up to 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: According to Community Guide rules of evidence, e-SBI is an effective method for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms among intervention participants. Implementation of e-SBI could complement population-level strategies previously recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force for reducing excessive drinking (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes and regulating alcohol outlet density).


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/terapia , Humanos , Telecomunicações
9.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 77(1): 7-16, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26751350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to outline a method to improve alcohol industry compliance with its self-regulatory advertising placement guidelines on television with the goal of reducing youth exposure to noncompliant advertisements. METHOD: Data were sourced from Nielsen (The Nielsen Company, New York, NY) for all alcohol advertisements on television in the United States for 2005-2012. A "no-buy" list, that is a list of cable television programs and networks to be avoided when purchasing alcohol advertising, was devised using three criteria: avoid placements on programs that were noncompliant in the past (serially noncompliant), avoid placements on networks at times of day when youth make up a high proportion of the audience (high-risk network dayparts), and use a "guardbanded" (or more restrictive) composition guideline when placing ads on low-rated programs (low rated). RESULTS: Youth were exposed to 15.1 billion noncompliant advertising impressions from 2005 to 2012, mostly on cable television. Together, the three no-buy list criteria accounted for 99% of 12.9 billion noncompliant advertising exposures on cable television for youth ages 2-20 years. When we evaluated the no-buy list criteria sequentially and mutually exclusively, serially noncompliant ads accounted for 67% of noncompliant exposure, high-risk network-daypart ads accounted for 26%, and low-rated ads accounted for 7%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the prospective use of the no-buy list criteria when purchasing alcohol advertising could eliminate most noncompliant advertising exposures and could be incorporated into standard post-audit procedures that are widely used by the alcohol industry in assessing exposure to television advertising.


Assuntos
/legislação & jurisprudência , Televisão/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New York/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Social , Televisão/economia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/economia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 12: E194, 2015 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26564010

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. METHODS: The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. RESULTS: Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bebidas Alcoólicas/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Am J Prev Med ; 49(5): e73-e79, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26477807

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol use cost the U.S. $223.5 billion in 2006. Given economic shifts in the U.S. since 2006, more-current estimates are needed to help inform the planning of prevention strategies. METHODS: From March 2012 to March 2014, the 26 cost components used to assess the cost of excessive drinking in 2006 were projected to 2010 based on incidence (e.g., change in number of alcohol-attributable deaths) and price (e.g., inflation rate in cost of medical care). The total cost, cost to government, and costs for binge drinking, underage drinking, and drinking while pregnant were estimated for the U.S. for 2010 and allocated to states. RESULTS: Excessive drinking cost the U.S. $249.0 billion in 2010, or about $2.05 per drink. Government paid for $100.7 billion (40.4%) of these costs. Binge drinking accounted for $191.1 billion (76.7%) of costs; underage drinking $24.3 billion (9.7%) of costs; and drinking while pregnant $5.5 billion (2.2%) of costs. The median cost per state was $3.5 billion. Binge drinking was responsible for >70% of these costs in all states, and >40% of the binge drinking-related costs were paid by government. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive drinking cost the nation almost $250 billion in 2010. Two of every $5 of the total cost was paid by government, and three quarters of the costs were due to binge drinking. Several evidence-based strategies can help reduce excessive drinking and related costs, including increasing alcohol excise taxes, limiting alcohol outlet density, and commercial host liability.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/economia , Governo Federal , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/economia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
12.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 12: E84, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26020548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regulating alcohol outlet density is an evidence-based strategy for reducing excessive drinking. However, the effect of this strategy on violent crime has not been well characterized. A reduction in alcohol outlet density in the Buckhead neighborhood of Atlanta from 2003 through 2007 provided an opportunity to evaluate this effect. METHODS: We conducted a community-based longitudinal study to evaluate the impact of changes in alcohol outlet density on violent crime in Buckhead compared with 2 other cluster areas in Atlanta (Midtown and Downtown) with high densities of alcohol outlets, from 1997 through 2002 (preintervention) to 2003 through 2007 (postintervention). The relationship between exposures to on-premises retail alcohol outlets and violent crime were assessed by using annual spatially defined indices at the census block level. Multilevel regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between changes in exposure to on-premises alcohol outlets and violent crime while controlling for potential census block-level confounders. RESULTS: A 3% relative reduction in alcohol outlet density in Buckhead from 1997-2002 to 2003-2007 was associated with a 2-fold greater reduction in exposure to violent crime than occurred in Midtown or Downtown, where exposure to on-premises retail alcohol outlets increased. The magnitude of the association between exposure to alcohol outlets and violent crime was 2 to 5 times greater in Buckhead than in either Midtown or Downtown during the postintervention period. CONCLUSIONS: A modest reduction in alcohol outlet density can substantially reduce exposure to violent crime in neighborhoods with high density of alcohol outlets. Routine monitoring of community exposure to alcohol outlets could also inform the regulation of alcohol outlet density, consistent with Guide to Community Preventive Services recommendations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/métodos , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Crime/etnologia , Crime/tendências , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Georgia/epidemiologia , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Licenciamento , Estudos Longitudinais , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/tendências , Características de Residência , Análise Espacial , Violência/etnologia , Violência/tendências , Adulto Jovem
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(53): 1238-42, 2015 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25577989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol poisoning is typically caused by binge drinking at high intensity (i.e., consuming a very large amount of alcohol during an episode of binge drinking). Approximately 38 million U.S. adults report binge drinking an average of four times per month and consuming an average of eight drinks per episode. METHODS: CDC analyzed data for 2010­2012 from the National Vital Statistics System to assess average annual alcohol poisoning deaths and death rates (ICD-10 codes X45 and Y15; underlying cause of death) in the United States among persons aged ≥15 years, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and state. RESULTS: During 2010­2012, an annual average of 2,221 alcohol poisoning deaths (8.8 deaths per 1 million population) occurred among persons aged ≥15 years in the United States. Of those deaths, 1,681 (75.7%) involved adults aged 35­64 years, and 1,696 (76.4%) involved men. Although non-Hispanic whites accounted for the majority of alcohol poisoning deaths (67.5%; 1,500 deaths), the highest age-adjusted death rate was among American Indians/Alaska Natives (49.1 per 1 million). The age-adjusted rate of alcohol poisoning deaths in states ranged from 5.3 per 1 million in Alabama to 46.5 per 1 million in Alaska. CONCLUSIONS: On average, six persons, mostly adult men, die from alcohol poisoning each day in the United States. Alcohol poisoning death rates vary substantially by state. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Evidence-based strategies for preventing excessive drinking (e.g., regulating alcohol outlet density and preventing illegal alcohol sales in retail settings) could reduce alcohol poisoning deaths by reducing the prevalence, frequency, and intensity of binge drinking.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/mortalidade , Etanol/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estatísticas Vitais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 11: E206, 2014 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412029

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost the United States $223.5 billion in 2006. It is often assumed that most excessive drinkers are alcohol dependent. However, few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol dependence among excessive drinkers. The objective of this study was to update prior estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 138,100 adults who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2009, 2010, or 2011. Drinking patterns (ie, past-year drinking, excessive drinking, and binge drinking) were assessed by sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol dependence (assessed through self-reported survey responses and defined as meeting ≥3 of 7 criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). RESULTS: Excessive drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence were most common among men and those aged 18 to 24. Binge drinking was most common among those with annual family incomes of $75,000 or more, whereas alcohol dependence was most common among those with annual family incomes of less than $25,000. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 10.2% among excessive drinkers, 10.5% among binge drinkers, and 1.3% among non-binge drinkers. A positive relationship was found between alcohol dependence and binge drinking frequency. CONCLUSION: Most excessive drinkers (90%) did not meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. A comprehensive approach to reducing excessive drinking that emphasizes evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services could have an impact on reducing excessive drinking in addition to focusing on the implementation of addiction treatment services.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 11: E109, 2014 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24967831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of premature mortality in the United States. The objectives of this study were to update national estimates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) in the United States, calculate age-adjusted rates of AAD and YPLL in states, assess the contribution of AAD and YPLL to total deaths and YPLL among working-age adults, and estimate the number of deaths and YPLL among those younger than 21 years. METHODS: We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Alcohol-Related Disease Impact application for 2006-2010 to estimate total AAD and YPLL across 54 conditions for the United States, by sex and age. AAD and YPLL rates and the proportion of total deaths that were attributable to excessive alcohol consumption among working-age adults (20-64 y) were calculated for the United States and for individual states. RESULTS: From 2006 through 2010, an annual average of 87,798 (27.9/100,000 population) AAD and 2.5 million (831.6/100,000) YPLL occurred in the United States. Age-adjusted state AAD rates ranged from 51.2/100,000 in New Mexico to 19.1/100,000 in New Jersey. Among working-age adults, 9.8% of all deaths in the United States during this period were attributable to excessive drinking, and 69% of all AAD involved working-age adults. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive drinking accounted for 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults in the United States. AAD rates vary across states, but excessive drinking remains a leading cause of premature mortality nationwide. Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force can help reduce excessive drinking and harms related to it.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/mortalidade , Alcoolismo/mortalidade , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(1): 16-22, 2014 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24402468

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol use accounted for an estimated 88,000 deaths in the United States each year during 2006-2010, and $224 billion in economic costs in 2006. Since 2004, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended alcohol misuse screening and behavioral counseling (also known as alcohol screening and brief intervention [ASBI]) for adults to address excessive alcohol use; however, little is known about the prevalence of its implementation. ASBI will also be covered by many health insurance plans because of the Affordable Care Act. METHODS: CDC analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from a question added to surveys in 44 states and the District of Columbia (DC) from August 1 to December 31, 2011, about patient-reported communication with a health professional about alcohol. Elements of ASBI are traditionally delivered via conversation. Weighted state-level prevalence estimates of this communication were generated for 166,753 U.S. adults aged ≥18 years by selected demographic characteristics and drinking behaviors. RESULTS: The prevalence of ever discussing alcohol use with a health professional was 15.7% among U.S. adults overall, 17.4% among current drinkers, and 25.4% among binge drinkers. It was most prevalent among those aged 18-24 years (27.9%). However, only 13.4% of binge drinkers reported discussing alcohol use with a health professional in the past year, and only 34.9% of those who reported binge drinking ≥10 times in the past month had ever discussed alcohol with a health professional. State-level estimates of communication about alcohol ranged from 8.7% in Kansas to 25.5% in DC. CONCLUSIONS: Only one of six U.S. adults, including binge drinkers, reported ever discussing alcohol consumption with a health professional, despite public health efforts to increase ASBI implementation. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Increased implementation of ASBI, including systems-level changes such as integration into electronic health records processes, might reduce excessive alcohol consumption and the harms related to it. Routine surveillance of ASBI by states and communities might support monitoring and increasing its implementation.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Bebedeira/prevenção & controle , District of Columbia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
MMWR Suppl ; 62(3): 77-80, 2013 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24264494

RESUMO

During 2001-2005, excessive alcohol use accounted for an estimated average of 80,000 deaths and 2.3 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) in the United States each year, and an estimated $223.5 billion in economic costs in 2006. Binge drinking, defined as consuming four or more alcoholic drinks on one or more occasions for women and five or more drinks on one or more occasions for men, was responsible for more than half of these deaths, two-thirds of the YPLL, and three quarters of the economic costs. Reducing the prevalence of binge drinking among adults is also a leading health indicator in Healthy People 2020 (objective SA-14.3).


Assuntos
Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bebedeira/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Prev Med ; 45(4): 474-85, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24050424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for an average of 80,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and cost $223.5 billion ($1.90/drink) in 2006. Comparable state estimates of this cost are needed to help inform prevention strategies. PURPOSE: The goal of the study was to estimate the economic cost of excessive drinking by state for 2006. METHODS: From December 2011 to November 2012, an expert panel developed methods to allocate component costs from the 2006 national estimate to states for (1) total; (2) government; (3) binge drinking; and (4) underage drinking costs. Differences in average state wages were used to adjust productivity losses. RESULTS: In 2006, the median state cost of excessive drinking was $2.9 billion (range: $31.9 billion [California] to $419.6 million [North Dakota]); the median cost per drink, $1.91 (range: $2.74 [Utah] to $0.88 [New Hampshire]); and the median per capita cost, $703 (range: $1662 [District of Columbia] to $578 [Utah]). A median of 42% of state costs were paid by government (range: 45.0% [Utah] to 37.0% [Mississippi]). Binge drinking was responsible for a median of 76.6% of state costs (range: 83.1% [Louisiana] to 71.6% [Massachusetts]); underage drinking, a median of 11.2% of state costs (range: 20.0% [Wyoming] to 5.5% [District of Columbia]). CONCLUSIONS: Excessive drinking cost states a median of $2.9 billion in 2006. Most of the costs were due to binge drinking and about $2 of every $5 were paid by government. The Guide to Community Preventive Services has recommended several evidence-based strategies-including increasing alcohol excise taxes, limiting alcohol outlet density, and commercial host liability-that can help reduce excessive alcohol use and the associated economic costs.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Governo Estadual , Bebedeira/economia , Eficiência , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Estados Unidos
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 45(1): 19-28, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23790985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public policy can limit alcohol consumption and its associated harm, but no direct comparison of the relative efficacy of alcohol control policies exists for the U.S. PURPOSE: To identify alcohol control policies and develop quantitative ratings of their efficacy and strength of evidence. METHODS: In 2010, a Delphi panel of ten U.S. alcohol policy experts identified and rated the efficacy of alcohol control policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among both the general population and youth, and the strength of evidence informing the efficacy of each policy. The policies were nominated on the basis of scientific evidence and potential for public health impact. Analysis was conducted in 2010-2012. RESULTS: Panelists identified and rated 47 policies. Policies limiting price received the highest ratings, with alcohol taxes receiving the highest ratings for all four outcomes. Highly rated policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the general population also were rated highly among youth, although several policies were rated more highly for youth compared with the general population. Policy efficacy ratings for the general population and youth were positively correlated for reducing both binge drinking (r=0.50) and alcohol-impaired driving (r=0.45). The correlation between efficacy ratings for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving was strong for the general population (r=0.88) and for youth (r=0.85). Efficacy ratings were positively correlated with strength-of-evidence ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative policy ratings can help characterize the alcohol policy environment, inform policy discussions, and identify future research needs.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebedeira/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Coleta de Dados , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Impostos , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 42(6): 625-9, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22608381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking (≥ 4 drinks for women; ≥ 5 drinks for men, per occasion) is responsible for more than half of the estimated 80,000 U.S. deaths annually and three-quarters of the $223.5 billion in costs in 2006. Binge drinking prevalence is assessed more commonly than binge drinking intensity (i.e., number of drinks consumed per binge episode). Risk of binge drinking-related harm increases with intensity, and thus it is important to monitor. The largest number of drinks consumed is assessed in health surveys, but its usefulness for assessing binge intensity is unknown. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement between two potential measures of binge drinking intensity: the largest number of drinks consumed by binge drinkers (maximum-drinks) and the total number of drinks consumed during their most recent binge episode (drinks-per-binge). METHODS: Data were analyzed from 7909 adult binge drinkers from 14 states responding to the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) binge drinking module. Mean and median drinks-per-binge from that module were compared to mean and median maximum-drinks. Analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. RESULTS: Mean (8.2) and median (5.9) maximum-drinks were strongly correlated with mean (7.4) and median (5.4) drinks-per-binge (r=0.57). These measures were also strongly correlated across most sociodemographic and drinking categories overall and within states. CONCLUSIONS: The maximum-drinks consumed by binge drinkers is a practical method for assessing binge drinking intensity and thus can be used to plan and evaluate Community Guide-recommended strategies for preventing binge drinking (e.g., increasing the price of alcoholic beverages and regulating alcohol outlet density).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/envenenamento , Etanol/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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