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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495913

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death globally, with marked differences in prognosis by disease stage at diagnosis. We studied circulating metabolites in relation to disease stage to improve the understanding of metabolic pathways related to colorectal cancer progression. We investigated plasma concentrations of 130 metabolites among 744 Stages I-IV colorectal cancer patients from ongoing cohort studies. Plasma samples, collected at diagnosis, were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit. We assessed associations between metabolite concentrations and stage using multinomial and multivariable logistic regression models. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders as well as multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Patients presented with 23, 28, 39 and 10% of Stages I-IV disease, respectively. Concentrations of sphingomyelin C26:0 were lower in Stage III patients compared to Stage I patients (pFDR < 0.05). Concentrations of sphingomyelin C18:0 and phosphatidylcholine (diacyl) C32:0 were statistically significantly higher, while citrulline, histidine, phosphatidylcholine (diacyl) C34:4, phosphatidylcholine (acyl-alkyl) C40:1 and lysophosphatidylcholines (acyl) C16:0 and C17:0 concentrations were lower in Stage IV compared to Stage I patients (pFDR < 0.05). Our results suggest that metabolic pathways involving among others citrulline and histidine, implicated previously in colorectal cancer development, may also be linked to colorectal cancer progression.

2.
Gut ; 68(5): 854-865, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diverticular disease is a common complex disorder characterised by mucosal outpouchings of the colonic wall that manifests through complications such as diverticulitis, perforation and bleeding. We report the to date largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic risk factors for diverticular disease. DESIGN: Discovery GWAS analysis was performed on UK Biobank imputed genotypes using 31 964 cases and 419 135 controls of European descent. Associations were replicated in a European sample of 3893 cases and 2829 diverticula-free controls and evaluated for risk contribution to diverticulitis and uncomplicated diverticulosis. Transcripts at top 20 replicating loci were analysed by real-time quatitative PCR in preparations of the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layer of colon. The localisation of expressed protein at selected loci was investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We discovered 48 risk loci, of which 12 are novel, with genome-wide significance and consistent OR in the replication sample. Nominal replication (p<0.05) was observed for 27 loci, and additional 8 in meta-analysis with a population-based cohort. The most significant novel risk variant rs9960286 is located near CTAGE1 with a p value of 2.3×10-10 and 0.002 (ORallelic=1.14 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.24)) in the replication analysis. Four loci showed stronger effects for diverticulitis, PHGR1 (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.56), FAM155A-2 (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.42), CALCB (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33) and S100A10 (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33). CONCLUSION: In silico analyses point to diverticulosis primarily as a disorder of intestinal neuromuscular function and of impaired connective fibre support, while an additional diverticulitis risk might be conferred by epithelial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/genética , Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiologia , Doenças Diverticulares/genética , Epitélio/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Colo/patologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Doenças Diverticulares/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
3.
Int J Cancer ; 145(5): 1221-1231, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665271

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is known to arise from multiple tumorigenic pathways; however, the underlying mechanisms remain not completely understood. Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly popular tool in assessing biological processes. Previous metabolomics research focusing on colorectal cancer is limited by sample size and did not replicate findings in independent study populations to verify robustness of reported findings. Here, we performed a ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) screening on EDTA plasma from 268 colorectal cancer patients and 353 controls using independent discovery and replication sets from two European cohorts (ColoCare Study: n = 180 patients/n = 153 controls; the Colorectal Cancer Study of Austria (CORSA) n = 88 patients/n = 200 controls), aiming to identify circulating plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer and to improve knowledge regarding colorectal cancer etiology. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test the association between disease state and metabolic features. Statistically significant associated features in the discovery set were taken forward and tested in the replication set to assure robustness of our findings. All models were adjusted for sex, age, BMI and smoking status and corrected for multiple testing using False Discovery Rate. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from questionnaires and medical records.

4.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510241

RESUMO

To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(1)2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591675

RESUMO

DNA repair processes are involved in both the onset and treatment efficacy of colorectal cancer (CRC). A change of a single nucleotide causing an amino acid substitution in the corresponding protein may alter the efficiency of DNA repair, thus modifying the CRC susceptibility and clinical outcome. We performed a candidate gene approach in order to analyze the association of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in the genes covering the main DNA repair pathways with CRC risk and clinical outcome modifications. Our candidate polymorphisms were selected according to the foremost genomic and functional prediction databases. Sixteen nsSNPs in 12 DNA repair genes were evaluated in cohorts from the Czech Republic and Austria. Apart from the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, which occurred as the main prognostic factor in all of the performed analyses, we observed several significant associations of different nsSNPs with survival and clinical outcomes in both cohorts. However, only some of the genes (REV3L, POLQ, and NEIL3) were prominently defined as prediction factors in the classification and regression tree analysis; therefore, the study suggests their association for patient survival. In summary, we provide observational and bioinformatics evidence that even subtle alterations in specific proteins of the DNA repair pathways may contribute to CRC susceptibility and clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Reparo do DNA/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Áustria , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , República Tcheca , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , N-Glicosil Hidrolases/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917119

RESUMO

Background: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. Methods: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.

7.
Oncotarget ; 9(17): 13582-13592, 2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568379

RESUMO

Considering the high prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and relatively high mortality there is strong interest in identification of clinically relevant biomarkers. Telomere shortening is supposed to contribute to genomic instability and crucially involved in process of carcinogenesis. Peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) telomere length was previously investigated in several studies as potential biomarker for CRC but with controversial results. This prompted us to investigate relative PBL telomere length in association with different histological findings throughout the continuum of colorectal carcinogenesis in order to reflect the whole spectrum of putative CRC development in a large study involving 2011 individuals. The study based on the Colorectal Cancer Study of Austria (CORSA), including 384 CRC cases as well as age- and gender-matched 544 high-risk adenomas, 537 low-risk adenoma patients and 546 colonoscopy-negative controls. Relative expression of telomeric repeats and the single copy reference gene, albumin (T/S ratio) was determined using monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR (MMQPCR). Telomeres were found to be significantly longer in CRC patients compared to control subjects (P = 3.61x10-6). Yet, no significant differences in telomere length could be detected for high-risk (P = 0.05956) and low-risk colorectal adenoma patients (P = 0.05224). In addition, results presented in this manuscript highlight the impact of various epidemiological factors on PBL telomere length and its involvement in CRC. However, further large studies also including colorectal adenomas are necessary to confirm these results.

8.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 16(1): 73-84, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505855

RESUMO

Characterization of the colon cancer immunome and its autoantibody signature from differentially-reactive antigens (DIRAGs) could provide insights into aberrant cellular mechanisms or enriched networks associated with diseases. The purpose of this study was to characterize the antibody profile of plasma samples from 32 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 32 controls using proteins isolated from 15,417 human cDNA expression clones on microarrays. 671 unique DIRAGs were identified and 632 were more highly reactive in CRC samples. Bioinformatics analyses reveal that compared to control samples, the immunoproteomic IgG profiling of CRC samples is mainly associated with cell death, survival, and proliferation pathways, especially proteins involved in EIF2 and mTOR signaling. Ribosomal proteins (e.g., RPL7, RPL22, and RPL27A) and CRC-related genes such as APC, AXIN1, E2F4, MSH2, PMS2, and TP53 were highly enriched. In addition, differential pathways were observed between the CRC and control samples. Furthermore, 103 DIRAGs were reported in the SEREX antigen database, demonstrating our ability to identify known and new reactive antigens. We also found an overlap of 7 antigens with 48 "CRC genes." These data indicate that immunomics profiling on protein microarrays is able to reveal the complexity of immune responses in cancerous diseases and faithfully reflects the underlying pathology.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Oncotarget ; 8(58): 98623-98634, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228715

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were analyzed using single marker tests in combination with stringent correction procedures for multiple testing. Thus, a substantial proportion of associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained undetected and may account for missing heritability in complex traits. Model selection procedures present a powerful alternative to identify associated SNPs in high-dimensional settings. In this GWAS including 1060 colorectal cancer cases, 689 cases of advanced colorectal adenomas and 4367 controls we pursued a dual approach to investigate genome-wide associations with disease risk applying both, single marker analysis and model selection based on the modified Bayesian information criterion, mBIC2, implemented in the software package MOSGWA. For different case-control comparisons, we report models including between 1-14 candidate SNPs. A genome-wide significant association of rs17659990 (P=5.43×10-9, DOCK3, chromosome 3p21.2) with colorectal cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, 56 SNPs known to influence susceptibility to colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma were tested in a hypothesis-driven approach and several of them were found to be relevant in our Austrian cohort. After correction for multiple testing (α=8.9×10-4), the most significant associations were observed for SNPs rs10505477 (P=6.08×10-4) and rs6983267 (P=7.35×10-4) of CASC8, rs3802842 (P=8.98×10-5, COLCA1,2), and rs12953717 (P=4.64×10-4, SMAD7). All previously unreported SNPs demand replication in additional samples. Reanalysis of existing GWAS datasets using model selection as tool to detect SNPs associated with a complex trait may present a promising resource to identify further genetic risk variants not only for colorectal cancer.

10.
Oncotarget ; 8(17): 28021-28027, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28427205

RESUMO

MNS16A, a functional polymorphic tandem repeat minisatellite, is located in the promoter region of an antisense transcript of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. MNS16A promoter activity depends on the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) presenting varying numbers of transcription factor binding sites for GATA binding protein 1. Although MNS16A has been investigated in multiple cancer epidemiology studies with incongruent findings, functional data of only two VNTRs (VNTR-243 and VNTR-302) were available thus far, linking the shorter VNTR to higher promoter activity.For the first time, we investigated promoter activity of all six VNTRs of MNS16A in cell lines of colorectal, lung and prostate cancer using Luciferase reporter assay. In all investigated cell lines shorter VNTRs showed higher promoter activity. While this anticipated indirect linear relationship was affirmed for colorectal cancer SW480 (P = 0.006), a piecewise linear regression model provided significantly better model fit in lung cancer A-427 (P = 6.9 × 10-9) and prostate cancer LNCaP (P = 0.039). In silico search for transcription factor binding sites in MNS16A core repeat element suggested a higher degree of complexity involving X-box binding protein 1, general transcription factor II-I, and glucocorticoid receptor alpha in addition to GATA binding protein 1.Further functional studies in additional cancers are requested to extend our knowledge of MNS16A functionality uncovering potential cancer type-specific differences. Risk alleles may vary in different malignancies and their determination in vitro could be relevant for interpretation of genotype data.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Repetições Minissatélites , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Telomerase/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Microarrays (Basel) ; 4(2): 162-87, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27600218

RESUMO

New minimal invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of lung cancer are urgently needed. It is known that the immune system responds to tumors with production of tumor-autoantibodies. Protein microarrays are a suitable highly multiplexed platform for identification of autoantibody signatures against tumor-associated antigens (TAA). These microarrays can be probed using 0.1 mg immunoglobulin G (IgG), purified from 10 µL of plasma. We used a microarray comprising recombinant proteins derived from 15,417 cDNA clones for the screening of 100 lung cancer samples, including 25 samples of each main histological entity of lung cancer, and 100 controls. Since this number of samples cannot be processed at once, the resulting data showed non-biological variances due to "batch effects". Our aim was to evaluate quantile normalization, "distance-weighted discrimination" (DWD), and "ComBat" for their effectiveness in data pre-processing for elucidating diagnostic immune­signatures. "ComBat" data adjustment outperformed the other methods and allowed us to identify classifiers for all lung cancer cases versus controls and small-cell, squamous cell, large-cell, and adenocarcinoma of the lung with an accuracy of 85%, 94%, 96%, 92%, and 83% (sensitivity of 0.85, 0.92, 0.96, 0.88, 0.83; specificity of 0.85, 0.96, 0.96, 0.96, 0.83), respectively. These promising data would be the basis for further validation using targeted autoantibody tests.

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