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1.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined. DESIGN: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling. RESULTS: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies of the relationship between gallstone disease and circulating levels of bilirubin with risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) have been inconsistent. To address possible confounding and reverse causation, we examine the relationship between these potential risk factors and CRC using Mendelian randomisation (MR). METHODS: We used two-sample MR to examine the relationship between genetic liability to gallstone disease and circulating levels of bilirubin with CRC in 26,397 patients and 41,481 controls. We calculated the odds ratio per genetically predicted SD unit increase in log bilirubin levels (ORSD) for CRC and tested for a non-zero causal effect of gallstones on CRC. Sensitivity analysis was applied to identify violations of estimator assumptions. RESULTS: No association between either gallstone disease (P value = 0.60) or circulating levels of bilirubin (ORSD = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96-1.03, P value = 0.90) with CRC was shown. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the large scale of this study, we found no evidence for a causal relationship between either circulating levels of bilirubin or gallstone disease with risk of developing CRC. While the magnitude of effect suggested by some observational studies can confidently be excluded, we cannot exclude the possibility of smaller effect sizes and non-linear relationships.

3.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(5): pkaa051, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134831

RESUMO

Background: Folates, including folic acid, may play a dual role in colorectal cancer development. Folate is suggested to be protective in early carcinogenesis but could accelerate growth of premalignant lesions or micrometastases. Whether circulating concentrations of folate and folic acid, measured around time of diagnosis, are associated with recurrence and survival in colorectal cancer patients is largely unknown. Methods: Circulating concentrations of folate, folic acid, and folate catabolites p-aminobenzoylglutamate and p-acetamidobenzoylglutamate were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at diagnosis in 2024 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients from European and US patient cohort studies. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess associations between folate, folic acid, and folate catabolites concentrations with recurrence, overall survival, and disease-free survival. Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between folate, p-aminobenzoylglutamate, and p-acetamidobenzoylglutamate concentrations and recurrence, overall survival, and disease-free survival, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.92 to 1.16. The detection of folic acid in the circulation (yes or no) was not associated with any outcome. However, among patients with detectable folic acid concentrations (n = 296), a higher risk of recurrence was observed for each twofold increase in folic acid (hazard ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.58). No statistically significant associations were found between folic acid concentrations and overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions: Circulating folate and folate catabolite concentrations at colorectal cancer diagnosis were not associated with recurrence and survival. However, caution is warranted for high blood concentrations of folic acid because they may increase the risk of colorectal cancer recurrence.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3644, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686686

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a biologically heterogeneous disease. To characterize its mutational profile, we conduct targeted sequencing of 205 genes for 2,105 CRC cases with survival data. Our data shows several findings in addition to enhancing the existing knowledge of CRC. We identify PRKCI, SPZ1, MUTYH, MAP2K4, FETUB, and TGFBR2 as additional genes significantly mutated in CRC. We find that among hypermutated tumors, an increased mutation burden is associated with improved CRC-specific survival (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.82). Mutations in TP53 are associated with poorer CRC-specific survival, which is most pronounced in cases carrying TP53 mutations with predicted 0% transcriptional activity (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.21-1.94). Furthermore, we observe differences in mutational frequency of several genes and pathways by tumor location, stage, and sex. Overall, this large study provides deep insights into somatic mutations in CRC, and their potential relationships with survival and tumor features.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
5.
Metabolites ; 10(5)2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455751

RESUMO

Demographic, lifestyle and biospecimen-related factors at the time of blood collection can influence metabolite levels in epidemiological studies. Identifying the major influences on metabolite concentrations is critical to designing appropriate sample collection protocols and considering covariate adjustment in metabolomics analyses. We examined the association of age, sex, and other short-term pre-blood collection factors (time of day, season, fasting duration, physical activity, NSAID use, smoking and alcohol consumption in the days prior to collection) with 133 targeted plasma metabolites (acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, and hexoses) among 108 individuals that reported exposures within 48 h before collection. The differences in mean metabolite concentrations were assessed between groups based on pre-collection factors using two-sided t-tests and ANOVA with FDR correction. Percent differences in metabolite concentrations were negligible across season, time of day of collection, fasting status or lifestyle behaviors at the time of collection, including physical activity or the use of tobacco, alcohol or NSAIDs. The metabolites differed in concentration between the age and sex categories for 21.8% and 14.3% metabolites, respectively. In conclusion, extrinsic factors in the short period prior to collection were not meaningfully associated with concentrations of selected endogenous metabolites in a cross-sectional sample, though metabolite concentrations differed by age and sex. Larger studies with more coverage of the human metabolome are warranted.

6.
Mutagenesis ; 35(3): 283-290, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255470

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a major health burden, being the second most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men worldwide. Overtreatment represents a major problem in prostate cancer therapy, leading to significant long-term quality-of-life effects for patients and a broad socio-ecological burden. Biomarkers that could facilitate risk stratification of prostate cancer aggressiveness at the time of diagnosis may help to guide clinical treatment decisions and reduce overtreatment. Previous research on genetic variations in prostate cancer has shown that germline copy number variations as well as somatic copy number alterations are commonly present in cancer patients, altering a greater portion of the cancer genome than any other type of genetic variation. To investigate the effect of germline copy number variations on cancer aggressiveness we have compared genome-wide screening data from genomic DNA isolated from the blood of 120 patients with aggressive prostate cancer, 231 patients with non-aggressive prostate cancer and 87 controls with benign prostatic hyperplasia from the Prostate Cancer Study of Austria biobank using the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array. We could show that patients with an aggressive form of prostate cancer had a higher frequency of copy number variations [mean count of copy number segments (CNS) = 12.9, median count of CNS = 9] compared to patients with non-aggressive prostate cancer (mean count of CNS = 10.4, median count of CNS = 8) or control patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (mean count of CNS = 9.3, median count of CNS = 8). In general, we observed that copy number gain is a rarer event, compared to copy number loss within all three patient groups. Furthermore, we could show a significant effect of copy number losses located on chromosomes 8, 9 and 10 on prostate cancer aggressiveness (P = 0.040, P = 0.037 and P = 0.005, respectively). Applying a cross-validation analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.63. Our study reports promising findings suggesting that copy number losses might play an important role in the establishment of novel biomarkers to predict prostate cancer aggressiveness at the time of diagnosis. Such markers could be used to facilitate risk stratification to reduce overtreatment of prostate cancer patients.

7.
Br J Nutr ; 123(10): 1187-1200, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019627

RESUMO

B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among CRC patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed CRC patients (n 238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg. We cross-sectionally analysed associations between twelve B vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and ten inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesised that pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers. We observed that PLP was inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r -0·33, Plinear < 0·0001), serum amyloid A (SAA) (r -0·23, Plinear = 0·003), IL-6 (r -0·39, Plinear < 0·0001), IL-8 (r -0·20, Plinear = 0·02) and TNFα (r -0·12, Plinear = 0·045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r -0·14), SAA (r -0·14) and TNFα (r -0·15) among CRC patients. Folate catabolite acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid (pABG) was positively correlated with IL-6 (r 0·27, Plinear < 0·0001), and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r 0·21, Plinear < 0·0001), indicating higher folate utilisation during inflammation. Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among CRC patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for CRC patients.

8.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(1): 55-62, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked lifestyle, cardiometabolic, reproductive, developmental, and inflammatory factors to the risk of colorectal cancer. However, which specific factors affect risk and the strength of these effects are unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between potentially modifiable risk factors and colorectal cancer. METHODS: We used a random-effects model to examine the relationship between 39 potentially modifiable risk factors and colorectal cancer in 26 397 patients with colorectal cancer and 41 481 controls (ie, people without colorectal cancer). These population data came from a genome-wide association study of people of European ancestry, which was amended to exclude UK BioBank data. In the model, we used genetic variants as instruments via two-sample mendelian randomisation to limit bias from confounding and reverse causation. We calculated odds ratios per genetically predicted SD unit increase in each putative risk factor (ORSD) for colorectal cancer risk. We did mendelian randomisation Egger regressions to identify evidence of potential violations of mendelian randomisation assumptions. A Bonferroni-corrected threshold of p=1·3 × 10-3 was considered significant, and p values less than 0·05 were considered to be suggestive of an association. FINDINGS: No putative risk factors were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after correction for multiple testing. However, suggestive associations with increased risk were noted for genetically predicted body fat percentage (ORSD 1·14 [95% CI 1·03-1·25]; p=0·0086), body-mass index (1·09 [1·01-1·17]; p=0·023), waist circumference (1·13 [1·02-1·26]; p=0·018), basal metabolic rate (1·10 [1·03-1·18]; p=0·0079), and concentrations of LDL cholesterol (1·14 [1·04-1·25]; p=0·0056), total cholesterol (1·09 [1·01-1·18]; p=0·025), circulating serum iron (1·17 [1·00-1·36]; p=0·049), and serum vitamin B12 (1·21 [1·04-1·42]; p=0·016), although potential pleiotropy among genetic variants used as instruments for vitamin B12 constrains the finding. A suggestive association was also noted between adult height and increased risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD 1·04 [95% CI 1·00-1·08]; p=0·032). Low blood selenium concentration had a suggestive association with decreased risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD 0·85 [95% CI 0·75-0·96]; p=0·0078) based on a single variant, as did plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 receptor subunit α (also based on a single variant; 0·98 [0·96-1·00]; p=0·035). Risk of colorectal cancer was not associated with any sex hormone or reproductive factor, serum calcium, or circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. INTERPRETATION: This analysis identified several modifiable targets for primary prevention of colorectal cancer, including lifestyle, obesity, and cardiometabolic factors, that should inform public health policy. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, UK Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit Centre, DJ Fielding Medical Research Trust, EU COST Action, and the US National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J Cancer ; 146(12): 3256-3266, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495913

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death globally, with marked differences in prognosis by disease stage at diagnosis. We studied circulating metabolites in relation to disease stage to improve the understanding of metabolic pathways related to colorectal cancer progression. We investigated plasma concentrations of 130 metabolites among 744 Stages I-IV colorectal cancer patients from ongoing cohort studies. Plasma samples, collected at diagnosis, were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit. We assessed associations between metabolite concentrations and stage using multinomial and multivariable logistic regression models. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders as well as multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Patients presented with 23, 28, 39 and 10% of Stages I-IV disease, respectively. Concentrations of sphingomyelin C26:0 were lower in Stage III patients compared to Stage I patients (pFDR < 0.05). Concentrations of sphingomyelin C18:0 and phosphatidylcholine (diacyl) C32:0 were statistically significantly higher, while citrulline, histidine, phosphatidylcholine (diacyl) C34:4, phosphatidylcholine (acyl-alkyl) C40:1 and lysophosphatidylcholines (acyl) C16:0 and C17:0 concentrations were lower in Stage IV compared to Stage I patients (pFDR < 0.05). Our results suggest that metabolic pathways involving among others citrulline and histidine, implicated previously in colorectal cancer development, may also be linked to colorectal cancer progression.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 145(5): 1221-1231, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665271

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is known to arise from multiple tumorigenic pathways; however, the underlying mechanisms remain not completely understood. Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly popular tool in assessing biological processes. Previous metabolomics research focusing on colorectal cancer is limited by sample size and did not replicate findings in independent study populations to verify robustness of reported findings. Here, we performed a ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) screening on EDTA plasma from 268 colorectal cancer patients and 353 controls using independent discovery and replication sets from two European cohorts (ColoCare Study: n = 180 patients/n = 153 controls; the Colorectal Cancer Study of Austria (CORSA) n = 88 patients/n = 200 controls), aiming to identify circulating plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer and to improve knowledge regarding colorectal cancer etiology. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test the association between disease state and metabolic features. Statistically significant associated features in the discovery set were taken forward and tested in the replication set to assure robustness of our findings. All models were adjusted for sex, age, BMI and smoking status and corrected for multiple testing using False Discovery Rate. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from questionnaires and medical records.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Gut ; 68(5): 854-865, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diverticular disease is a common complex disorder characterised by mucosal outpouchings of the colonic wall that manifests through complications such as diverticulitis, perforation and bleeding. We report the to date largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic risk factors for diverticular disease. DESIGN: Discovery GWAS analysis was performed on UK Biobank imputed genotypes using 31 964 cases and 419 135 controls of European descent. Associations were replicated in a European sample of 3893 cases and 2829 diverticula-free controls and evaluated for risk contribution to diverticulitis and uncomplicated diverticulosis. Transcripts at top 20 replicating loci were analysed by real-time quatitative PCR in preparations of the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layer of colon. The localisation of expressed protein at selected loci was investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We discovered 48 risk loci, of which 12 are novel, with genome-wide significance and consistent OR in the replication sample. Nominal replication (p<0.05) was observed for 27 loci, and additional 8 in meta-analysis with a population-based cohort. The most significant novel risk variant rs9960286 is located near CTAGE1 with a p value of 2.3×10-10 and 0.002 (ORallelic=1.14 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.24)) in the replication analysis. Four loci showed stronger effects for diverticulitis, PHGR1 (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.56), FAM155A-2 (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.42), CALCB (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33) and S100A10 (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33). CONCLUSION: In silico analyses point to diverticulosis primarily as a disorder of intestinal neuromuscular function and of impaired connective fibre support, while an additional diverticulitis risk might be conferred by epithelial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/genética , Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiologia , Doenças Diverticulares/genética , Epitélio/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Colo/patologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Doenças Diverticulares/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
12.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 76-87, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510241

RESUMO

To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(2): 146-157, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. METHODS: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(1)2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591675

RESUMO

DNA repair processes are involved in both the onset and treatment efficacy of colorectal cancer (CRC). A change of a single nucleotide causing an amino acid substitution in the corresponding protein may alter the efficiency of DNA repair, thus modifying the CRC susceptibility and clinical outcome. We performed a candidate gene approach in order to analyze the association of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in the genes covering the main DNA repair pathways with CRC risk and clinical outcome modifications. Our candidate polymorphisms were selected according to the foremost genomic and functional prediction databases. Sixteen nsSNPs in 12 DNA repair genes were evaluated in cohorts from the Czech Republic and Austria. Apart from the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, which occurred as the main prognostic factor in all of the performed analyses, we observed several significant associations of different nsSNPs with survival and clinical outcomes in both cohorts. However, only some of the genes (REV3L, POLQ, and NEIL3) were prominently defined as prediction factors in the classification and regression tree analysis; therefore, the study suggests their association for patient survival. In summary, we provide observational and bioinformatics evidence that even subtle alterations in specific proteins of the DNA repair pathways may contribute to CRC susceptibility and clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Reparo do DNA/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Áustria , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , República Tcheca , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , N-Glicosil Hidrolases/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Oncotarget ; 9(17): 13582-13592, 2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568379

RESUMO

Considering the high prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and relatively high mortality there is strong interest in identification of clinically relevant biomarkers. Telomere shortening is supposed to contribute to genomic instability and crucially involved in process of carcinogenesis. Peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) telomere length was previously investigated in several studies as potential biomarker for CRC but with controversial results. This prompted us to investigate relative PBL telomere length in association with different histological findings throughout the continuum of colorectal carcinogenesis in order to reflect the whole spectrum of putative CRC development in a large study involving 2011 individuals. The study based on the Colorectal Cancer Study of Austria (CORSA), including 384 CRC cases as well as age- and gender-matched 544 high-risk adenomas, 537 low-risk adenoma patients and 546 colonoscopy-negative controls. Relative expression of telomeric repeats and the single copy reference gene, albumin (T/S ratio) was determined using monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR (MMQPCR). Telomeres were found to be significantly longer in CRC patients compared to control subjects (P = 3.61x10-6). Yet, no significant differences in telomere length could be detected for high-risk (P = 0.05956) and low-risk colorectal adenoma patients (P = 0.05224). In addition, results presented in this manuscript highlight the impact of various epidemiological factors on PBL telomere length and its involvement in CRC. However, further large studies also including colorectal adenomas are necessary to confirm these results.

16.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 16(1): 73-84, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505855

RESUMO

Characterization of the colon cancer immunome and its autoantibody signature from differentially-reactive antigens (DIRAGs) could provide insights into aberrant cellular mechanisms or enriched networks associated with diseases. The purpose of this study was to characterize the antibody profile of plasma samples from 32 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 32 controls using proteins isolated from 15,417 human cDNA expression clones on microarrays. 671 unique DIRAGs were identified and 632 were more highly reactive in CRC samples. Bioinformatics analyses reveal that compared to control samples, the immunoproteomic IgG profiling of CRC samples is mainly associated with cell death, survival, and proliferation pathways, especially proteins involved in EIF2 and mTOR signaling. Ribosomal proteins (e.g., RPL7, RPL22, and RPL27A) and CRC-related genes such as APC, AXIN1, E2F4, MSH2, PMS2, and TP53 were highly enriched. In addition, differential pathways were observed between the CRC and control samples. Furthermore, 103 DIRAGs were reported in the SEREX antigen database, demonstrating our ability to identify known and new reactive antigens. We also found an overlap of 7 antigens with 48 "CRC genes." These data indicate that immunomics profiling on protein microarrays is able to reveal the complexity of immune responses in cancerous diseases and faithfully reflects the underlying pathology.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Oncotarget ; 8(58): 98623-98634, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228715

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were analyzed using single marker tests in combination with stringent correction procedures for multiple testing. Thus, a substantial proportion of associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained undetected and may account for missing heritability in complex traits. Model selection procedures present a powerful alternative to identify associated SNPs in high-dimensional settings. In this GWAS including 1060 colorectal cancer cases, 689 cases of advanced colorectal adenomas and 4367 controls we pursued a dual approach to investigate genome-wide associations with disease risk applying both, single marker analysis and model selection based on the modified Bayesian information criterion, mBIC2, implemented in the software package MOSGWA. For different case-control comparisons, we report models including between 1-14 candidate SNPs. A genome-wide significant association of rs17659990 (P=5.43×10-9, DOCK3, chromosome 3p21.2) with colorectal cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, 56 SNPs known to influence susceptibility to colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma were tested in a hypothesis-driven approach and several of them were found to be relevant in our Austrian cohort. After correction for multiple testing (α=8.9×10-4), the most significant associations were observed for SNPs rs10505477 (P=6.08×10-4) and rs6983267 (P=7.35×10-4) of CASC8, rs3802842 (P=8.98×10-5, COLCA1,2), and rs12953717 (P=4.64×10-4, SMAD7). All previously unreported SNPs demand replication in additional samples. Reanalysis of existing GWAS datasets using model selection as tool to detect SNPs associated with a complex trait may present a promising resource to identify further genetic risk variants not only for colorectal cancer.

18.
Oncotarget ; 8(17): 28021-28027, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28427205

RESUMO

MNS16A, a functional polymorphic tandem repeat minisatellite, is located in the promoter region of an antisense transcript of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. MNS16A promoter activity depends on the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) presenting varying numbers of transcription factor binding sites for GATA binding protein 1. Although MNS16A has been investigated in multiple cancer epidemiology studies with incongruent findings, functional data of only two VNTRs (VNTR-243 and VNTR-302) were available thus far, linking the shorter VNTR to higher promoter activity.For the first time, we investigated promoter activity of all six VNTRs of MNS16A in cell lines of colorectal, lung and prostate cancer using Luciferase reporter assay. In all investigated cell lines shorter VNTRs showed higher promoter activity. While this anticipated indirect linear relationship was affirmed for colorectal cancer SW480 (P = 0.006), a piecewise linear regression model provided significantly better model fit in lung cancer A-427 (P = 6.9 × 10-9) and prostate cancer LNCaP (P = 0.039). In silico search for transcription factor binding sites in MNS16A core repeat element suggested a higher degree of complexity involving X-box binding protein 1, general transcription factor II-I, and glucocorticoid receptor alpha in addition to GATA binding protein 1.Further functional studies in additional cancers are requested to extend our knowledge of MNS16A functionality uncovering potential cancer type-specific differences. Risk alleles may vary in different malignancies and their determination in vitro could be relevant for interpretation of genotype data.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Repetições Minissatélites , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Telomerase/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Microarrays (Basel) ; 4(2): 162-87, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27600218

RESUMO

New minimal invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of lung cancer are urgently needed. It is known that the immune system responds to tumors with production of tumor-autoantibodies. Protein microarrays are a suitable highly multiplexed platform for identification of autoantibody signatures against tumor-associated antigens (TAA). These microarrays can be probed using 0.1 mg immunoglobulin G (IgG), purified from 10 µL of plasma. We used a microarray comprising recombinant proteins derived from 15,417 cDNA clones for the screening of 100 lung cancer samples, including 25 samples of each main histological entity of lung cancer, and 100 controls. Since this number of samples cannot be processed at once, the resulting data showed non-biological variances due to "batch effects". Our aim was to evaluate quantile normalization, "distance-weighted discrimination" (DWD), and "ComBat" for their effectiveness in data pre-processing for elucidating diagnostic immune­signatures. "ComBat" data adjustment outperformed the other methods and allowed us to identify classifiers for all lung cancer cases versus controls and small-cell, squamous cell, large-cell, and adenocarcinoma of the lung with an accuracy of 85%, 94%, 96%, 92%, and 83% (sensitivity of 0.85, 0.92, 0.96, 0.88, 0.83; specificity of 0.85, 0.96, 0.96, 0.96, 0.83), respectively. These promising data would be the basis for further validation using targeted autoantibody tests.

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