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1.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(10): 683-697H, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177758

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines for the management of depression globally. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of existing guidelines for the management of depression in adults with major depressive or bipolar disorder. For each identified guideline, we assessed compliance with measures of guideline development quality (such as transparency in guideline development processes and funding, multidisciplinary author group composition, systematic review of comparative efficacy research) and implementation (such as quality indicators). We compared guidelines from low- and middle-income countries with those from high-income countries. Findings: We identified 82 national and 13 international clinical practice guidelines from 83 countries in 27 languages. Guideline development processes and funding sources were explicitly specified in a smaller proportion of guidelines from low- and middle-income countries (8/29; 28%) relative to high-income countries (35/58; 60%). Fewer guidelines (2/29; 7%) from low- and middle-income countries, relative to high-income countries (22/58; 38%), were authored by a multidisciplinary development group. A systematic review of comparative effectiveness was conducted in 31% (9/29) of low- and middle-income country guidelines versus 71% (41/58) of high-income country guidelines. Only 10% (3/29) of low- and middle-income country and 19% (11/58) of high-income country guidelines described plans to assess quality indicators or recommendation adherence. Conclusion: Globally, guideline implementation is inadequately planned, reported and measured. Narrowing disparities in the development and implementation of guidelines in low- and middle-income countries is a priority. Future guidelines should present strategies to implement recommendations and measure feasibility, cost-effectiveness and impact on health outcomes.

2.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 68-76, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the desire to eat and food intake regulation and may be a target for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to promote weight loss. Our aim was to test the effect of repeated, active tDCS along with a hypocaloric diet (HD) on weight loss in overweight adults. METHODS: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Twenty-eight overweight adults were selected to receive 4-week (20 sessions, t0 to t20; 5 weekdays) fixed-dose tDCS along with an HD. Subjects were randomly assigned to active (AG) or sham (SG) tDCS groups. The primary outcome was weight loss as determined via body weight measurements at baseline (t0), weekly (t5, t10, t15, and t20), and after the intervention (tF). A visual analogue scale was used to assess desire to eat at t0 and at tF. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT02683902. RESULTS: Although there was a greater weight loss in the AG (mean -4.5 kg [95%CI: -9.4, 0.5]) than in the SG (-2.3 kg [-5.0, 0.3]), this difference was not statistically significant. However, the AG showed a significant reduction in the desire for sweet foods (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Although this pilot study did not show that repeated tDCS is able to optimize weight loss, it was able to reduce the desire to eat sweet foods. These findings suggest that a protocol with a larger sample size could determine whether tDCS may be an adjunctive treatment of obesity.

3.
Can J Psychiatry ; : 706743720970860, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with major depressive disorder often have limited response to first-line and second-line medications; hence, novel pharmacological treatments are needed for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has demonstrated rapid antidepressant effects in patients with TRD. The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) convened a task force to review the evidence for efficacy and safety of racemic ketamine and to provide recommendations for its use in clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted with computerized search of electronic databases up to January 31, 2020 using combinations of search terms, inspection of bibliographies, and review of other ketamine guidelines and consensus statements. The level of evidence and lines of treatment were assigned according to CANMAT criteria. Recommendations were given in question-answer format. RESULTS: Intravenous (IV) racemic ketamine given as a single infusion has Level 1 evidence for efficacy in adults with TRD. The evidence for multiple infusions, given as an acute series or as ongoing maintenance treatment, is limited to Level 3. Adverse events associated with ketamine infusions include behavioral (e.g., dissociative symptoms) and physiological (e.g., hypertension) events. There is only Level 3 or 4 evidence for non-IV formulations of racemic ketamine. Consensus recommendations are given for clinical administration of IV ketamine including patient selection, facility and personnel issues, monitoring, and maintaining response. CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose IV racemic ketamine is a third-line recommendation for adults with TRD. The need for repeated and maintenance ketamine infusions should be carefully assessed on a case-by-case basis with consideration of potential risks and benefits. Because of limited evidence for efficacy and risk for misuse and diversion, the use of oral and other formulations of racemic ketamine should be limited to specialists with ketamine-prescribing expertise and affiliations with tertiary or specialized centers.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early symptomatic improvement with monoamine-based antidepressants is predictive of treatment response. The objective of this study was to determine if early symptomatic improvements with intravenous (IV) ketamine predicted treatment response to an acute course of four infusions. METHOD: 134 adults with treatment resistant depression (TRD) received four ketamine infusions over one to two weeks. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report16 (QIDS-SR16) at baseline and post-infusions 1, 2, 3, and 4. Early improvement was defined as ≥20% reduction in QIDS-SR16 scores after the first or second infusion. Linear models were used to determine whether early improvement was associated with post-infusion 4 QIDS-SR16 scores after controlling for baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Early improvement post-infusion 1 (ß = -3.52, 95% BCa CI [-5.40, -1.78]) and 2 (ß = -3.16, 95% BCa CI [-5.75, -1.59]) both significantly predicted QIDS-SR16 scores post-infusion 4. Early improvers had significantly lower QIDS-SR16 scores at post-infusion 4 (post-infusion 1 improvers: M = 9.8, SD = 4.5; post-infusion 2 improvers: M = 10.6, SD = 5.7) compared to non-early improvers (post-infusion 1 non-improvers: M = 13.7, SD = 5.8; post-infusion 2 non-improvers: M = 14.1, SD = 5.3) when controlling for baseline characteristics. The majority (58%) of individuals who did not improve post-infusions 1 or 2 still experienced an antidepressant response or partial response (≥20% reduction in QIDS-SR16) post-infusion 4. LIMITATIONS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an open-label study. CONCLUSION: Early improvement was associated with greater antidepressant effects following a course of four ketamine infusions. However, individuals who did not show early improvements still had a high likelihood of experiencing clinically significant symptom reduction after the fourth infusion, suggesting that completing four infusions, regardless of early symptom changes, is appropriate and merited.

5.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914395

RESUMO

There is now evidence that, based on cytokine profiles, bipolar disorder (BD) is accompanied by simultaneous activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS), and that both components may be associated with the staging of illness. Nevertheless, no BD studies have evaluated the IRS/CIRS ratio using CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules expressed by peripheral blood activated T effector (Teff) and T regulatory (Treg) subpopulations. This study examined Teff/Treg subsets both before and after ex vivo anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation using flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 25 symptomatic remitted BD patients and 21 healthy controls and assessed human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific IgG antibodies. BD is associated with a significantly lowered frequency of unstimulated CD3 + CD8 + CD71+ and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 and increased CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + CD152+ frequencies and with lowered stimulated frequencies of CD3 + CD8 + CD71+, CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + CD152+, and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + GARP cells and, consequently, by an increased stimulated Teff/Treg ratio. Moreover, the number of manic, but not hypomanic or depressive episodes, is significantly and negatively associated with the stimulated proportions of CD3 + CD4 + CD154+, and CD69+ and CD71+ expression on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while duration of illness (≥ 10 years) is accompanied by a depleted frequency of stimulated CD152+ Treg, and CD154+ and CD71+ CD4+ T cells. BD and anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG levels significantly interact to decrease the expression of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP+GARP T phenotypes. In conclusion, in BD patients, immune injuries, staging, and HCMV seropositivity interact and cause CIRS dysfunctions and exaggerated IRS responses, which play a key role in parainflammation and neuroaffective toxicity. HCMV seropositivity contributes to an immune-risk phenotype in BD.

6.
Eur Addict Res ; : 1-9, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726782

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although the recreational cannabis use is expressive worldwide, the literature about medical potential of cannabis extracts, including its anti-inflammatory properties, remains inconclusive. METHODS: We screened all articles, published on the PubMed database, on inflammatory mediators and any information about cannabis use from 1980 to March 2019. RESULTS: Six studies were included, and the main findings were as follows: (i) among healthy volunteers and cannabis users, cannabinoids seemed to decrease the inflammatory response, thus decreasing the immune response, which led to a higher risk of infections; (ii) among patients with multiple sclerosis, cannabinoids seemed to have little impact on the inflammatory markers' levels. DISCUSSION: Although cannabis use can produce immune inflammatory suppression in healthy people, this effect is not robust enough to change inflammatory mediators' levels in situations of highly dysfunctional inflammatory activation. Nevertheless, the impact of cannabinoids in clinical outcomes of these conditions remains to be determined.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 274: 1211-1215, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663953

RESUMO

The authors regret an error in one of the extracted data points in the meta-analysis. The classification accuracy for Serretti et al. (2007) was corrected to 64% (Table 3b). The overall results before and after this correction remain directionally consistent and are summarized below (Figures 2 and 3; Table 2; results subsection 3.6). The authors apologise for any inconvenience caused.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 274: 903-910, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of intravenous (IV) ketamine in adults with treatment resistant depression (TRD) receiving care in real-word settings is insufficiently characterized. Herein, results from a naturalistic, retrospective study are presented from a Canadian outpatient IV ketamine clinic. METHODS: Adults (N = 213; Mage = 45) with Major Depressive Disorder or Bipolar Disorder, with a minimum of Stage 2 antidepressant resistance, received IV ketamine at a community-based multi-disciplinary clinic. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to post-infusion 4 on the Quick Inventory for Depression Symptomatology-Self Report-16 (QIDS-SR16; n = 190). Secondary measures included QIDS-SR16-measured response and remission rates, changes from baseline to endpoint in Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale (GAD-7; n = 188) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS; n = 168). RESULTS: Significant improvement in total depressive symptoms severity (p < 0.0001) was observed after four infusions of IV ketamine 0.5-0.75 mg/kg. Moreover, the response rate (QIDS-SR16 total score change ≥ 50%) was 27% and remission (QIDS-SR16 total score ≤5) rate was 13%. Patients receiving IV ketamine exhibited anxiolytic effects (p < 0.0001,), improved overall psychosocial function (p < 0.0001), and reduced suicidal ideation (p < 0.0001). Compared to the baseline infusion, dissociation severity significantly reduced in subsequent infusions. LIMITATIONS: This was a naturalistic, retrospective study, without a control group. CONCLUSIONS: IV ketamine was safe, well-tolerated, and effective at improving depressive, anxiety, and functional impairment symptoms in a well-characterized cohort of adults with TRD.

9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 120: 104779, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603956

RESUMO

A potential role for leptin in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) has been proposed. We recently investigated the effects of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonist infliximab in individuals with bipolar depression. Leptin is known to interact with the TNF-α system. Herein, we aimed to explore infliximab's effects on leptin and its relationship with brain structure and function. Sixty adults with bipolar depression were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, 12-week clinical trial of adjunctive infliximab (n = 29) and saline control (n = 31), which were administered intravenously at weeks 0, 2, and 6. Plasma concentrations of leptin, TNF-α and soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR) 1 and 2 were assessed at weeks 0, 2, 6, and 12. We observed a significant decrease in leptin levels in infliximab-treated patients, relative to placebo. Infliximab treatment also significantly reduced TNF-α and sTNFR2, but not sTNFR1 levels. Changes in sTNR2 levels at week 6 significantly determined changes in leptin at week 12 in infliximab-, but not placebo-treated participants. Improvements in verbal memory and increases in global cortical volume were associated with reduction in leptin levels in the treatment group. Mediation analysis indicated that cognitive improvement in infliximab-treated patients was mediated by reductions in leptin levels, which in its turn were determined by decreases in sTNR2 levels. In conclusion, infliximab treatment reduced plasma leptin levels in individuals with BD, through modulation of sTNFR2. Decreases in leptin signaling were associated with an increase in global cortical volume and better performance in a verbal memory task.

10.
Rev Neurosci ; 31(6): 649-658, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573483

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent and disabling condition for which the currently available treatments are not fully effective. Existing unmet needs include rapid onset of action and optimal management of concurrent agitation. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a selective and potent α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) agonist, with unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. In this review, we discuss pre-clinical and clinical studies which focused on DEX in the context of its putative antidepressant effects for the management of MDD. Preliminary data support DEX as an antidepressant with fast onset of action, which would be especially helpful for patients experiencing treatment resistant depression, and agitation. We further explore the mechanistic and clinical implications of considering DEX as a putative antidepressant agent, and the next steps to explore the efficacy of low dose DEX infusion among patients with treatment resistant depression.

11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 128: 16-22, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485641

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) has been proposed as a determinant of cognitive function and is one component of energy balance (EB). EB is the difference between energy intake (EI) and the total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). TDEE is a combination of resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food and PA. The potential role of each of these components on cognitive function has not yet been systemically investigated. We aim to evaluate the association between each component of EB on cognition, using baseline and longitudinal data from a clinical trial of caloric restriction (CR). This is a parallel-group, randomized clinical trial comparing two years of 25% CR with two years of ad libitum diet (AL), with 220 healthy volunteers of both sex, aged between 21 and 50 years and initial BMI ≥ 22 kg/m2 and <28 kg/m2. Body weight, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and bone mineral content were evaluated, as well as RMR, TDEE, cognitive performance and baseline energy intake. A 30 min/day of a moderate level on a minimum of 5 days/week was advised as PA measure. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the influence of CR in the improvement of cognitive performance was moderated by changes in RMR, suggesting that in individuals submitted to CR, the cognitive performance and the RMR improved proportionally, independently of changes in EI and body mass. EB and homeostasis are crucial to modulate the RMR. Moreover, RMR presents an important influence on cognitive function in individuals submitted to CR in a long term.

12.
Bipolar Disord ; 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis and management of bipolar disorder (BD) are limited by the absence of available biomarkers. Allostatic load (AL) represents the strain that stress, including the effects of acute phases and inter-episode chronic mood instability, exerts on interconnected biological systems. This study aimed to operationalize an AL index and explore whether it could be relevant to better characterize BD patients with and without emotional hyper-reactivity particularly those at higher risk of immune-cardiometabolic dysregulation and functional impairment. METHODS: Levels of biomarkers of chronic inflammation (hsCRP and albumin), cardiovascular (systolic/diastolic blood pressure) and metabolic functions (fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides) were measured in 1072 adult BD outpatients. Patients were classified in two groups (with/without emotional hyper-reactivity) assessed by the Multidimensional Assessment of Thymic States scale. An Allostatic Load Index for BD (BALLI), comprising six biomarkers, was constructed using data-driven biomarker selection. RESULTS: BALLI showed 81.1% accuracy with good sensitivity (81%) and specificity (81.2%) for characterizing BD patients presenting emotional hyper-reactivity, elevated risk of inflammation (increased hsCRP, hypoalbuminemia) and cardiometabolic disturbances (hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia). Patients classified by the BALLI as presenting emotional hyper-reactivity had significantly lower global and cognitive functioning than those without emotional hyper-reactivity (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: A multidimensional approach based on a simple AL score (eg, BALLI) and dimensions of behavior (eg, emotional hyper-reactivity) alongside mood is clinically relevant. AL index could be a useful tool to detect multisystemic physiological dysregulations in BD patients with/without emotional hyper-reactivity particularly those at higher risk of immune-cardiometabolic disturbances and functional impairment.

13.
Rev Neurosci ; 31(6): 637-648, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406387

RESUMO

The ketogenic diet (KD) is characterized by a diet ratio of 4:1 fat to non-fat energy sources. For decades KD has been successfully used to control seizures in epilepsy patients. Investigations into its mechanism of action suggest that it may have an effect on the metabolic, nervous, immune, and digestive systems. In this review, we postulate that KD may also improve depressive symptoms - for that, we highlight the similarities between depression and epilepsy, describe the extent to which body systems involved in both conditions are affected by the KD, and ultimately hypothesize how KD could improve MDD outcomes. Research into animal models and human patients have reported that KD can increase mitochondrial biogenesis and increase cellular resistance to oxidative stress both at the mitochondrial and genetic levels. Its effect on neurotransmitters alters cell-to-cell communication in the brain and may decrease hyperexcitability by increasing Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and decreasing excitatory neurotransmitter levels. Its anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by decreasing chemo- and cytokine levels, including TNF-alpha and IL-1 levels. Finally, KD can alter gut microbiota (GM). Certain strains of microbiota predominate in major depressive disorder (MDD) when compared to healthy individuals. Recent evidence points to Bacteroidetes as a potential treatment predictor as it seems to increase in KD treatment responders for epilepsy. Each of these observations contributes to the presumed modulatory effects of KD on mood and supports its potential role as antidepressant.

14.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 631-639, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380271

RESUMO

We investigated the efficacy of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonist infliximab on a measure of anhedonia amongst individuals with bipolar I/II depression (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02363738). Adults (ages 18-65) with bipolar I/II disorder currently experiencing a major depressive episode with a higher probability of inflammatory activity (i.e., meeting one or more of the following inflammatory/metabolic criteria: obesity and dyslipidemia/hypertension, daily cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, migraine, inflammatory bowel disease, and/or C-reactive protein level of ⩾5 mg/L) were enrolled in a double-blind, 12-week clinical trial of adjunctive infliximab (5 mg/kg) and saline control, which were administered at weeks 0, 2, and 6. The primary outcome measure for the present secondary analysis was change in the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) total score between placebo- and infliximab-treated subjects from baseline to weeks 6 and 12. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR) 1 and 2 were assessed at weeks 0, 2, 6, and 12. Sixty eligible adults received treatment with infliximab (n=29) or placebo (n=31); 47 subjects completed the study (infliximab: n=21, placebo: n=26). Overall, infliximab-randomized subjects exhibited significantly larger increases in SHAPS total score, denoting greater reductions in anhedonic symptoms, when compared to placebo-randomized subjects (treatment × time interaction effect: χ2=7.15,df=2,p=0.03). Anti-anhedonic efficacy was moderated by baseline plasma levels of TNF-α and sTNFR1, but not by changes in TNF-α or sTNFR1 concentrations. Baseline and changes in sTNFR2 concentrations did not moderate anti-anhedonic efficacy. Infliximab significantly improved a measure of anhedonia relative to placebo in adults with bipolar I/II depression at week 6; intervention efficacy was not sustained 6 weeks after the final infusion.

15.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; : 100076, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102316

RESUMO

In the recent months, the world was taken by surprise by the outbreak of a coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique opportunity to advance the understanding of the association of respiratory viruses with mood disorders and suicide. In this editorial, we explore three insights to the neuropsychoneuroimmunology of mood disorders that could be taken from the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Psychiatry Res ; 288: 112967, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339805

RESUMO

The objective of the current study was to assess the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in mood disorder patients. Self-report data from the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project were cross-sectionally analyzed to compare rates of IBS in participants with confirmed diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 279) or bipolar disorder (BD; n = 219). Data was sub-grouped and compared based on history of ACEs. In total, 69 of the 498 participants reported a diagnosis of IBS (13.8%). BD was associated with significantly elevated rates of IBS compared to MDD (18.5% versus 10.1% respectively). After adjusting for age and sex, history of childhood sexual abuse was associated with increased rates of IBS in mood disorder participants [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.95]. In the MDD subgroup, ACEs (all categories and individual categories) were not associated with increased rates of IBS. In the BD subgroup, history of childhood sexual abuse was associated with significantly increased rates of IBS (38% versus 14%; aOR = 3.7). In summary, BD was associated with a higher prevalence of IBS compared to MDD. Additionally, history of sexual abuse was associated with an increased prevalence of IBS in BD, but not in MDD.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/tendências , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/tendências
17.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; : 100076, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322822

RESUMO

In the recent months, the world was taken by surprise by the outbreak of a coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique opportunity to advance the understanding of the association of respiratory viruses with mood disorders and suicide. In this editorial, we explore three insights to the neuropsychoneuroimmunology of mood disorders that could be taken from the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 113: 529-545, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305381

RESUMO

Advances in the understanding and management of bipolar disorder (BD) have been slow to emerge. Despite notable recent developments in neurosciences, our conceptualization of the nature of this mental disorder has not meaningfully progressed. One of the key reasons for this scenario is the continuing lack of a comprehensive disease model. Within the increasing complexity of modern research methods, there is a clear need for an overarching theoretical framework, in which findings are assimilated and predictions are generated. In this review and hypothesis article, we propose such a framework, one in which dysregulated energy expenditure is a primary, sufficient cause for BD. Our proposed model is centered on the disruption of the molecular and cellular network regulating energy production and expenditure, as well its potential secondary adaptations and compensatory mechanisms. We also focus on the putative longitudinal progression of this pathological process, considering its most likely periods for onset, such as critical periods that challenges energy homeostasis (e.g. neurodevelopment, social isolation), and the resulting short and long-term phenotypical manifestations.

19.
Cells ; 9(4)2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268604

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is involved in bipolar disorder (BD) pathogenesis. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonist infliximab was recently reported to improve depressive symptoms in a subpopulation of individuals with BD and history of childhood maltreatment. To explore the mechanistic mediators of infliximab's effects, we investigated its engagement with biomarkers of cellular response to inflammation derived from plasma extracellular vesicles enriched for neuronal origin (NEVs). We hypothesized that infliximab, compared to placebo, would decrease TNF-α receptors (TNFRs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway signaling biomarkers, and that history of childhood abuse would moderate infliximab's effects. We immunocaptured NEVs from plasma samples collected at baseline and at weeks 2, 6, and 12 (endpoint) from 55 participants of this clinical trial and measured NEV biomarkers using immunoassays. A subset of participants (n = 27) also underwent whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and endpoint. Childhood physical abuse moderated treatment by time interactions for TNFR1 (χ2 = 9.275, p = 0.026), NF-κB (χ2 = 13.825, p = 0.003), and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBα) (χ2 = 7.990, p = 0.046), indicating that higher levels of physical abuse were associated with larger biomarker decreases over time. Moreover, the antidepressant response to infliximab was moderated by TNFR1 (χ2 = 7.997, p = 0.046). In infliximab-treated participants, reductions in TNFR1 levels were associated with improvement of depressive symptoms, an effect not detected in the placebo group. Conversely, reductions in TNFR1 levels were associated with increased global cortical thickness in infliximab- (r = -0.581, p = 0.029), but not placebo-treated, patients (r = 0.196, p = 0.501). In conclusion, we report that NEVs revealed that infliximab engaged the TNFR/NF-κB neuro-inflammatory pathway in individuals with BD, in a childhood trauma-dependent manner, which was associated with clinical response and brain structural changes.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305355

RESUMO

Ketogenic diet (KD) is comprised of a distinct macronutrient combination: i.e. 90% fat, 8% of protein and 2% of carbohydrates, typically characterized as a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet. KD's efficacy was largely established for treatment resistant epilepsy in children, but its mental, emotional and behavioral effects remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, the efficacious effects of KD in childhood epilepsy provide rationale for repurposing this approach for other brain-based disorders. Consequently, clinicians and researchers should be aware of the evidence regarding efficacy, as well as the benefits and risks of adopting this diet. Results from animals and humans studies provide equivocal evidence across multiple domains of psychopathology. Conceptually, KD shows promise to serve as an efficacious treatment for mental disorders.

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