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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(6): 620-622, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367981
2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304552

RESUMO

The craniofacial disorder Mandibulofacial Dysostosis Guion-Almedia type is caused by haploinsufficiency of the U5 snRNP gene EFTUD2/SNU114. However, it is unclear how reduced expression of this core pre-mRNA splicing factor leads to craniofacial defects. Here we use a CRISPR-Cas9 nickase strategy to generate a human EFTUD2-knockdown cell line, and show that reduced expression of EFTUD2 leads to diminished proliferative ability of these cells, increased sensitivity to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the mis-expression of several genes involved in the ER stress response. RNA-Seq analysis of the EFTUD2-knockdown cell line revealed transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression, with an enrichment for genes associated with processes involved in craniofacial development. Additionally, our RNA-Seq data identified widespread mis-splicing in EFTUD2-knockdown cells. Analysis of the functional and physical characteristics of mis-spliced pre-mRNAs highlighted conserved properties, including length and splice site strengths, of retained introns and skipped exons in our disease model. We also identified enriched processes associated with the affected genes, including cell death, cell and organ morphology and embryonic development. Together, these data support a model in which EFTUD2 haploinsufficiency leads to the mis-splicing of a distinct subset of pre-mRNAs with a widespread effect on gene expression, including altering the expression of ER stress response genes and genes involved in the development of the craniofacial region. The increased burden of unfolded proteins in the ER resulting from mis-splicing would exceed the capacity of the defective ER stress response, inducing apoptosis in cranial neural crest cells that would result in craniofacial abnormalities during development.

3.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 147, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationships between interferon alpha (IFNα) and the clinical and serological phenotype of patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARDs) in order to determine whether a distinct subpopulation of patients can be identified. METHODS: We recruited patients with at least 1 SARD clinical feature and at least 1 SARD-related autoantibody from two NHS Trusts in Greater Manchester. A 6-gene interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) score was calculated in all patients, and in a subgroup, a 30-gene ISG score was produced using NanoString. A digital Single Molecule Array (Simoa) was used to measure plasma IFNα protein. In an exploratory analysis, whole blood RNA sequencing was conducted in 12 patients followed by RT-qPCR confirmation of expression of 6 nucleic acid receptors (NARs) in the whole cohort. RESULTS: Sixty three of 164 (38%) patients had a positive ISG score. The 3 measures of IFNα all correlated strongly with each other (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in mucocutaneous or internal organ involvement between the ISG subgroups. The ISG-positive group had increased frequency of specific autoantibodies and haematological abnormalities which remained significant after adjusting for the SARD subtype. Expression of DDX58, MB21D1 and TLR7 was correlated with the ISG score whilst TLR3, TLR9 and MB21D1 were associated with neutrophil count. CONCLUSION: In SARD patients, IFNα-positivity was associated with specific autoantibodies and haematological parameters but not with other clinical features. The variable NAR expression suggests that different pathways may drive IFNα production in individual patients. The identification of an IFNα-positive subgroup within a mixed SARD cohort supports a pathology-based approach to treatment.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 75-80, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Singleton-Merten syndrome manifests as dental dysplasia, glaucoma, psoriasis, aortic calcification, and skeletal abnormalities including tendon rupture and arthropathy. Pathogenic variants in IFIH1 have previously been associated with the classic Singleton-Merten syndrome, while variants in DDX58 has been described in association with a milder phenotype, which is suggested to have a better prognosis. We studied a family with severe, "classic" Singleton-Merten syndrome. METHODS: We undertook clinical phenotyping, next-generation sequencing, and functional studies of type I interferon production in patient whole blood and assessed the type I interferon promoter activity in HEK293 cells transfected with wild-type or mutant DDX58 stimulated with Poly I:C. RESULTS: We demonstrate a DDX58 autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutation, with constitutive upregulation of type I interferon. CONCLUSIONS: DDX58 mutations may be associated with the classic features of Singleton-Merten syndrome including dental dysplasia, tendon rupture, and severe cardiac sequela.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase activation and recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) encodes a scaffold protein in lymphocytes that links antigen receptor engagement with downstream signaling to nuclear factor κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. Germline CARD11 mutations cause several distinct primary immune disorders in human subjects, including severe combined immune deficiency (biallelic null mutations), B-cell expansion with nuclear factor κB and T-cell anergy (heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations), and severe atopic disease (loss-of-function, heterozygous, dominant interfering mutations), which has focused attention on CARD11 mutations discovered by using whole-exome sequencing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the molecular actions of an extended allelic series of CARD11 and to characterize the expanding range of clinical phenotypes associated with heterozygous CARD11 loss-of-function alleles. METHODS: Cell transfections and primary T-cell assays were used to evaluate signaling and function of CARD11 variants. RESULTS: Here we report on an expanded cohort of patients harboring novel heterozygous CARD11 mutations that extend beyond atopy to include other immunologic phenotypes not previously associated with CARD11 mutations. In addition to (and sometimes excluding) severe atopy, heterozygous missense and indel mutations in CARD11 presented with immunologic phenotypes similar to those observed in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 loss of function, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked-like syndrome. Pathogenic variants exhibited dominant negative activity and were largely confined to the CARD or coiled-coil domains of the CARD11 protein. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate a broader phenotypic spectrum associated with CARD11 mutations in human subjects and underscore the need for functional studies to demonstrate that rare gene variants encountered in expected and unexpected phenotypes must nonetheless be validated for pathogenic activity.

6.
Neuropediatrics ; 48(3): 166-184, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28561207

RESUMO

We investigated the genetic, phenotypic, and interferon status of 46 patients from 37 families with neurological disease due to mutations in ADAR1. The clinicoradiological phenotype encompassed a spectrum of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, isolated bilateral striatal necrosis, spastic paraparesis with normal neuroimaging, a progressive spastic dystonic motor disorder, and adult-onset psychological difficulties with intracranial calcification. Homozygous missense mutations were recorded in five families. We observed a p.Pro193Ala variant in the heterozygous state in 22 of 23 families with compound heterozygous mutations. We also ascertained 11 cases from nine families with a p.Gly1007Arg dominant-negative mutation, which occurred de novo in four patients, and was inherited in three families in association with marked phenotypic variability. In 50 of 52 samples from 34 patients, we identified a marked upregulation of type I interferon-stimulated gene transcripts in peripheral blood, with a median interferon score of 16.99 (interquartile range [IQR]: 10.64-25.71) compared with controls (median: 0.93, IQR: 0.57-1.30). Thus, mutations in ADAR1 are associated with a variety of clinically distinct neurological phenotypes presenting from early infancy to adulthood, inherited either as an autosomal recessive or dominant trait. Testing for an interferon signature in blood represents a useful biomarker in this context.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Exp Med ; 214(5): 1547-1555, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420733

RESUMO

Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential mediators of antiviral responses. These cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus, and dermatomyositis, as well as monogenic type I interferonopathies. Despite a fundamental role in health and disease, the direct quantification of type I IFNs has been challenging. Using single-molecule array (Simoa) digital ELISA technology, we recorded attomolar concentrations of IFNα in healthy donors, viral infection, and complex and monogenic interferonopathies. IFNα protein correlated well with functional activity and IFN-stimulated gene expression. High circulating IFNα levels were associated with increased clinical severity in SLE patients, and a study of the cellular source of IFNα protein indicated disease-specific mechanisms. Measurement of IFNα attomolar concentrations by digital ELISA will enhance our understanding of IFN biology and potentially improve the diagnosis and stratification of pathologies associated with IFN dysregulation.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Interferon-alfa/sangue , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/sangue , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Interferon-alfa/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Estomatite Vesicular/imunologia
8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(2): 306-310, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27718324

RESUMO

Childhood-onset chronic and refractory cytopenias are rare and may be genetic in etiology. We report three pediatric cases of severe autoimmune thrombocytopenia or anemia associated with growth retardation and spastic diplegia with intracranial calcification. The identification of platyspondyly and metaphyseal lesions suggested a potential diagnosis of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD), which was confirmed with the identification of biallelic ACP5 mutations. Two patients demonstrated elevated serum interferon alpha levels. Our report highlights ACP5-associated disease as a cause of childhood-onset autoimmune cytopenia, particularly combined with growth retardation and/or spasticity. Furthermore, a role for type I interferon in the pathogenesis of autoimmune cytopenias is supported.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Mutação/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/complicações , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/complicações , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/genética , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/genética , Idade de Início , Alelos , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/terapia , Prognóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/terapia
9.
J Med Genet ; 54(1): 64-72, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27572252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disruptions of the FOXP2 gene, encoding a forkhead transcription factor, are the first known monogenic cause of a speech and language disorder. So far, mainly chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations or larger deletions affecting FOXP2 have been reported. Intragenic deletions or convincingly pathogenic point mutations in FOXP2 have up to date only been reported in three families. We thus aimed at a further characterisation of the mutational and clinical spectrum. METHODS: Chromosomal microarray testing, trio exome sequencing, multigene panel sequencing and targeted sequencing of FOXP2 were performed in individuals with variable developmental disorders, and speech and language deficits. RESULTS: We identified four different truncating mutations, two novel missense mutations within the forkhead domain and an intragenic deletion in FOXP2 in 14 individuals from eight unrelated families. Mutations occurred de novo in four families and were inherited from an affected parent in the other four. All index patients presented with various manifestations of language and speech impairment. Apart from two individuals with normal onset of speech, age of first words was between 4 and 7 years. Articulation difficulties such as slurred speech, dyspraxia, stuttering and poor pronunciation were frequently noted. Motor development was normal or only mildly delayed. Mild cognitive impairment was reported for most individuals. CONCLUSIONS: By identifying intragenic deletions or mutations in 14 individuals from eight unrelated families with variable developmental delay/cognitive impairment and speech and language deficits, we considerably broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum associated with aberrations in FOXP2.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Transtornos da Linguagem/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Mutação Puntual/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Distúrbios da Fala/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fala/fisiologia
10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(1): 131-142, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27390188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the ACP5 gene, which encodes tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cause the immuno-osseous disorder spondyloenchondrodysplasia, which includes as disease features systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a type I interferon (IFN) signature. Our aims were to identify TRAP substrates, determine the consequences of TRAP deficiency in immune cells, and assess whether ACP5 mutations are enriched in sporadic cases of SLE. METHODS: Interaction between TRAP and its binding partners was tested by a yeast 2-hybrid screening, confocal microscopy, and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting. TRAP knockdown was performed using small interfering RNA. Phosphorylation of osteopontin (OPN) was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Nucleotide sequence analysis of ACP5 was performed by Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: TRAP and OPN colocalized and interacted in human macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs). TRAP dephosphorylated 3 serine residues on specific OPN peptides. TRAP knockdown resulted in increased OPN phosphorylation and increased nuclear translocation of IRF7 and P65, with resultant heightened expression of IFN-stimulated genes and IL6 and TNF following Toll-like receptor 9 stimulation. An excess of heterozygous ACP5 missense variants was observed in SLE compared to controls (P = 0.04), and transfection experiments revealed a significant reduction in TRAP activity in a number of variants. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that TRAP and OPN colocalize and that OPN is a substrate for TRAP in human immune cells. TRAP deficiency in PDCs leads to increased IFNα production, providing at least a partial explanation for how ACP5 mutations cause lupus in the context of spondyloenchondrodysplasia. Detection of ACP5 missense variants in a lupus cohort suggests that impaired TRAP functioning may increase susceptibility to sporadic lupus.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/enzimologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Mutação , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/deficiência , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Macrófagos , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/genética
11.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(2): 123-132, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27943079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increased type I interferon is considered relevant to the pathology of a number of monogenic and complex disorders spanning pediatric rheumatology, neurology, and dermatology. However, no test exists in routine clinical practice to identify enhanced interferon signaling, thus limiting the ability to diagnose and monitor treatment of these diseases. Here, we set out to investigate the use of an assay measuring the expression of a panel of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in children affected by a range of inflammatory diseases. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cohort study was conducted between 2011 and 2016 at the University of Manchester, UK, and the Institut Imagine, Paris, France. RNA PAXgene blood samples and clinical data were collected from controls and symptomatic patients with a genetically confirmed or clinically well-defined inflammatory phenotype. The expression of six ISGs was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the median fold change was used to calculate an interferon score (IS) for each subject compared to a previously derived panel of 29 controls (where +2 SD of the control data, an IS of >2.466, is considered as abnormal). Results were correlated with genetic and clinical data. RESULTS: Nine hundred ninety-two samples were analyzed from 630 individuals comprising symptomatic patients across 24 inflammatory genotypes/phenotypes, unaffected heterozygous carriers, and controls. A consistent upregulation of ISG expression was seen in 13 monogenic conditions (455 samples, 265 patients; median IS 10.73, interquartile range (IQR) 5.90-18.41), juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (78 samples, 55 patients; median IS 10.60, IQR 3.99-17.27), and juvenile dermatomyositis (101 samples, 59 patients; median IS 9.02, IQR 2.51-21.73) compared to controls (78 samples, 65 subjects; median IS 0.688, IQR 0.427-1.196), heterozygous mutation carriers (89 samples, 76 subjects; median IS 0.862, IQR 0.493-1.942), and individuals with non-molecularly defined autoinflammation (89 samples, 69 patients; median IS 1.07, IQR 0.491-3.74). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: An assessment of six ISGs can be used to define a spectrum of inflammatory diseases related to enhanced type I interferon signaling. If future studies demonstrate that the IS is a reactive biomarker, this measure may prove useful both in the diagnosis and the assessment of treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(4): 800-807, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27863149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type I interferon (IFN) is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and interferonopathies such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. A recently discovered DNA-activated type I IFN pathway, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), has been linked to Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and mouse models of lupus. The aim of this study was to determine whether the cGAS pathway contributes to type I IFN production in patients with SLE. METHODS: SLE disease activity was measured by the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index. Expression of messenger RNA for cGAS and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) levels were examined by multiple reaction monitoring with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Expression of cGAS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was significantly higher in SLE patients than in normal controls (n = 51 and n = 20 respectively; P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between cGAS expression and the IFN score (P < 0.001). The expression of cGAS in PBMCs showed a dose response to type I IFN stimulation in vitro, consistent with it being an ISG. Targeted measurement of cGAMP by tandem mass spectrometry detected cGAMP in 15% of the SLE patients (7 of 48) but none of the normal (0 of 19) or rheumatoid arthritis (0 of 22) controls. Disease activity was higher in SLE patients with cGAMP versus those without cGAMP. CONCLUSION: Increased cGAS expression and cGAMP in a proportion of SLE patients indicates that the cGAS pathway should be considered as a contributor to type I IFN production. Whereas higher cGAS expression may be a consequence of exposure to type I IFN, detection of cGAMP in patients with increased disease activity indicates potential involvement of this pathway in disease expression.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/enzimologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/biossíntese , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Masculino , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/sangue , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 68(12): 2929-2935, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27390112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and impaired endothelial repair. Although vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased CVD risk in the general population, a causal relationship has not been demonstrated. We aimed to determine whether vitamin D deficiency directly modulates endothelial dysfunction and immune responses in a murine model of SLE. METHODS: Vitamin D deficiency was induced in lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice by dietary restriction for 6 weeks. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was quantified using aortic ring myography, and endothelial repair mechanisms were assessed by evaluating the phenotype and function of bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and with the use of an in vivo Matrigel plug model. Lupus disease activity was determined by evaluating expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in splenic tissue, positivity for serum autoantibodies, and renal histology. To validate the findings, expression of ISGs was also measured in whole blood from vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-sufficient patients with SLE. RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency resulted in impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and decreases in neoangiogenesis without a change in the total number of EPCs. There were no differences in anti-double-stranded DNA titers, proteinuria, or glomerulonephritis (activity or chronicity) between vitamin D-deficient or sufficient mice. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with a trend toward increased ISG expression both in mice and in patients with SLE. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that vitamin D deficiency is associated with hampered vascular repair and reduced endothelial function, and may modulate type I interferon responses.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aorta , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diferenciação Celular , Cromatografia Líquida , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos MRL lpr , Miografia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Baço/metabolismo , Vasodilatação , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética
15.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(3): 220-34, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951490

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Spondyloenchondrodysplasia is a rare immuno-osseous dysplasia caused by biallelic mutations in ACP5. We aimed to provide a survey of the skeletal, neurological and immune manifestations of this disease in a cohort of molecularly confirmed cases. METHODS: We compiled clinical, genetic and serological data from a total of 26 patients from 18 pedigrees, all with biallelic ACP5 mutations. RESULTS: We observed a variability in skeletal, neurological and immune phenotypes, which was sometimes marked even between affected siblings. In total, 22 of 26 patients manifested autoimmune disease, most frequently autoimmune thrombocytopenia and systemic lupus erythematosus. Four patients were considered to demonstrate no clinical autoimmune disease, although two were positive for autoantibodies. In the majority of patients tested we detected upregulated expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), in keeping with the autoimmune phenotype and the likely immune-regulatory function of the deficient protein tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Two mutation positive patients did not demonstrate an upregulation of ISGs, including one patient with significant autoimmune disease controlled by immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data expand the known phenotype of SPENCD. We propose that the OMIM differentiation between spondyloenchondrodysplasia and spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation is no longer appropriate, since the molecular evidence that we provide suggests that these phenotypes represent a continuum of the same disorder. In addition, the absence of an interferon signature following immunomodulatory treatments in a patient with significant autoimmune disease may indicate a therapeutic response important for the immune manifestations of spondyloenchondrodysplasia.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/genética , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Osso e Ossos/imunologia , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/imunologia , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/imunologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/patologia , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/deficiência , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/imunologia
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(1): 170-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26395259

RESUMO

We present a Caucasian female, who was diagnosed at 13 years of age with Temple syndrome (formerly referred to as "maternal UPD 14 phenotype") due to an epigenetic loss of methylation at IG-DMR/MEG3-DMR at the chromosome 14q32 imprinted locus. Clinical features were typical and included intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR), low birth weight, hypotonia, and poor feeding in the neonatal period; and failure to thrive and developmental delay--particularly in relation to speech--in early childhood. Premature puberty, with short stature and truncal obesity, but normal intelligence, were the key features in teenage years. To date only eight patients with Temple syndrome due to an epigenetic error have been described and the etiology of the methylation defect is currently undetermined. In view of a tendency towards central obesity, patients are at potential risk of early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease and they, therefore, require appropriate monitoring.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Impressão Genômica/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Fenótipo , Dissomia Uniparental/patologia
17.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(9): 455-65, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26206081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS OMIM 164210) is a craniofacial developmental disorder affecting the development of the structures derived from the 1st and the 2nd branchial arches during embryogenesis, with consequential maxillary, mandibular, and ear abnormalities. The phenotype in OAVS is variable and associated clinical features can involve the cardiac, renal, skeletal, and central nervous systems. Its aetiology is still poorly understood. METHODS: We have evaluated the clinical phenotypes of 51 previously unpublished patients with OAVS and their parents, and performed comparative genomic hybridization microarray studies to identify potential causative loci. RESULTS: Of all 51 patients, 16 (31%) had a family history of OAVS. Most had no relevant pre-natal history and only 5 (10%) cases had a history of environmental exposures that have previously been described as risk factors for OAVS. In 28 (55%) cases, the malformations were unilateral. When the involvement was bilateral, it was asymmetric. Ear abnormalities were present in 47 (92%) patients (unilateral in 24; and bilateral in 23). Hearing loss was common (85%), mostly conductive, but also sensorineural, or a combination of both. Hemifacial microsomia was present in 46 (90%) patients (17 also presented facial nerve palsy). Ocular anomalies were present in 15 (29%) patients. Vertebral anomalies were confirmed in 10 (20%) cases; 50% of those had additional heart, brain and/or other organ abnormalities. Brain abnormalities were present in 5 (10%) patients; developmental delay was more common among these patients. Limb abnormalities were found in 6 (12%) patients, and urogenital anomalies in 5 (10%). Array-CGH analysis identified 22q11 dosage anomalies in 10 out of 22 index cases screened. DISCUSSION: In this study we carried out in-depth phenotyping of OAVS in a large, multicentre cohort. Clinical characteristics are in line with those reported previously, however, we observed a higher incidence of hemifacial microsomia and lower incidence of ocular anomalies. Furthermore our data suggests that OAVS patients with vertebral anomalies or congenital heart defects have a higher frequency of additional brain, limb or other malformations. We had a higher rate of familial cases in our cohort in comparison with previous reports, possibly because these cases were referred preferentially to our genetic clinic where family members underwent examination. We propose that familial OAVS cases show phenotypic variability, hence, affected relatives might have been misclassified in previous reports. Moreover, in view of its phenotypic variability, OAVS is potentially a spectrum of conditions, which overlap with other conditions, such as mandibulofacial dysostosis. Array CGH in our cohort identified recurrent dosage anomalies on 22q11, which may contribute to, or increase the risk of OAVS. We hypothesize that although the 22q11 locus may harbour gene(s) or regulatory elements that play a role in the regulation of craniofacial symmetry and 1st and 2nd branchial arch development, OAVS is a heterogeneous condition and many cases have a multifactorial aetiology or are caused by mutations in as yet unidentified gene(s).


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Goldenhar/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Orelha/anormalidades , Orelha/embriologia , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Feminino , Síndrome de Goldenhar/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Hérnia Diafragmática/diagnóstico , Hérnia Diafragmática/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades
18.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 15(2): 110, 2013 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23472880

RESUMO

A growing body of literature has demonstrated that the multifunctional glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN), has a role in type I interferon (IFN) production and may be involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. A recent report has provided further support for this, demonstrating an association between raised baseline circulating plasma osteopontin (cOPN) levels and IFN, and an elevation in cOPN prior to the onset of both increased cumulative disease and end-organ damage. These associations were most marked in paediatric SLE, implying that cOPN may be a useful biomarker of disease activity in childhood lupus.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Osteopontina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Nat Genet ; 44(11): 1243-8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23001123

RESUMO

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and thereby potentially alter the information content and structure of cellular RNAs. Notably, although the overwhelming majority of such editing events occur in transcripts derived from Alu repeat elements, the biological function of non-coding RNA editing remains uncertain. Here, we show that mutations in ADAR1 (also known as ADAR) cause the autoimmune disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). As in Adar1-null mice, the human disease state is associated with upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes, indicating a possible role for ADAR1 as a suppressor of type I interferon signaling. Considering recent insights derived from the study of other AGS-related proteins, we speculate that ADAR1 may limit the cytoplasmic accumulation of the dsRNA generated from genomic repetitive elements.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Interferon Tipo I , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Elementos Alu/genética , Animais , Exoma , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação , Conformação Proteica , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Nat Genet ; 43(2): 127-31, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21217755

RESUMO

We studied ten individuals from eight families showing features consistent with the immuno-osseous dysplasia spondyloenchondrodysplasia. Of particular note was the diverse spectrum of autoimmune phenotypes observed in these individuals (cases), including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypothyroidism, inflammatory myositis, Raynaud's disease and vitiligo. Haplotype data indicated the disease gene to be on chromosome 19p13, and linkage analysis yielded a combined multipoint log(10) odds (LOD) score of 3.6. Sequencing of ACP5, encoding tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, identified biallelic mutations in each of the cases studied, and in vivo testing confirmed a loss of expressed protein. All eight cases assayed showed elevated serum interferon alpha activity, and gene expression profiling in whole blood defined a type I interferon signature. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized link between tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and interferon metabolism and highlight the importance of type I interferon in the genesis of autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida/deficiência , Fosfatase Ácida/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/deficiência , Isoenzimas/genética , Animais , Autoimunidade , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/enzimologia , Bovinos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19 , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Esclerose/patologia , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato
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