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1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 130-147, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092150

RESUMO

The development of verbal fluency is associated with the maturation of executive function skills, such as the ability to inhibit irrelevant information, shift between tasks, and hold information in working memory. Some evidence suggests that multilinguistic upbringing may underpin disadvantages in verbal fluency and lexical retrieval, but can also afford executive function advantages beyond the language system including possible beneficial effects in older age. This study examined the relationship between verbal fluency and executive function in 324 individuals across the lifespan by assessing the developmental trajectories of English monolingual and multilingual children aged 7-15 years (N = 154) and adults from 18 to 80 years old (N = 170). The childhood data indicated patterns of improvement in verbal fluency and executive function skills as a function of age. Multilingual and monolingual children had comparable developmental trajectories in all linguistic and non-linguistic measures used in the study with the exception of planning, for which monolingual children showed a steeper improvement over the studied age range relative to multilingual children. For adults, monolinguals and multilingual participants had comparable performance on all measures with the exception of nonverbal inhibitory control and response times on the Tower of London task: monolinguals showed a steeper decline associated with age. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that verbal fluency was associated with working memory and fluid intelligence in monolingual participants but not in multilinguals. These findings raise the possibility that early acquisition of an additional language may impact on the development of the functional architecture serving high-level human cognition.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Multilinguismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323664

RESUMO

ABSTRACTIn this study, we validate an earlier proposal for an abridged 17-item National Adult Reading Test (NART) by comparing its performance in estimating full-scale IQ against both the full test and the Spot-the-Word 2 (STW-2) test in a new cohort. We also compare the performance of the 17-item NART to two previous attempts to shorten this test, the Mini-NART and the Short NART. Findings include that NART 17 is numerically stronger and statistically equivalent to the other short variants, the full 50-word NART, and STW-2. Unlike the Short NART, the 17-item NART is usable for participants of all ability levels rather than only those with low reading ability, while offering equally precise premorbid estimates. We also compute that two-thirds of STW-2 is ostensibly redundant for full-scale IQ estimation and we, therefore, propose that, subject to additional verification in an independent sample, an abridged version of this test may also benefit clinical practice.

4.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 73(11): 1757-1773, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419614

RESUMO

The modern understanding of the term metacognition encompasses two levels of processing: a lower level awareness or knowledge of one's own thoughts and a higher level regulation or control of our thinking. Metacognition, therefore, bears conceptual similarity with executive function: both are concerned with top-down monitoring and control of cognition in the service of ongoing goal-directed behaviour. Previous studies have shown a possible executive function advantage in multilingual speakers but also a possible disadvantage in metacognitive processing. To progress theory on metacognitive processing and the relationship with executive function and linguistic experience across the lifespan, we conducted a study testing 330 healthy individuals in four age groups from 7 to 80 years old. All participants performed a metacognition task and two measures of executive function, which included the Simon task and the Tower of London task. Half the participants were multilingual speakers since birth. We built developmental trajectories of metacognitive and executive function across the lifespan. The best metacognitive efficiency was observed in mid-adulthood, whereas the best executive function processing reached its peak in young adulthood. A steep cognitive decline was observed in older age, while metacognitive efficiency was preserved. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that metacognition and executive function are served by different factors across all ages. Contrary to previous findings in the bilingual literature, a multilinguistic experience conferred neither any significant advantage nor disadvantage in both executive function and metacognitive processing across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Metacognição , Multilinguismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Headache ; 60(6): 1124-1131, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We studied the color of lighting chosen as comfortable for reading by individuals with migraine and controls. We explored the effects of the chosen color on visual performance. BACKGROUND: It has been reported that individuals who experience migraine with aura (MWA) choose, as comfortable for reading, light that is more strongly saturated in color than that chosen by individuals without migraine. METHODS: A convenience sample of 18 individuals who experienced MWA, 18 without aura, and 18 controls without migraine participated in a cross-sectional laboratory study at Anglia Ruskin University. We used an Intuitive Colorimeter that illuminated text with colored light and permitted the separate control of hue (color) and saturation (strength of color) without a change in luminance. We selected individuals with migraine and healthy controls from the general population. They were headache-free in the 48 hours prior to testing. We used a routine that permitted the selection of the most comfortable hue from 12 alternatives and then alternately optimized the saturation and hue using small changes, thereby allowing for color adaptation. Visual performance at a word search task was measured under white light and under light of a color chosen as comfortable, using colored lenses. RESULTS: Healthy individuals chose light with chromaticity close to the Planckian locus, which approximates the chromaticities of daylight and most electric lighting. The distance from the locus averaged 0.029 (SD 0.021). Individuals who experienced MWA chose strongly saturated colors well away from the Planckian locus (average distance 0.056, SD 0.022). Individuals who experienced migraine without aura chose intermediate chromaticities (average distance 0.034, SD 0.022). Overall there was a large statistically significant difference between participant groups that explained 24% variance. Visual search time of individuals with migraine aura decreased from 22.5 to 16.8 s when light of the chosen color was provided using tinted lenses (the average increase in search speed was 45.7%). The lenses had no statistically significant effect on the performance of individuals without migraine aura. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who experienced MWA selected as comfortable colors that deviated from the lighting typically experienced in everyday life. Possibly, individuals who experience MWA may be more susceptible to photophobia under typical lighting. Visual performance was improved using lenses that provided light of the chosen comfortable color. The spectral power of that choice showed no evident relationship to melanopic energy (energy captured by the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells).


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Iluminação , Enxaqueca com Aura/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enxaqueca sem Aura/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315339

RESUMO

We evaluate brain structure sensitivity to verbal interference in a sentence interpretation task, building on previously reported evidence that those with better control of verbal interference show higher grey matter density in the posterior paravermis of the right cerebellum. We compare brain structure sensitivity to verbal interference control across two groups, English monolingual (N = 41) and multilingual (N = 46) adults. Using voxel-based morphometry, our primary goal was to identify and explore differences in regional patterns of grey matter sensitivity to performance on the sentence interpretation task, controlling for group variability in age, nonverbal reasoning and vocabulary knowledge. There was no group difference in performance but there was a significant group effect in grey matter sensitivity to task performance in our region of interest: stronger sensitivity in the paravermis in bilinguals compared to monolinguals in accuracy performance in the high (relative to low) verbal interference condition. This effect was observed when the linguistic interference was presented in an unfamiliar language (Greek) but not when presented in the familiar language (English). Our findings suggest that multilanguage acquisition mediates regional involvement within the language network, conferring enhanced functional plasticity within structures (including the paravermis) in the service of control of linguistic interference.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cognition ; 200: 104252, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151855

RESUMO

Research on speech comprehension in noise indicates that a multilinguistic experience may confer advantages in filtering out verbal interference, an effect observed both in children acquiring two or more languages since birth (Filippi, Morris, Richardson, et al., 2015) and in second language learner adults (Filippi, Leech, Thomas, et al., 2012). A possible interpretation for this advantage is that the multilingual mind is "trained" to control interference from the language not in use. This constant effort may support optimization of cognitive resources that are necessary for successfully selecting, processing and interpreting complex linguistic information. The present study aimed to extend this line of research by including a non-verbal interference condition. 209 typically developing children (132 English monolinguals and 77 multilinguals from different linguistic backgrounds) carried out a sentence interpretation task in the presence of verbal and non-verbal interference. We found no evidence for a reliable group difference in our data. Instead, findings indicated that background cognitive ability and socioeconomic status were the best indicators of successful control of interference, irrespective of whether participants were bilingual or monolingual. These findings are discussed in the light of previous research and, more widely, on the account of the current debate on the bilingual advantage.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Criança , Compreensão , Humanos , Idioma , Fala
8.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; 30(1): 1-14, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526134

RESUMO

To evaluate impact of neurological injury on cognitive performance it is typically necessary to derive a baseline (or "premorbid") estimate of a patient's general cognitive ability prior to the onset of impairment. In this paper, we consider a range of common methods for producing this estimate, including those based on current best performance, embedded "hold/no-hold" tests, demographic information, and word reading ability. Ninety-two neurologically healthy adult participants were assessed on the full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson Assessment.) and on two widely used word reading tests: National Adult Reading Test (NART; Nelson, H. E. (1982). National Adult Reading Test (NART): For the assessment of premorbid intelligence in patients with dementia: Test manual. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.; Nelson, H. E., & Willison, J. (1991). National Adult Reading Test (NART). Windsor: NFER-Nelson.) and Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR; Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler Test of Adult Reading: WTAR. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.). Our findings indicate that reading tests provide the most reliable and precise estimates of WAIS-IV full-scale IQ, although the addition of demographic data provides modest improvement. Nevertheless, we observed considerable variability in correlations between NART/WTAR scores and individual WAIS-IV indices, which indicated particular usefulness in estimating more crystallised premorbid abilities (as represented by the verbal comprehension and general ability indices) relative to fluid abilities (working memory and perceptual reasoning indices). We discuss and encourage the development of new methods for improving premorbid estimates of cognitive abilities in neurological patients.


Assuntos
Testes de Inteligência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Escolaridade , Humanos , Inteligência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Ocupações , Adulto Jovem
9.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 9(8)2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430913

RESUMO

Bilingual individuals have been reported to show enhanced executive function in comparison to monolingual peers. However, the role of adverse emotional traits such as trait anxiety and rumination in bilingual cognitive control has not been established. Attentional Control Theory holds that anxiety disproportionately impacts processing efficiency (typically measured via reaction time) in comparison to accuracy (performance effectiveness). We administered eye tracking and behavioural measures of inhibition to young, healthy monolingual and highly proficient bilingual adults. We found that trait anxiety was a reliable risk factor for decreased inhibitory control accuracy in bilingual but not monolingual participants. These findings, therefore, indicate that adverse emotional traits may differentially modulate performance in monolingual and bilingual individuals, an interpretation which has implications both for ACT and future research on bilingual cognition.

11.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(6): 1354-1363, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081734

RESUMO

Recent evidence has challenged long-standing claims that multi-language acquisition confers long-term advantages in executive function and may protect against age-related cognitive deterioration. We assessed evidence for a bilingual advantage in older monolingual and bilingual residents matched on age, gender, and socioeconomic status. A comprehensive battery of tests was administered to measure non-verbal reasoning, working memory capacity, visuo-spatial memory, response inhibition, problem solving, and language proficiency. Analyses, including Bayes factors, revealed comparable performance in both groups, with no significant differences on any task (and the only trend, found for the Tower of London task performance, indicated a monolingual advantage). Overall, therefore, our findings run counter to the bilingual advantage hypothesis. We consider the implications of our study and offer suggestions for future work in this area.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Pensamento/fisiologia , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1943, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459671

RESUMO

Faces capture and maintain infants' attention more than other visual stimuli. The present study addresses the impact of early language experience on attention to faces in infancy. It was hypothesized that infants learning two spoken languages (unimodal bilinguals) and hearing infants of Deaf mothers learning British Sign Language and spoken English (bimodal bilinguals) would show enhanced attention to faces compared to monolinguals. The comparison between unimodal and bimodal bilinguals allowed differentiation of the effects of learning two languages, from the effects of increased visual communication in hearing infants of Deaf mothers. Data are presented for two independent samples of infants: Sample 1 included 49 infants between 7 and 10 months (26 monolinguals and 23 unimodal bilinguals), and Sample 2 included 87 infants between 4 and 8 months (32 monolinguals, 25 unimodal bilinguals, and 30 bimodal bilingual infants with a Deaf mother). Eye-tracking was used to analyze infants' visual scanning of complex arrays including a face and four other stimulus categories. Infants from 4 to 10 months (all groups combined) directed their attention to faces faster than to non-face stimuli (i.e., attention capture), directed more fixations to, and looked longer at faces than non-face stimuli (i.e., attention maintenance). Unimodal bilinguals demonstrated increased attention capture and attention maintenance by faces compared to monolinguals. Contrary to predictions, bimodal bilinguals did not differ from monolinguals in attention capture and maintenance by face stimuli. These results are discussed in relation to the language experience of each group and the close association between face processing and language development in social communication.

13.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1818, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319512

RESUMO

Between-group variability in socioeconomic status (SES) has been identified as a potentially important contributory factor in studies reporting cognitive advantages in bilinguals over monolinguals (the so called "bilingual advantage"). The present study addresses the potential importance of this alternative explanatory variable in a study of low and high SES bilingual and monolingual performance on the Simon task and the Tower of London (TOL) task. Results indicated an overall bilingual response time advantage on the Simon task, despite equivalent error rates. Socioeconomic status was an important modulator in this effect, with evidence that bilingualism may be particularly important in promoting speed of processing advantages in low status individuals but have little impact in high status individuals. However, there was a monolingual advantage on the TOL test of executive planning ability. Together, our findings run counter to the central assertion of the bilingual advantage account, that the process of multi-language acquisition confers a broad cognitive advantage in executive function. We discuss these findings in the context of SES as an important modulator in published studies advocating a bilingual cognitive advantage.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205754, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335801

RESUMO

In clinical neuropsychology the cognitive abilities of neurological patients are commonly estimated using well-established paper-based tests. Typically, scores on some tests remain relatively well preserved, whilst others exhibit a significant and disproportionate decline. Scores on those tests that measure preserved cognitive functions (so-called 'hold' tests) may be used to estimate premorbid abilities, including scores in non-hold tests that would have been expected prior to the onset of cognitive impairment. Many hold tests entail word reading, with each word being graded as correctly or incorrectly pronounced. Inevitably, such tests are likely to contain words that provide little or no diagnostic power (i.e., can be eliminated without negatively affecting prediction accuracy). In this paper, a genetic algorithm is developed and demonstrated, using n = 92 neurologically healthy participants, to identify optimal word subsets from the National Adult Reading Test that minimize the mean error in predicting the most widely used clinical measure of IQ and cognitive ability, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition IQ. In addition to requiring only 17-20 of the original 50 words (suggesting that this test could be revised to be up to 66% shorter) and minimizing mean prediction error, the algorithm increases the proportion of the variance in the predicted variable explained in comparison to using all words (from r2 = 0.46 to r2 = 0.61). In a clinical setting this would improve estimates of premorbid cognitive function and, if an abbreviated revision to this test were to be adopted, reduce the arduousness of the test for patients. The proposed method is evaluated with jackknifing and leave one out cross validation. The general approach may be used to optimize the relationship between any two psychological tests by finding the question subset in one test that minimizes the prediction error in a second test by training the genetic algorithm using data collected from participants upon whom both tests have been administered. This approach may also be used to develop new predictive tests, since it provides a method to identify an optimal subset of a set of candidate questions (for which empirical data have been collected) that maximizes prediction accuracy and the proportion of variance in the predicted variable that can be explained.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Modelos Biológicos , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Leitura , Escalas de Wechsler , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Cognição , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Inteligência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; 28(6): 1019-1027, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27624393

RESUMO

Since publication in 1982, the 50-item National Adult Reading Test (NART; Nelson, 1982; NART-R; Nelson & Willison, 1991) has remained a widely adopted method for estimating premorbid intelligence both for clinical and research purposes. However, the NART has not been standardised against the most recent revisions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III; Wechsler, 1997, and WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008). Our objective, therefore, was to produce reliable standardised estimates of WAIS-IV IQ from the NART. Ninety-two neurologically healthy British adults were assessed and regression equations calculated to produce population estimates of WAIS-IV full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and constituent index scores. Results showed strong NART/WAIS-IV FSIQ correlations with more moderate correlations observed between NART error and constituent index scores. FSIQ estimates were closely similar to the published WAIS and WAIS-R estimates at the high end of the distribution, but at the lower end were approximately equidistant from the highly discrepant WAIS (low) and WAIS-R (high) values. We conclude that the NART is likely to remain an important tool for estimating the impact of neurological damage on general cognitive ability. We advise caution in the use of older published WAIS and/or WAIS-R estimates for estimating premorbid WAIS-IV FSIQ, particularly for those with low NART scores.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Testes de Inteligência , Inteligência/fisiologia , Escalas de Wechsler/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Valores de Referência , Estatística como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 37(4): 242-243, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27740588

RESUMO

A recent teaching and learning innovation using new technologies involves the use of quick response codes, which are read by smartphones and tablets. Integrating this technology as a teaching and learning strategy in nursing and midwifery education has been embraced by academics and students at a regional university.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Tocologia/educação , Smartphone , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Gravidez , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Universidades
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 170: 112-26, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27387874

RESUMO

Strong correlations between measures of fluid intelligence (or Spearman's g) and working memory are widely reported in the literature, but there is considerable controversy concerning the nature of underlying mechanisms driving this relationship. In the four experiments presented here we consider the role of response conflict and task complexity in the context of real-time task execution demands (Experiments 1-3) and also address recent evidence that g confers an advantage at the level of task conceptualisation rather than (or in addition to) task execution (Experiment 4). We observed increased sensitivity of measured fluid intelligence to task performance in the presence (vs. the absence) of response conflict, and this relationship remained when task complexity was reduced. Performance-g correlations were also observed in the absence of response conflict, but only in the context of high task complexity. Further, we present evidence that differences in conceptualisation or 'modelling' of task instructions prior to execution had an important mediating effect on observed correlations, but only when the task encompassed a strong element of response inhibition. Our results suggest that individual differences in ability reflect, in large part, variability in the efficiency with which the relational complexity of task constraints are held in mind. It follows that fluid intelligence may support successful task execution through the construction of effective action plans via optimal allocation of limited resources.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Conflito Psicológico , Feminino , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa
18.
Nurse Educ Today ; 42: 53-6, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27237353

RESUMO

Information and communications technology is influencing the delivery of education in tertiary institutions. In particular, the increased use of videos for teaching and learning clinical skills in nursing may be a promising direction to pursue, yet we need to better document the current research in this area of inquiry. The aim of this paper was to explore and document the current areas of research into the use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education. The four main areas of current and future research are effectiveness, efficiency, usage, and quality of videos as teaching and learning materials. While there is a clear need for additional research in the area, the use of videos seems to be a promising, relevant, and increasingly used instructional strategy that could enhance the quality of clinical skills education.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação em Enfermagem , Aprendizagem , Ensino/tendências , Gravação em Vídeo , Humanos
19.
Cognition ; 150: 119-32, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26896725

RESUMO

Recent research indicating that bilingualism is associated with enhanced executive function suggests that this enhancement may operate within a broader spectrum of cognitive abilities than previously thought (e.g., Stocco & Prat, 2014). In this study, we focus on metacognition or the ability to evaluate one's own cognitive performance (Flavell, 1979). Over the course of two experiments, we presented young healthy adult monolinguals and bilinguals with a perceptual two-alternative-forced-choice task followed by confidence judgements. Results from both experiments indicated that bilingual participants showed a disadvantage in metacognitive efficiency, determined through the calculation of Mratio (Maniscalco & Lau, 2014). Our findings provide novel insight into the potential differences in bilingual and monolingual cognition, which may indicate a bilingual disadvantage. Results are discussed with reference to the balance of advantages versus disadvantages associated with multilanguage learning.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr. Ethol ; 15(1): 30-54, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-915184

RESUMO

Some beliefs seem to be more resilient to change and extinction than others. This paper argues that some of the strong beliefs held by humans have deep biological roots in our evolutionary past, and the neuronal pathways and structures that support them can be found in other species. This paper describes four basic universal criteria present in persistent beliefs: intuitibility, predictability, reliability and utility (IPRU). The paper argues that the study of belief as a modern scientific discipline will require consideration of the evolutionary context through which the neural pathways associated with belief formation, maintenance and endorsement have emerged. We also suggest that the study of religious belief has discouraged the adoption of an overarching framework for understanding our belief system in all its breadth. Our approach incorporates evolution-driven cognitive and affective biases, attachment mechanisms and reward expectation. Rather than operating as genuinely adaptive phenomena associated with evolutionary advantage, we suggest that belief systems emerge as a by-product of evolutionary pressures


Há crenças que parecem ser mais resilientes a mudanças e extinção do que outras. Este artigo argumenta que algumas das crenças humanas mais fortes têm raízes biológicas profundas em nosso passado evolutivo, e que vias e estruturas nervosas que as suportam podem ser encontradas em outra espécie. Este trabalho descreve quatro critérios universais básicos nas crenças persistentes: ser intuitiva, ser previsível, ser confiável e ser utilizável (IPRU). O trabalho argumenta que o estudo de crença como uma disciplina moderna demandará considerações sobre o contexto evolutivo, através do qual emergiram vias neurais associadas à formação, manutenção e apoio à crença. Também é sugerido que o estudo da crença religiosa tem desencorajado a adoção de um contexto abrangente para a compreensão de nosso sistema de crença em toda a sua profundidade. Abordagem aqui utilizada incorpora viés cognitivo movido pela evolução assim como viés afetivo, mecanismos de fixação e expectativas de recompensa. Sugerimos que os sistemas de crença emergiram como subproduto de pressões evolutivas, ao invés de operar como um processo genuinamente adaptativo associado a vantagens evolutivas


Assuntos
Humanos , Intuição , Resiliência Psicológica , Religião , Evolução Biológica
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