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4.
Brain Res Bull ; 159: 44-52, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251693

RESUMO

We provide here the first systematic review on the studies dealing with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in animals and humans. Several experimental studies in animal models have explored with promising results the use of rTMS to enhance neuroprotection and recovery after TBI. However, there are surprisingly few studies that have obtained substantial evidence regarding effects of rTMS in humans with TBI, many of them are case reports investigating the heterogeneous conditions linked to TBI. The most studies have investigated the effects of rTMS in subjects with post-traumatic depression and variable effects have been observed. rTMS has been proposed as an experimental approach for the treatment of disorders of consciousness (DOC), but in subjects with TBI therapeutic effects on DOC have also been variously documented. Beneficial effects have been reported in subjects with cognitive/emotional disturbances and auditory dysfunction (tinnitus and hallucinations), although the results are somewhat conflicting. rTMS applied over the left prefrontal cortex may relieve, at least transiently, post-traumatic headache. Isolated rTMS studies have been performed in TBI patients with motor impairment, chronic dizziness or pain. Especially whether provided in combination, rTMS and neurorehabilitation may be synergistic in the potential to translate experimental findings in the clinical practice. In order to reach definitive conclusions, well-designed randomized controlled studies with larger patient samples, improved design and optimized rTMS setup, are warranted to verify and corroborate the initial promising findings.

5.
Sleep Med ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173186

RESUMO

In this review, we aimed at identifying the studies that have employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with sleep disorders. Low-frequency (LF) rTMS stimulating the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was found to be effective to reduce cortical hyperexcitability and improve the sleep quality in subjects with chronic primary insomnia (PI). Both high-frequency (HF) and LF rTMS applied over the primary motor cortex or the supplementary motor cortex seem to have transient beneficial effects in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Stimulation of upper airway muscles during sleep by isolated TMS and by rTMS twitch can improve airflow dynamics in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients without arousal. A single case report study indicates that HF rTMS over the left DLPFC might represent an alternative choice for symptom control in narcoleptic patients with cataplexy, and a pilot study also raises the possibility of therapeutic benefits from rTMS in patients with sleep bruxism. rTMS may also exert intrinsic effects on hypersomnia in depressed adolescents. In conclusion, rTMS may contribute to the development of new non-pharmacological therapeutic options for several sleep disorders. rTMS might be useful as therapeutical tool in particular in patients with PI, RLS, OSAS and narcolepsy, while its effect in other sleep disorders (ie, parasomnias) has not yet been explored. rTMS integrated with clinical, sleep-related, and neuroimaging data may represent an effective tool in modulating cortical excitability and inducing short-term synaptic plasticity. Further studies with larger patient samples, repeated sessions, an optimized rTMS setup, and clinical follow-up warranted to verify the initial findings, and to expand clinical and research interest towards neuromodulation in the different sleep disorders.

7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 104(Pt A): 106939, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients do not achieve seizure control with antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy, and polytherapy, with more than one AED, is often required. To date, no evidence-based criteria on how to combine AEDs exist. OBJECTIVE: This narrative review aimed to provide critical findings of the available literature about the role of pharmacodynamic AEDs' interactions in patients whose epilepsies were treated with polytherapy. METHODS: Electronic databases, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), were systematically searched to identify relevant studies on pharmacodynamic AEDs' interactions in patients with epilepsy. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Most data on AED combinations are coming from animal models and preclinical studies. Combining AEDs with different mechanisms of actions seems to have greater effectiveness and lower risk of adverse event development. Conversely, the combination of AEDs may cause pharmacodynamic synergistic effects that may result in not only increased efficacy but also more adverse effects. Despite some AED associations that have been proven to be effective in specific epilepsy/seizure type (e.g., phenobarbital+/phenytoin for tonic seizures and ethosiximide + valproate for absences; lamotrigine + valproate for various epilepsy/seizure types), no clear and definitive evidence exists about AED combinations in humans. Examples of pharmacodynamic interactions that possibly explain the synergistic effects on efficacy or adverse effects include the combination between vigabatrin or pregabalin and sodium channel blockers (supra-additive antiseizure effect) and lacosamide combined with other sodium channel blockers (infra-additive antiseizure effect and neurotoxicity synergistic). The pharmacodynamic lamotrigine-valproate interaction is also supported by synergistic adverse events. Therefore, well-designed double-blind prospective studies recruiting a sufficient number of patients possibly with a crossover design and carefully ascertain the role of pharmacokinetic interactions and variations of AEDs' levels in the blood are needed.

8.
Neurosci Lett ; 722: 134860, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097703

RESUMO

In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) a motor cortical hyperexcitability has been reported in transcranial magnetic stimulation studies, but little is known about the neuronal excitability in other cortical areas. The aim of the present study was the functional evaluation of the sensory cortex in subjects with ALS by assessing the high-frequency somatosensory evoked potentials (HF-SEP). No significant HF-SEP abnormalities were observed in ALS patients with disease duration of <2 years, while the patients with a disease duration of>2 years we found a large amplitude reduction of post-synaptic HF-SEP burst. Since post-synaptic burst of HF-SEP is thought to reflect the activity of cortical inhibitory interneurons, our findings provide further evidence that disinhibition is a primary characteristic of ALS that also involves the somatosensory cortex.

9.
CNS Drugs ; 34(3): 229-241, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome (DS) is one of the most severe forms of drug-resistant epilepsy and available interventions fail to control seizures in most patients. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the first in a new class of antiepileptic drugs with a distinctive chemical structure and mechanism of action. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CBD as adjunctive treatment for seizures in patients with DS using meta-analytical techniques. METHODS: We searched for randomized, placebo-controlled, single- or double-blinded trials. Main outcomes included ≥ 50% reduction in baseline convulsive seizure frequency and the incidence of treatment withdrawal and adverse events (AEs). Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated through the inverse variance method. RESULTS: Three trials were included involving 359 participants, 228 for CBD and 131 for placebo groups. In all trials, the active treatment was a plant-derived pharmaceutical formulation of purified CBD oral solution. The pooled RR for 50% response during the treatment was 1.69 (95% CI 1.21-2.36; p = 0.002). Across the trials, treatment was discontinued in 20 (9.0%) and 3 (2.3%) cases in the add-on CBD and placebo groups, respectively; the RR for CBD withdrawal was 3.12 (95% CI 1.07-9.10; p = 0.037). The RR to develop any AE during add-on CBD treatment was 1.06 (95% CI 0.87-1.28; p = 0.561). AEs significantly associated with adjunctive CBD were somnolence, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and increased serum aminotransferases. CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive CBD resulted in a greater reduction in convulsive seizure frequency than placebo and a higher rate of AEs in patients with DS presenting with seizures uncontrolled by concomitant antiepileptic therapy.

10.
Epilepsy Behav ; 104(Pt A): 106895, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986440

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to review the literature on the terminologies for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and make a proposal on the terminology of this condition. This proposal reflects the authors' own opinions. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE (accessed from PubMed) and EMBASE from inception to October 10, 2019 for articles written in English with a main focus on PNES (with or without discussion of other functional neurological disorders) and which either proposed or discussed the accuracy or appropriateness of PNES terminologies. RESULTS: The search strategy reported above yielded 757 articles; 30 articles were eventually included, which were generally of low quality. "Functional seizures" (FS) appeared to be an acceptable terminology to name this condition from the perspective of patients. In addition, FS is a term that is relatively popular with clinicians. CONCLUSION: From the available evidence, FS meets more of the criteria proposed for an acceptable label than other popular terms in the field. While the term FS is neutral with regard to etiology and pathology (particularly regarding whether psychological or not), other terms such as "dissociative", "conversion", or "psychogenic" seizures are not. In addition, FS can potentially facilitate multidisciplinary (physical and psychological) management more than other terms. Adopting a universally accepted terminology to describe this disorder could standardize our approach to the illness and facilitate communication between healthcare professionals, patients, their families, carers, and the wider public.

11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD005003, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ideal objective of treating a person with epilepsy is to induce remission (free of seizures for some time) using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and withdraw the AEDs without causing seizure recurrence. Prolonged usage of AEDs may have long-term adverse effects. Hence, when a person with epilepsy is in remission, it is logical to attempt to discontinue the medication. The timing of withdrawal and the mode of withdrawal arise while contemplating withdrawal of AEDs. This review examines the evidence for the rate of withdrawal of AEDs (whether rapid or slow tapering) and its effect on seizure recurrence. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2006, Issue 2. OBJECTIVES: To quantify risk of seizure recurrence after rapid (tapering period of three months or less) or slow (tapering period of more than three months) discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs in adults and children with epilepsy who are in remission, and to assess which variables modify the risk of seizure recurrence. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update, on 9 April 2019, we searched: Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web, which includes the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov), MEDLINE (Ovid; 8 April 2019), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and SCOPUS. There were no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials that evaluate withdrawal of AEDs in a rapid or slow tapering after varying periods of seizure control in people with epilepsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. The outcomes assessed included seizure freedom after one, two, or five years of AED withdrawal; time to recurrence of seizure following withdrawal; occurrence of status epilepticus; mortality; morbidity due to seizure, such as injuries, fractures, and aspiration pneumonia; and quality of life (assessed by validated scale). MAIN RESULTS: In this review update, we have included one new study. The new study randomized 57 children with epilepsy with seizure freedom for at least two years to taper the AED during over one or six months. The study was not blinded and there were no details of randomization. Over the period of 54 months of follow-up, 20/30 participants in the one-month group remained seizure-free compared to 15/27 participants in the six-month group (no evidence of a difference). There was no information on time of seizure recurrence for each group to allow a comparison. One trial had already been included in the previous version of the review; it involved 149 children. There was a non-significant trend toward a lower risk of seizure recurrence after one year of AED withdrawal in participants allocated to slow tapering (risk ratio (RR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58 to 1.01; P= 0.06; very low-certainty evidence). At the end of two years, 30 participants were seizure free in the rapid-tapering group and 29 participants in the slow-tapering group (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.29; P = 0.48; very low-certainty evidence). At the end of five years, 10 participants were seizure free in the rapid-tapering group and six participants in the slow-tapering group (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.54 to 3.65; P = 0.49; very low-certainty evidence). There were no data for the other outcomes. Due to the methodological heterogeneity and the difference in the duration of tapering we did not perform a quantitative synthesis of these studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Since the last version of this review was published, we found one new pediatric study. In view of methodological deficiencies, and small sample size of the two included studies, we cannot draw any reliable conclusions regarding the optimal rate of tapering of AEDs. Using GRADE, we assessed the certainty of the evidence as very low for outcomes for which data were available. We judged both studies to be at high risk of bias. Further studies are needed in adults and children to investigate the optimal rate of withdrawal of AEDs and to study the effects of variables such as seizure types, etiology, mental retardation, electroencephalography abnormalities, presence of neurologic deficits, and other comorbidities on the rate of tapering.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Neurol ; 267(1): 26-35, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) remains to be defined. We present here the first population-based incidence study and report the clinical spectrum and antibody profile of PNS in a large area in Northeastern Italy. METHODS: We performed a 9-year (2009-2017) population-based epidemiological study of PNS in the provinces of Udine, Pordenone and Gorizia, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (983,190 people as of January 1, 2017). PNS diagnosis and subgroups were defined by the 2004 diagnostic criteria. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: We identified 89 patients with a diagnosis of definite PNS. Median age was 68 years (range 26-90), 52% were female. The incidence of PNS was 0.89/100,000 person-years. PNS incidence rates increased over time from 0.62/100,000 person-years (2009-2011), 0.81/100,000 person-years (2012-2014) to 1.22/100,000 person-years (2015-2017). The prevalence of PNS was 4.37 per 100,000. Most common PNS were limbic encephalitis (31%), cerebellar degeneration (28%) and encephalomyelitis (20%). Among antibody (Ab)-positive cases, most frequent specificities included: Yo (30%), Hu (26%), and Ma2 (22%), while the most frequent associated tumors were lung (17%) and breast cancer (16%), followed by lymphoma (12%). PNS developed in 1 in every 334 cancers in our region. Statistically significant associations were observed between cancer type and Ab-specificity (P < 0.001), and between neurological syndrome and Ab-specificity (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This first population-based study found an incidence of PNS that approximates 1/100,000 person-years and a prevalence of 4/100,000. Moreover, the incidence of PNS is increasing over time, probably due to increased awareness and improved detection techniques.

13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 102: 106675, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766004

RESUMO

Since the publication of the Italian League Against Epilepsy guidelines for the treatment of status epilepticus in 2006, advances in the field have ushered in improvements in the therapeutic arsenal. The present position paper provides neurologists, epileptologists, neurointensive care specialists, and emergency physicians with updated recommendations for the treatment of adult patients with status epilepticus. The aim is to standardize treatment recommendations in the care of this patient population.

14.
Neurol Sci ; 41(2): 257-262, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641899

RESUMO

Diagonal earlobe crease (DELC) or Frank's sign is a diagonal crease in the earlobe that extends diagonally from the tragus to the edge of the auricle with an angle of approximately 45°. Although its presence increases with advancing age, several studies have shown an independent association between DELC and cardiovascular diseases as well as peripheral vascular diseases. DELC has also been demonstrated to increase the risk of cerebrovascular events (mostly ischaemic stroke), probably through atherosclerotic mechanisms. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Embase to identify studies investigating the relationship between DELC and the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases. We identified 5 articles (1469 subjects included). Since the presence of DELC can be easily evaluated, patients with the Frank's sign should undergo a diagnostic workup to detect vascular risk factors and implement preventative therapies.

15.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(1): 74-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816167
16.
Epilepsy Behav ; 103(Pt A): 106533, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy surgery is an effective treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Some centers have noticed changes in referral patterns. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine if online infodemiological data related to epilepsy surgery reflect reported changes in referrals to surgical centers. METHODS: Google Trends and Pageview analysis of temporal trends of searches conducted in Google and Wikipedia for epilepsy surgery, using key search terms such as "epilepsy surgery" and terms related to pathology, operation type, and investigative practice. RESULTS: Over the 15-year time period studied by Google trend analysis, when the initial three-year epoch and final three-year epoch are compared, a 56.1% decline in search volume for "epilepsy surgery" was observed. Vagus nerve stimulation and laser ablation are increasingly searched items. Pageview analysis shows that temporal lobe epilepsy remains the most commonly searched subtype of epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis was searched for more than focal cortical dysplasia. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a lower search interest over time in epilepsy surgery, and various associated terms, with increased interest in vagus nerve stimulation and laser ablation procedures over time. There is no clear indication from these data regarding the apparent shift from mesial temporal cases to an increase in extratemporal case workload.

17.
Epilepsy Behav ; 101(Pt B): 106551, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676239

RESUMO

Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening condition with a mortality of up to 60% in the advanced and comatose forms of SE. In one out of five adults, first and second line fails to control epileptic activity, leading to refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and in around 3% to super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE), where SE continues despite anesthetic treatment for 24 h or more. In this rare but devastating condition, innovative and safe treatments are needed. In a recent review on the use of vagal nerve stimulation in RSE and SRSE, a 74% response rate for abrogation of SE was reported. Here, we review the currently available evidence supporting the use of neurostimulation, including vagal nerve stimulation, direct cortical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, electroconvulsive therapy, and deep brain stimulation in RSE and SRSE. This article is part of the Special Issue "Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures".

18.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 106524, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727547

RESUMO

Seizures are not only a frequent complication of stroke but have been associated with an unfavorable functional and vital outcome of patients who have had stroke. Facing a new paradigm of acute standard stroke care, acute symptomatic seizures in this clinical setting deserve to be rethought. Reperfusion therapies, the gold standard treatment for acute ischemic stroke, improve long-term survival and outcome of patients who have had stroke and have been associated both with clinical seizures and the occurrence of epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This narrative review describes the different physiopathological mechanisms underlying the possible association between reperfusion therapies and seizures, both acute symptomatic seizures and unprovoked seizures, and the current evidence regarding the risk of poststroke seizures in treated patients. It also identifies the gaps in our knowledge to foster future studies in this field. By different mechanisms, reperfusions therapies may have opposing effects on the risk of poststroke seizures. There is a need for a better definition of the specific physiopathology of seizures in clinical practice, as many factors can be recognized. Additionally, most of the current clinical evidence refers to acute symptomatic seizures and not to unprovoked seizures or poststroke epilepsy, and our analysis does not support the existence of a strong association between thrombolysis and poststroke seizures. So far, the impact of reperfusion therapies on the frequency of poststroke seizures is unclear. To study this effect, many clinical challenges must be overcome, including a better and clear operational definition of seizures and stroke characteristics, the standard of stroke and epilepsy care and EEG monitoring, and the degree of reperfusion success. Prospective, high quality, larger, and longer follow-up multicentric studies are urgently needed. Additionally, stroke registries can also prove useful in better elucidate whether there is an association between reperfusion therapies and seizures. Seizures & Stroke.

19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with an age-adjusted prevalence of 4 to 8 per 1000 population and an age-adjusted incidence of 44 per 100,000 person-years in developed countries. Monotherapy represents the best therapeutic option in people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of oral clonazepam used as monotherapy for newly diagnosed epilepsy, when compared with placebo or a different anti-seizure medication. SEARCH METHODS: The following databases were searched on 24 July 2018: the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web), which includes the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid) 1946 to 24 July 2018, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing oral clonazepam used as monotherapy treatment (where participants were randomized to treatment with a single drug throughout the study period) versus placebo or a different anti-seizure medication (active comparator) in people of any age with newly diagnosed epilepsy, defined according to the clinical practical definition proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The following outcomes were considered: proportion of participants seizure-free at one, three, six, 12 and 24 months after randomization; proportion of responders (those with at least a 50% reduction in seizure frequency from baseline to end of treatment); proportion of participants with treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during the treatment period or leading to discontinuation during the treatment period; proportion of dropouts/withdrawals due to side effects, lack of efficacy or other reasons; and improvement in quality of life, as assessed by validated and reliable rating scales. Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts to assess the eligibility of publications identified by the searches. They independently extracted data from trial reports and cross-checked them for accuracy. Any disagreements between the two authors regarding data extraction were resolved by discussion and consensus. We scrutinized trials and evaluated the methodological quality of all included studies. We used GRADE assessment criteria to evaluate the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Two randomized controlled trials were included, with a total of 115 participants. One study compared clonazepam to carbamazepine as monotherapy for participants with newly diagnosed psychomotor epilepsy (a condition corresponding to what is now termed mesial temporal lobe epilepsy). One study (published as abstract) compared clonazepam to ethosuximide as monotherapy for children with absence seizures. Based on the available data and the details on methodology provided, we judged both studies as being at unclear or high risk of bias for the domains assessed. In the study comparing clonazepam to carbamazepine, no difference was found between the groups regarding the proportion of participants who were seizure-free at one month after randomization (risk ratio (RR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99 to 3.94; 30 participants; very low-certainty evidence), three months after randomization (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.62 to 2.29; 26 participants; very low-certainty evidence), and six months after randomization (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.09 to 2.73; 9 participants; very low-certainty evidence). No statistical difference was found between clonazepam and carbamazepine in terms of proportion of participants with TEAEs leading to discontinuation (RR 2.61, 95% CI 0.80 to 8.52; 36 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and in terms of dropouts/withdrawals due to side effects, lack of efficacy or other reasons (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.61 to 4.02; 36 participants; very low certainty evidence). The study did not provide any information on our other prespecified outcomes of interest. The study comparing clonazepam to ethosuximide did not provide any data on efficacy. The proportion of dropouts/withdrawal was higher in the group receiving clonazepam compared to the group receiving ethosuximide (RR 3.63, 95% CI 1.12 to 11.74; 79 participants; very low-certainty evidence). No information on other outcomes of interest was provided in this study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is only limited and very low-certainty evidence from randomized controlled trials on the efficacy and tolerability of clonazepam used in monotherapy for the treatment of epilepsy. No difference in efficacy and tolerability was found in a small trial comparing clonazepam to carbamazepine for the treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Clonazepam was less well tolerated than ethosuximide in a trial of children with absence seizures, however no comparative data on efficacy were provided. There is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of clonazepam as monotherapy treatment for epilepsy.

20.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 106540, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677999

RESUMO

AIMS: Stroke is the most commonly identified cause of late-onset epilepsy. Risk factors for poststroke epilepsy (PSE) are partially elucidated, and many studies have been performed in recent years. We aimed to update our previous systematic review and meta-analysis on risk factors for PSE. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases were searched. Articles published in English (1987-2019) were included. Odds ratios (OR) and mean values were calculated for examined variables. RESULTS: Thirty studies with different designs were included, enrolling 26,045 patients who experienced stroke, of whom 1800 had PSE, corresponding to a prevalence of 7%. Cortical lesions (OR: 3.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.35-5.46, p < 0.001), hemorrhagic component (OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.68-3.64, p < 0.001), early seizures (ES) (OR: 4.88, 95% CI: 3.08-7.72, p < 0.001), and younger age at stroke onset (difference in means: 2.97 years, 95% CI: 0.78 to 5.16, p = 0.008) favor PSE. Sex and acute treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) do not predict the occurrence of PSE. CONCLUSION: Despite limitations due to the uneven quality and design of the studies, the present meta-analysis confirms that cortical involvement, hemorrhagic component, and ES are associated with a higher risk of PSE. In this update, younger age at stroke onset but not thrombolytic treatment seems to increase the risk for PSE. This article is part of the Special Issue "Seizures & Stroke".

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