Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55
Filtrar
1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 727-742, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891193

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute one of the most frequent birth defects and represent the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Despite the discovery of dozens of monogenic causes of CAKUT, most pathogenic pathways remain elusive. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 551 individuals with CAKUT and identified a heterozygous de novo stop-gain variant in ZMYM2 in two different families with CAKUT. Through collaboration, we identified in total 14 different heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in ZMYM2 in 15 unrelated families. Most mutations occurred de novo, indicating possible interference with reproductive function. Human disease features are replicated in X. tropicalis larvae with morpholino knockdowns, in which expression of truncated ZMYM2 proteins, based on individual mutations, failed to rescue renal and craniofacial defects. Moreover, heterozygous Zmym2-deficient mice recapitulated features of CAKUT with high penetrance. The ZMYM2 protein is a component of a transcriptional corepressor complex recently linked to the silencing of developmentally regulated endogenous retrovirus elements. Using protein-protein interaction assays, we show that ZMYM2 interacts with additional epigenetic silencing complexes, as well as confirming that it binds to FOXP1, a transcription factor that has also been linked to CAKUT. In summary, our findings establish that loss-of-function mutations of ZMYM2, and potentially that of other proteins in its interactome, as causes of human CAKUT, offering new routes for studying the pathogenesis of the disorder.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
3.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1413-1417, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366965

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study characterizes the clinical and genetic features of nine unrelated patients with de novo variants in the NR4A2 gene. METHODS: Variants were identified and de novo origins were confirmed through trio exome sequencing in all but one patient. Targeted RNA sequencing was performed for one variant to confirm its splicing effect. Independent discoveries were shared through GeneMatcher. RESULTS: Missense and loss-of-function variants in NR4A2 were identified in patients from eight unrelated families. One patient carried a larger deletion including adjacent genes. The cases presented with developmental delay, hypotonia (six cases), and epilepsy (six cases). De novo status was confirmed for eight patients. One variant was demonstrated to affect splicing and result in expression of abnormal transcripts likely subject to nonsense-mediated decay. CONCLUSION: Our study underscores the importance of NR4A2 as a disease gene for neurodevelopmental disorders and epilepsy. The identified variants are likely causative of the seizures and additional developmental phenotypes in these patients.

4.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(4): 462-473, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We ascertained the prevalence of ictal arrhythmias to explain the high rate of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: We selected cases with clinical DS, ≥6 years, SCN1A mutation, and ≥1 seizure/week. Home-based ECG recordings were performed for 20 days continuously. Cases were matched for age and sex to two epilepsy controls with no DS and ≥1 major motor seizure during video-EEG. We determined the prevalence of peri-ictal asystole, bradycardia, QTc changes, and effects of convulsive seizures (CS) on heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and PR/QRS. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for multiple seizures within subjects, seizure type, and sleep/wakefulness. RESULTS: We included 59 cases. Ictal recordings were obtained in 45 cases and compared to 90 controls. We analyzed 547 seizures in DS (300 CS) and 169 in controls (120 CS). No asystole occurred. Postictal bradycardia was more common in controls (n = 11, 6.5%) than cases (n = 4, 0.7%; P = 0.002). Peri-ictal QTc-lengthening (≥60ms) occurred more frequently in DS (n = 64, 12%) than controls (n = 8, 4.7%, P = 0.048); pathologically prolonged QTc was rare (once in each group). In DS, interictal HRV was lower compared to controls (RMSSD P = 0.029); peri-ictal values did not differ between the groups. Prolonged QRS/PR was rare and more common in controls (QRS: one vs. none; PR: three vs. one). INTERPRETATION: We did not identify major arrhythmias in DS which can directly explain high SUDEP rates. Peri-ictal QTc-lengthening was, however, more common in DS. This may reflect unstable repolarization and an increased propensity for arrhythmias.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(4): e1103, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SCN1A is one of the most important epilepsy-related genes, with pathogenic variants leading to a range of phenotypes with varying disease severity. Different modifying factors have been hypothesized to influence SCN1A-related phenotypes. We investigate the presence of rare and more common variants in epilepsy-related genes as potential modifiers of SCN1A-related disease severity. METHODS: 87 patients with SCN1A-related epilepsy were investigated. Whole-exome sequencing was performed by the Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI). Functional variants in 422 genes associated with epilepsy and/or neuronal excitability were investigated. Differences in proportions of variants between the epilepsy genes and four control gene sets were calculated, and compared to the proportions of variants in the same genes in the ExAC database. RESULTS: Statistically significant excesses of variants in epilepsy genes were observed in the complete cohort and in the combined group of mildly and severely affected patients, particularly for variants with minor allele frequencies of <0.05. Patients with extreme phenotypes showed much greater excesses of epilepsy gene variants than patients with intermediate phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that relatively common variants in epilepsy genes, which would not necessarily be classified as pathogenic, may play a large role in modulating SCN1A phenotypes. They may modify the phenotypes of both severely and mildly affected patients. Our results may be a first step toward meaningful testing of modifier gene variants in regular diagnostics for individual patients, to provide a better estimation of disease severity for newly diagnosed patients.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(1): 40-49, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488895

RESUMO

Variants in the KIF1A gene can cause autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia 30, autosomal recessive hereditary sensory neuropathy, or autosomal (de novo) dominant mental retardation type 9. More recently, variants in KIF1A have also been described in a few cases with autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia. Here, we describe 20 KIF1A variants in 24 patients from a clinical exome sequencing cohort of 347 individuals with a mostly 'pure' spastic paraplegia. In these patients, spastic paraplegia was slowly progressive and mostly pure, but with a highly variable disease onset (0-57 years). Segregation analyses showed a de novo occurrence in seven cases, and a dominant inheritance pattern in 11 families. The motor domain of KIF1A is a hotspot for disease causing variants in autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, similar to mental retardation type 9 and recessive spastic paraplegia type 30. However, unlike these allelic disorders, dominant spastic paraplegia was also caused by loss-of-function variants outside this domain in six families. Finally, three missense variants were outside the motor domain and need further characterization. In conclusion, KIF1A variants are a frequent cause of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia in our cohort (6-7%). The identification of KIF1A loss-of-function variants suggests haploinsufficiency as a possible mechanism in autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia.

7.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(4): 609-617, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819917

RESUMO

Objective: Genetic causes are increasingly identified in patients with focal epilepsy. These genetic causes may be related to the effectiveness of epilepsy surgery. We aimed to assess the use and yield of genetic testing in a large cohort of patients who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery. Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center consecutive cohort study of patients who were evaluated for surgery between 1990 and 2016. Within this cohort, we assessed the use of genetic testing-either before or after presurgical decision-making. We evaluated genetic results as well as the outcome of presurgical decision-making and surgery, and compared these end points for different subgroups-especially MRI-positive vs MRI-negative patients. Patients with tuberous sclerosis (TSC) and KRIT1 mutations were excluded from analysis. Results: Of the 2385 epilepsy patients who were evaluated for surgery, 1280 (54%) received surgical treatment in our center. Of the entire cohort, 325 (14%) underwent genetic testing, comprising 156 of 450 MRI-negative patients (35%) vs 169 of 1935 MRI-positive patients (9%). A genetic cause of epilepsy was found in 40 of the 325 patients (12%, 2% of the entire cohort), mainly consisting of mutations in ion channel function and synaptic transmission genes, and mTOR pathway gene mutations. Three of the seven patients with mTOR pathway gene mutations underwent surgery; two achieved complete seizure freedom. One of the 17 patients with germline mutations in ion channel function and synaptic transmission genes received resective surgery but was not rendered seizure-free; two other patients underwent invasive intracranial EEG-monitoring before being rejected. Significance: This study shows that genetic testing is increasingly applied in focal epilepsy patients who are considered for epilepsy surgery. The diagnostic yield of genetic testing is highest in next generation sequencing techniques, and the outcome of genetic testing assists selecting eligible patients for invasive intracranial monitoring and resective surgery.

9.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00727, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in SCN1A cause variable epilepsy disorders with different disease severities. We here investigate whether common variation in the promoter region of the unaffected SCN1A allele could reduce normal expression, leading to a decreased residual function of Nav1.1, and therefore to more severe clinical outcomes in patients affected by pathogenic SCN1A variants. METHODS: Five different SCN1A promoter-haplotypes were functionally assessed in SH-SY5Y cells using Firefly and Renilla luciferase assays. The SCN1A promoter region was analyzed in a cohort of 143 participants with SCN1A pathogenic variants. Differences in clinical features and outcomes between participants with and without common variants in the SCN1A promoter-region of their unaffected allele were investigated. RESULTS: All non-wildtype haplotypes showed a significant reduction in luciferase expression, compared to the wildtype promoter-region (65%-80%, p = 0.039-0.0023). No statistically significant differences in clinical outcomes were observed between patients with and without common promoter variants. However, patients with a wildtype promoter-haplotype on their unaffected SCN1A allele showed a nonsignificant trend for milder phenotypes. CONCLUSION: The nonsignificant observed trends in our study warrant replication studies in larger cohorts to explore the potential modifying role of these common SCN1A promoter-haplotypes.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 709-720, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905399

RESUMO

The Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-subunit complex that regulates multiple steps of transcription. Mediator activity is regulated by the reversible association of a four-subunit module comprising CDK8 or CDK19 kinases, together with cyclin C, MED12 or MED12L, and MED13 or MED13L. Mutations in MED12, MED13, and MED13L were previously identified in syndromic developmental disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Here, we report CDK8 mutations (located at 13q12.13) that cause a phenotypically related disorder. Using whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, and by international collaboration, we identified eight different heterozygous missense CDK8 substitutions, including 10 shown to have arisen de novo, in 12 unrelated subjects; a recurrent mutation, c.185C>T (p.Ser62Leu), was present in five individuals. All predicted substitutions localize to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. Affected individuals have overlapping phenotypes characterized by hypotonia, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, and variable facial dysmorphism. Congenital heart disease occurred in six subjects; additional features present in multiple individuals included agenesis of the corpus callosum, ano-rectal malformations, seizures, and hearing or visual impairments. To evaluate the functional impact of the mutations, we measured phosphorylation at STAT1-Ser727, a known CDK8 substrate, in a CDK8 and CDK19 CRISPR double-knockout cell line transfected with wild-type (WT) or mutant CDK8 constructs. These experiments demonstrated a reduction in STAT1 phosphorylation by all mutants, in most cases to a similar extent as in a kinase-dead control. We conclude that missense mutations in CDK8 cause a developmental disorder that has phenotypic similarity to syndromes associated with mutations in other subunits of the Mediator kinase module, indicating probable overlap in pathogenic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Quinase 8 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciclina C/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fosforilação , Síndrome
13.
Brain ; 142(1): 80-92, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544257

RESUMO

Alterations of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit GluN2A, encoded by GRIN2A, have been associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with prominent speech-related features, and epilepsy. We performed a comprehensive assessment of phenotypes with a standardized questionnaire in 92 previously unreported individuals with GRIN2A-related disorders. Applying the criteria of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics to all published variants yielded 156 additional cases with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in GRIN2A, resulting in a total of 248 individuals. The phenotypic spectrum ranged from normal or near-normal development with mild epilepsy and speech delay/apraxia to severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, often within the epilepsy-aphasia spectrum. We found that pathogenic missense variants in transmembrane and linker domains (misTMD+Linker) were associated with severe developmental phenotypes, whereas missense variants within amino terminal or ligand-binding domains (misATD+LBD) and null variants led to less severe developmental phenotypes, which we confirmed in a discovery (P = 10-6) as well as validation cohort (P = 0.0003). Other phenotypes such as MRI abnormalities and epilepsy types were also significantly different between the two groups. Notably, this was paralleled by electrophysiology data, where misTMD+Linker predominantly led to NMDAR gain-of-function, while misATD+LBD exclusively caused NMDAR loss-of-function. With respect to null variants, we show that Grin2a+/- cortical rat neurons also had reduced NMDAR function and there was no evidence of previously postulated compensatory overexpression of GluN2B. We demonstrate that null variants and misATD+LBD of GRIN2A do not only share the same clinical spectrum (i.e. milder phenotypes), but also result in similar electrophysiological consequences (loss-of-function) opposing those of misTMD+Linker (severe phenotypes; predominantly gain-of-function). This new pathomechanistic model may ultimately help in predicting phenotype severity as well as eligibility for potential precision medicine approaches in GRIN2A-related disorders.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebelar/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Ratos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Genet Med ; 21(2): 398-408, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of epilepsies related to DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3 genes encoding the GATOR1 complex, a negative regulator of the mTORC1 pathway METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data of 73 novel probands (familial and sporadic) with epilepsy-related variants in GATOR1-encoding genes and proposed new guidelines for clinical interpretation of GATOR1 variants. RESULTS: The GATOR1 seizure phenotype consisted mostly in focal seizures (e.g., hypermotor or frontal lobe seizures in 50%), with a mean age at onset of 4.4 years, often sleep-related and drug-resistant (54%), and associated with focal cortical dysplasia (20%). Infantile spasms were reported in 10% of the probands. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) occurred in 10% of the families. Novel classification framework of all 140 epilepsy-related GATOR1 variants (including the variants of this study) revealed that 68% are loss-of-function pathogenic, 14% are likely pathogenic, 15% are variants of uncertain significance and 3% are likely benign. CONCLUSION: Our data emphasize the increasingly important role of GATOR1 genes in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsies (>180 probands to date). The GATOR1 phenotypic spectrum ranges from sporadic early-onset epilepsies with cognitive impairment comorbidities to familial focal epilepsies, and SUDEP.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Síndrome de Brugada/genética , Síndrome de Brugada/mortalidade , Síndrome de Brugada/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Linhagem , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
15.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(4): 265-269, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125676

RESUMO

We studied the presence of benign infantile epilepsy (BIE), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), and PKD with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) in patients with a 16p11.2 deletion including PRRT2 or with a PRRT2 loss-of-function sequence variant. Index patients were recruited from seven Dutch university hospitals. The presence of BIE, PKD and PKD/IC was retrospectively evaluated using questionnaires and medical records. We included 33 patients with a 16p11.2 deletion: three (9%) had BIE, none had PKD or PKD/IC. Twelve patients had a PRRT2 sequence variant: BIE was present in four (p = 0.069), PKD in six (p < 0.001) and PKD/IC in two (p = 0.067). Most patients with a deletion had undergone genetic testing because of developmental problems (87%), whereas all patients with a sequence variant were tested because of a movement disorder (55%) or epilepsy (45%). BIE, PKD and PKD/IC clearly showed incomplete penetrance in patients with 16p11.2 deletions, but were found in all and 95% of patients with a PRRT2 sequence variant in our study and a large literature cohort, respectively. Deletions and sequence variants have the same underlying loss-of-function disease mechanism. Thus, differences in ascertainment have led to overestimating the frequency of BIE, PKD and PKD/IC in patients with a PRRT2 sequence variant. This has important implications for counseling if genome-wide sequencing shows such variants in patients not presenting the PRRT2-related phenotypes.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino
16.
J Med Genet ; 56(2): 75-80, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome is a severe genetic encephalopathy, caused by pathogenic variants in SCN1A. Low-grade parental mosaicism occurs in a substantial proportion of families (7%-13%) and has important implications for recurrence risks. However, parental mosaicism can remain undetected by methods regularly used in diagnostics. In this study, we use single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIP), a technique with high sensitivity for detecting low-grade mosaic variants and high cost-effectiveness, to investigate the incidence of parental mosaicism of SCN1A variants in a cohort of 90 families and assess the feasibility of this technique. METHODS: Deep sequencing of SCN1A was performed using smMIPs. False positive rates for each of the proband's pathogenic variants were determined in 145 unrelated samples. If parents showed corresponding variant alleles at a significantly higher rate than the established noise ratio, mosaicism was confirmed by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). RESULTS: Sequence coverage of at least 100× at the location of the corresponding pathogenic variant was reached for 80 parent couples. The variant ratio was significantly higher than the established noise ratio in eight parent couples, of which four (5%) were regarded as true mosaics, based on ddPCR results. The false positive rate of smMIP analysis without ddPCR was therefore 50%. Three of these variants had previously been considered de novo in the proband by Sanger sequencing. CONCLUSION: smMIP technology combined withnext generation sequencing (NGS) performs better than Sanger sequencing in the detection of parental mosaicism. Because parental mosaicism has important implications for genetic counselling and recurrence risks, we stress the importance of implementing high-sensitivity NGS-based assays in standard diagnostics.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mosaicismo , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sondas Moleculares , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 90: 252-259, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527252

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Differentiating between Dravet syndrome and non-Dravet SCN1A-related phenotypes is important for prognosis regarding epilepsy severity, cognitive development, and comorbidities. When a child is diagnosed with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) or febrile seizures (FS), accurate prognostic information is essential as well, but detailed information on seizure course, seizure freedom, medication use, and comorbidities is lacking for this milder patient group. In this cross-sectional study, we explore disease characteristics in milder SCN1A-related phenotypes and the nature, occurrence, and relationships of SCN1A-related comorbidities in both patients with Dravet and non-Dravet syndromes. METHODS: A cohort of 164 Dutch participants with SCN1A-related seizures was evaluated, consisting of 116 patients with Dravet syndrome and 48 patients with either GEFS+, febrile seizures plus (FS+), or FS. Clinical data were collected from medical records, semi-structured telephone interviews, and three questionnaires: the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Measurement Model, and the Child or Adult Behavior Checklists (CBCL/ABCL). RESULTS: Walking disabilities and severe behavioral problems affect 71% and 43% of patients with Dravet syndrome respectively and are almost never present in patients with non-Dravet syndromes. These comorbidities are strongly correlated to lower quality-of-life (QoL) scores. Less severe comorbidities occur in patients with non-Dravet syndromes: learning problems and psychological/behavioral problems are reported for 27% and 38% respectively. The average QoL score of the non-Dravet group was comparable with that of the general population. The majority of patients with non-Dravet syndromes becomes seizure-free after 10 years of age (85%). CONCLUSIONS: Severe behavioral problems and walking disabilities are common in patients with Dravet syndrome and should receive specific attention during clinical management. Although the epilepsy course of patients with non-Dravet syndromes is much more favorable, milder comorbidities frequently occur in this group as well. Our results may be of great value for clinical care and informing newly diagnosed patients and their parents about prognosis.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/epidemiologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Síndromes Epilépticas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Epilépticas/epidemiologia , Síndromes Epilépticas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões Febris/diagnóstico , Convulsões Febris/epidemiologia , Convulsões Febris/genética , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/epidemiologia , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neurology ; 92(2): e83-e95, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chenodeoxycholic acid treatment on disease progression in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we report the clinical long-term follow-up characteristics of 56 Dutch patients with CTX. Age at diagnosis was correlated with clinical characteristics and with the course of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores at follow-up. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 8 years (6 months-31.5 years). Patients diagnosed and treated before the age of 24 years had a significantly better outcome at follow-up. When considering only patients with a good treatment adherence (n = 43), neurologic symptoms, if present, disappeared in all patients who were diagnosed before the age of 24 and treated since. Furthermore, treatment prevented the development of new neurologic symptoms during follow-up. In contrast, 61% of the patients diagnosed and treated after the age of 24 showed deterioration of the neurologic symptoms, with parkinsonism as a treatment-resistant feature. There was an improvement or stabilization in favor of patients diagnosed and treated before the age of 24 compared to those treated after the age of 24: 100% vs 58% for mRS scores and 100% vs 50% for EDSS scores, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment start at an early age can reverse and even prevent the development of neurologic symptoms in CTX. This study emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis in CTX and provides a rationale to include CTX in newborn screening programs.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Resultado do Tratamento , Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Colestanol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa/sangue , Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa/complicações , Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa/genética , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA