Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 339
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(11): 1201-1211, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542834

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use induces alterations in circulating estrogens/estrogen metabolites, which may contribute to the altered risk of reproductive tract cancers among current users. Thus, the current study assessed associations between circulating estrogens/estrogen metabolites and ovarian and endometrial cancer risk among MHT users. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study among postmenopausal women using MHT at baseline in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (179 ovarian cancers, 396 controls; 230 endometrial cancers, 253 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals overall and by subtype. RESULTS: Estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels were not associated with overall or serous ovarian cancer risk, examined separately. However, unconjugated estradiol was positively associated with non-serous ovarian cancer risk [quintile 5 vs. quintile 1: 3.01 (1.17-7.73); p-trend = 0.03; p-het < 0.01]. Endometrial cancer risk was unrelated to estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels among women who took combined estrogen/progestin therapy (EPT). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel evidence that may support a heterogeneous hormonal etiology across ovarian cancer subtypes. Circulating estrogens did not influence endometrial cancer risk among women with EPT-induced high-estrogen levels. Larger studies are needed to delineate the relationship between ovarian/endometrial cancer subtypes and estrogen levels in the context of MHT use.

2.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(1): 105-111, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy, yet the effects on survival of modifiable pre-diagnosis lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical activity, remain largely unexplored. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-diagnosis BMI and physical activity on ovarian cancer mortality using prospectively collected data. METHODS: Data on women who developed ovarian cancer after enrollment into the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were analyzed. Cancer incidence was ascertained through linkage state cancer registries and consisted of 741 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Higher pre-diagnosis BMI was associated with increased overall and ovarian cancer-specific mortality. Comparing women with BMI 25-29.9, 30-34.9 and ≥ 35 to normal weight women, the HRs of overall mortality were 1.18 (95%CI 0.96-1.45), 1.05 (0.82-1.36) and 1.59 (1.14-2.18, p-trend = 0.02). The findings were similar for ovarian cancer-specific mortality comparing women with BMI ≥ 35 to normal weight women (BMI <25) with a HR of 1.47 (95%CI 1.03-2.09, p-trend 0.08). Pre-diagnosis physical activity was not associated with mortality, with HRs for overall mortality of 1.06 (95%CI 0.79-1.43), 0.94 (0.72-1.23), 0.98 (0.76-1.25), and 0.98 (0.75-1.28, p-trend = 0.91), comparing women who engaged in vigorous physical activity 1-3 times/month, 1-2 times/week, 3-4 times/week and 5 times/week, respectively, with those who never/rarely engaged in such activity. CONCLUSIONS: Women who were obese before developing ovarian cancer had increased mortality than those who were normal weight, but physical activity before diagnosis was not associated with mortality in this study population. These results suggest that maintaining a healthy weight is a powerful preventative tool.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Exercício , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 81, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) is a strong breast cancer risk factor that reflects fibroglandular and adipose tissue composition, but its biologic underpinnings are poorly understood. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are markers that may be associated with MD given their hypothesized role in breast carcinogenesis. IGFBPs sequester IGF-I, limiting its bioavailability. Prior studies have found positive associations between circulating IGF-I and the IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratio and breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and six other IGFBPs with MD. METHODS: Serum IGF measures were quantified in 296 women, ages 40-65, undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy. Volumetric density measures (MD-V) were assessed in pre-biopsy digital mammograms using single X-ray absorptiometry. Area density measures (MD-A) were estimated by computer-assisted thresholding software. Age, body mass index (BMI), and BMI2-adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations of serum IGF measures with MD. Effect modification by BMI was also assessed. RESULTS: IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were not strongly associated with MD after BMI adjustment. In multivariable analyses among premenopausal women, IGFBP-2 was positively associated with both percent MD-V (ß = 1.49, p value = 0.02) and MD-A (ß = 1.55, p value = 0.05). Among postmenopausal women, positive relationships between IGFBP-2 and percent MD-V (ß = 2.04, p = 0.003) were observed; the positive associations between IGFBP-2 and percent MD-V were stronger among lean women (BMI < 25 kg/m2) (ß = 5.32, p = 0.0002; p interaction = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: In this comprehensive study of IGFBPs and MD, we observed a novel positive association between IGFBP-2 and MD, particularly among women with lower BMI. In concert with in vitro studies suggesting a dual role of IGFBP-2 on breast tissue, promoting cell proliferation as well as inhibiting tumorigenesis, our findings suggest that further studies assessing the role of IGFBP-2 in breast tissue composition, in addition to IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, are warranted.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(19): 5937-5946, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be divided into multiple subtypes with variable etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis. We analyzed DNA methylation profiling data to identify biologic subgroups of ovarian cancer and study their relationship with histologic subtypes, copy number variation, RNA expression data, and outcomes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 162 paraffin-embedded ovarian epithelial tumor tissues, including the five major epithelial ovarian tumor subtypes (high- and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous, and clear cell) and tumors of low malignant potential were selected from two different sources: The Polish Ovarian Cancer study, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Residual Tissue Repository (SEER RTR). Analyses were restricted to Caucasian women. Methylation profiling was conducted using the Illumina 450K methylation array. For 45 tumors array copy number data were available. NanoString gene expression data for 39 genes were available for 61 high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). RESULTS: Consensus nonnegative matrix factorization clustering of the 1,000 most variable CpG sites showed four major clusters among all epithelial ovarian cancers. We observed statistically significant differences in survival (log-rank test, P = 9.1 × 10-7) and genomic instability across these clusters. Within HGSC, clustering showed three subgroups with survival differences (log-rank test, P = 0.002). Comparing models with and without methylation subgroups in addition to previously identified gene expression subtypes suggested that the methylation subgroups added significant survival information (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation profiling of ovarian cancer identified novel molecular subgroups that had significant survival difference and provided insights into the molecular underpinnings of ovarian cancer.See related commentary by Ishak et al., p. 5729.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metilação
5.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215347, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In case-control studies, population controls can help ensure generalizability; however, the selection of population controls can be challenging in environments that lack population registries. We developed a population enumeration and sampling strategy to facilitate use of population controls in a breast cancer case-control study conducted in Ghana. METHODS: Household enumeration was conducted in 110 census-defined geographic areas within Ghana's Ashanti, Central, Eastern, and Greater Accra Regions. A pool of potential controls (women aged 18 to 74 years, never diagnosed with breast cancer) was selected from the enumeration using systematic random sampling and frequency-matched to the anticipated distributions of age and residence among cases. Multiple attempts were made to contact potential controls to assess eligibility and arrange for study participation. To increase participation, we implemented a refusal conversion protocol in which initial non-participants were re-approached after several months. RESULTS: 2,528 women were sampled from the enumeration listing, 2,261 (89%) were successfully contacted, and 2,106 were enrolled (overall recruitment of 83%). 170 women were enrolled through refusal conversion. Compared with women enrolled after being first approached, refusal conversion enrollees were younger and less likely to complete the study interview in the study hospital (13% vs. 23%). The most common reasons for non-participation were lack of interest and lack of time. CONCLUSIONS: Using household enumeration and repeated contacts, we were able to recruit population controls with a high participation rate. Our approach may provide a blue-print for others undertaking epidemiologic studies in populations that lack accessible population registries.

6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 42, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Models that accurately predict risk of breast cancer are needed to help younger women make decisions about when to begin screening. Premenopausal concentrations of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a biomarker of ovarian reserve, and testosterone have been positively associated with breast cancer risk in prospective studies. We assessed whether adding AMH and/or testosterone to the Gail model improves its prediction performance for women aged 35-50. METHODS: In a nested case-control study including ten prospective cohorts (1762 invasive cases/1890 matched controls) with pre-diagnostic serum/plasma samples, we estimated relative risks (RR) for the biomarkers and Gail risk factors using conditional logistic regression and random-effects meta-analysis. Absolute risk models were developed using these RR estimates, attributable risk fractions calculated using the distributions of the risk factors in the cases from the consortium, and population-based incidence and mortality rates. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminatory accuracy of the models with and without biomarkers. RESULTS: The AUC for invasive breast cancer including only the Gail risk factor variables was 55.3 (95% CI 53.4, 57.1). The AUC increased moderately with the addition of AMH (AUC 57.6, 95% CI 55.7, 59.5), testosterone (AUC 56.2, 95% CI 54.4, 58.1), or both (AUC 58.1, 95% CI 56.2, 59.9). The largest AUC improvement (4.0) was among women without a family history of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: AMH and testosterone moderately increase the discriminatory accuracy of the Gail model among women aged 35-50. We observed the largest AUC increase for women without a family history of breast cancer, the group that would benefit most from improved risk prediction because early screening is already recommended for women with a family history.

7.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 145(8): 2051-2060, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684389

RESUMO

Our knowledge of epidemiologic risk factors for ovarian cancer supports a role for androgens in the pathogenesis of this disease; however, few studies have examined associations between circulating androgens and ovarian cancer risk. Using highly sensitive LC-MS/MS assays, we evaluated associations between pre-diagnostic serum levels of 12 androgens, including novel androgen metabolites that reflect androgen activity in tissues, and ovarian cancer risk among postmenopausal women in a nested case-control study in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS). We frequency-matched 169 ovarian cancer cases to 410 controls from women enrolled in WHI-OS who were not using menopausal hormones at enrollment/blood draw. We estimated associations overall and by subtype (n = 102 serous/67 non-serous) using multivariable adjusted logistic regression. Androgen/androgen metabolite levels were not associated with overall ovarian cancer risk. In analyses by subtype, women with increased levels of androsterone-glucuronide (ADT-G) and total 5-α reduced glucuronide metabolites (markers of tissue-level androgenic activity) were at increased risk of developing non-serous ovarian cancer: ADT-G tertile (T)3 versus T1 odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) 4.36 (1.68-11.32), p-heterogeneity 0.002; total glucuronide metabolites 3.63 (1.47-8.95), 0.002. Risk of developing serous tumors was unrelated to these markers. ADT-G and total glucuronide metabolites, better markers of tissue-level androgenic activity in women than testosterone, were associated with an increased risk of developing non-serous ovarian cancer. Our work demonstrates that sex steroid metabolism is important in the etiology of non-serous ovarian cancers and supports a heterogeneous hormonal etiology across histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506492

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The comparability between serum, plasma, and urinary measurements of estrogen metabolites via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has not been largely explored, and it is unclear if urinary LC-MS/MS measurements are suitable surrogates of circulating levels. METHODS: Serum, plasma (EDTA and heparin), and urinary estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels were measured via LC-MS/MS in paired samples from 64 healthy volunteers (18 men, 20 premenopausal women, 26 postmenopausal women). Geometric means and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to compare individual and combined pathway levels of estrogens/estrogen metabolites across biologic matrices by sex/menopausal status. RESULTS: Measured concentrations of estrogens/estrogen metabolites across blood matrices were almost identical (percent differences < 4.8%). Parent estrogen concentrations measured in serum and urine were moderately correlated in postmenopausal women (estrone: r = 0.69, estradiol: r = 0.69). Correlations were similar comparing unconjugated serum estradiol to urinary estrone (r = 0.76) and urinary estradiol (r = 0.65) in postmenopausal women but were moderate to low in premenopausal women (r = 0.60, 0.40, respectively)/men (r = 0.33, 0.53, respectively). Comparing metabolite ratios, proportionally higher concentrations of 16-pathway metabolites were measured in urine versus serum across sex/menopausal status groups (e.g., postmenopausal women: 50.3% 16-pathway metabolites/total in urine versus 35.3% in serum). CONCLUSIONS: There is strong agreement between estrogen/estrogen metabolites measurements in serum, heparin plasma, and EDTA plasma. Individual estrogen metabolite concentrations were moderately correlated between urine and serum, but were not well correlated when evaluating pathway- or relative estrogen concentrations. Differences between serum and urine are likely explained by differences in metabolism and/or excretion.

11.
Menopause ; 25(11): 1195-1200, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess effects on breast cancer risk of exposure to both oral contraceptives and menopausal hormones, an increasingly common exposure. DESIGN: A case-control study of breast cancer among women under the age of 55 years in Atlanta, GA involving 1,031 cases and 919 population controls was conducted. RESULTS: Ever use of oral contraceptives was associated with a relative risk of 1.1 (95% 0.9-1.4), whereas the relative risk for hormone replacement therapy was 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.2). Seventeen percent of the cases versus 19% of the population controls reported exposure to both agents, resulting in a relative risk of 1.0 (95% CI 0.7-1.4) relative to those unexposed to either preparation. Although there was little variation in risk associated with joint effects by either age or race, there were statistically nonsignificant elevations in risk for this exposure among women who had experienced a natural menopause (relative risk = 2.0, 95% CI 0.7-5.6), were relatively thin (relative risk = 1.5, 0.8-3.0), or who had a first degree relative with breast cancer (relative risk = 2.0, 0.6-7.0). When joint effects of longer term use of both agents were considered, subjects who reported use of oral contraceptives for 10 or more years and hormone replacement for 3 or more years had a relative risk of 3.2 (95% CI 1.4-7.4) compared with nonusers of either preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results must be cautiously interpreted given small numbers within subgroups, they raise concern and emphasize the need for further evaluation on breast cancer risk of the increasingly common exposure to both oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy.

12.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 256, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320045

RESUMO

Objective: To describe development of a methodology for an outcome study of children born following in-vitro fertilization or spontaneously-conceived, as a model for defining normal and below-normal development of school-age children for research purposes. Study Design: The main issues addressed were defining the major health and developmental domains to be investigated, selection of age-appropriate validated instruments, considering time constraints to maximize compliance, and budgetary limitations. The final protocol included a half-hour structured telephone interview with mothers of all 759 children and a 2-h developmental assessment of 294 of them. Each of the instruments and recruiting methods are described in terms of the abovementioned considerations. Results: Almost all of the mothers who agreed to be interviewed completed it within the half-hour allotted; however only about half of those who agreed to bring the child for the developmental assessment actually did so. The entire examination battery, assessing cognitive ability, executive functions, attention, and learning skills, was completed by almost all 294 children. There was a significant degree of agreement between the maternal report of the child's reading, writing and arithmetic skills and the in-person examination, as well as regarding the child's weight and height measurements. Conclusion: The findings lend support for a low-budget study, relying on telephone interviews. However, limitations such as the validity of maternal report and recall bias must be taken into consideration.

13.
Cancer Res ; 78(20): 6011-6021, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185547

RESUMO

Various subtypes of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 exhibit etiologic differences in reproductive factors, but associations with other risk factors are inconsistent. To clarify etiologic heterogeneity, we pooled data from nine cohort studies. Multivariable, joint Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for molecular subtypes. Of 606,025 women, 11,741 invasive breast cancers with complete tissue markers developed during follow-up: 8,700 luminal A-like (ER+ or PR+/HER2-), 1,368 luminal B-like (ER+ or PR+/HER2+), 521 HER2-enriched (ER-/PR-/HER2+), and 1,152 triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) disease. Ever parous compared with never was associated with lower risk of luminal A-like (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.73-0.83) and luminal B-like (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87) as well as a higher risk of triple-negative disease (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.50; P value for overall tumor heterogeneity < 0.001). Direct associations with luminal-like, but not HER2-enriched or triple-negative, tumors were found for age at first birth, years between menarche and first birth, and age at menopause (P value for overall tumor heterogeneity < 0.001). Age-specific associations with baseline body mass index differed for risk of luminal A-like and triple-negative breast cancer (P value for tumor heterogeneity = 0.02). These results provide the strongest evidence for etiologic heterogeneity of breast cancer to date from prospective studies.Significance: These findings comprise the largest study of prospective data to date and contribute to the accumulating evidence that etiological heterogeneity exists in breast carcinogenesis. Cancer Res; 78(20); 6011-21. ©2018 AACR.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(9): 985-994, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181320
15.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183089

RESUMO

The WHI found an unexpected reduced breast cancer risk in women using CEE alone. We hypothesized CEE alone induces estrogen hydroxylation along the 2-pathway rather than the competing 16-pathway, a pattern linked to reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk. One thousand eight hundred and sixty-four women in a WHIOS case-control study of estrogen metabolism and ovarian and endometrial cancer were studied of whom 609 were current E + P users (351 used CEE + MPA), while 272 used E alone (162 used CEE). Fifteen EM were measured, and analyses were conducted for each metabolite, hydroxylation pathway (2-, 4-, or 16-pathway) and ratios of pathway concentrations using inverse probability weighted linear regression. Compared to E + P users, all EM were higher in E alone users (significant for unconjugated estrone, total/conjugated estradiol, total/unconjugated 2-methoxyestrone, 4-methoxyestrone and unconjugated estriol). The relative concentrations of 2- and 4-pathway EM did not differ between the MHT users (2-pathway EM comprised 15% and 4-pathway EM <2% of the total), but 16-pathway EM were lower in E alone users (p = 0.036). Ratios of 2- and 4-pathway EM compared to 16-pathway EM were significantly higher in E alone compared to E + P users. Similar but not significant patterns were observed in CEE-alone and CEE + MPA users. Our data suggest that compared to E + P users, women using E alone have more extensive metabolism via the 2- vs. the competing 16-pathway. This is consistent with epidemiologic evidence of reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk associated with this metabolic profile and may provide a clue to the breast cancer risk reduction in CEE alone users during the WHI.

16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3166, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093612

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we have previously identified eight risk loci for endometrial cancer. Here, we present an expanded meta-analysis of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls (including new genotype data for 5624 cases) and identify nine novel genome-wide significant loci, including a locus on 12q24.12 previously identified by meta-GWAS of endometrial and colorectal cancer. At five loci, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate causal genes; risk alleles at two of these loci associate with decreased expression of genes, which encode negative regulators of oncogenic signal transduction proteins (SH2B3 (12q24.12) and NF1 (17q11.2)). In summary, this study has doubled the number of known endometrial cancer risk loci and revealed candidate causal genes for future study.

17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 219(5): 459.e1-459.e11, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black women with endometrial cancer are more likely to die of their disease compared with white women with endometrial cancer. These survival disparities persist even when disproportionately worse tumor characteristics among black women are accounted. Receipt of less complete adjuvant treatment among black patients with endometrial cancer could contribute to this disparity. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the hypothesis that black women with endometrial cancer are less likely than their white counterparts to receive adjuvant treatment within subgroups defined by tumor characteristics in the NRG Oncology/Gynecology Oncology Group 210 Study. STUDY DESIGN: Our analysis included 615 black and 4283 white women with endometrial cancer who underwent hysterectomy. Women completed a questionnaire that assessed race and endometrial cancer risk factors. Tumor characteristics were available from pathology reports and central review. We categorized women as low-, intermediate-, or high-risk based on the European Society for Medical Oncology definition. Adjuvant treatment was documented during postoperative visits and was categorized as no adjuvant treatment (54.3%), radiotherapy only (16.5%), chemotherapy only (15.2%), and radiotherapy plus chemotherapy (14.0%). We used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for multivariable-adjusted associations between race and adjuvant treatment in the overall study population and stratified by tumor subtype, stage, or European Society for Medical Oncology risk category. RESULTS: Overall, black women were more likely to have received chemotherapy only (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.86) or radiotherapy plus chemotherapy (odds ratio, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-2.62) compared with white women in multivariable-adjusted models. No racial difference in the receipt of radiotherapy only was observed. In tumor subtype-stratified models, black women had higher odds of receiving radiotherapy plus chemotherapy than white women when diagnosed with low-grade endometrioid (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.93) or serous tumors (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-3.08). Race was not associated with adjuvant treatment among women who had been diagnosed with other tumor subtypes. In stage-stratified models, we observed no racial differences in the receipt of adjuvant treatment. In models that were stratified by European Society for Medical Oncology risk group, black women with high-risk cancer were more likely to receive radiotherapy plus chemotherapy compared with white women (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.94). CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed higher odds of specific adjuvant treatment regimens among black women as compared with white women within specific subgroups of endometrial cancer characteristics.

18.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0197561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979793

RESUMO

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in American women. Normal ovarian physiology is intricately connected to small GTP binding proteins of the Ras superfamily (Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran) which govern processes such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cell motility, and vesicle transport. We hypothesized that common germline variation in genes encoding small GTPases is associated with EOC risk. We investigated 322 variants in 88 small GTPase genes in germline DNA of 18,736 EOC patients and 26,138 controls of European ancestry using a custom genotype array and logistic regression fitting log-additive models. Functional annotation was used to identify biofeatures and expression quantitative trait loci that intersect with risk variants. One variant, ARHGEF10L (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 like) rs2256787, was associated with increased endometrioid EOC risk (OR = 1.33, p = 4.46 x 10-6). Other variants of interest included another in ARHGEF10L, rs10788679, which was associated with invasive serous EOC risk (OR = 1.07, p = 0.00026) and two variants in AKAP6 (A-kinase anchoring protein 6) which were associated with risk of invasive EOC (rs1955513, OR = 0.90, p = 0.00033; rs927062, OR = 0.94, p = 0.00059). Functional annotation revealed that the two ARHGEF10L variants were located in super-enhancer regions and that AKAP6 rs927062 was associated with expression of GTPase gene ARHGAP5 (Rho GTPase activating protein 5). Inherited variants in ARHGEF10L and AKAP6, with potential transcriptional regulatory function and association with EOC risk, warrant investigation in independent EOC study populations.

19.
Mod Pathol ; 31(10): 1502-1512, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899550

RESUMO

The breast stromal microenvironment is a pivotal factor in breast cancer development, growth and metastases. Although pathologists often detect morphologic changes in stroma by light microscopy, visual classification of such changes is subjective and non-quantitative, limiting its diagnostic utility. To gain insights into stromal changes associated with breast cancer, we applied automated machine learning techniques to digital images of 2387 hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections of benign and malignant image-guided breast biopsies performed to investigate mammographic abnormalities among 882 patients, ages 40-65 years, that were enrolled in the Breast Radiology Evaluation and Study of Tissues (BREAST) Stamp Project. Using deep convolutional neural networks, we trained an algorithm to discriminate between stroma surrounding invasive cancer and stroma from benign biopsies. In test sets (928 whole-slide images from 330 patients), this algorithm could distinguish biopsies diagnosed as invasive cancer from benign biopsies solely based on the stromal characteristics (area under the receiver operator characteristics curve = 0.962). Furthermore, without being trained specifically using ductal carcinoma in situ as an outcome, the algorithm detected tumor-associated stroma in greater amounts and at larger distances from grade 3 versus grade 1 ductal carcinoma in situ. Collectively, these results suggest that algorithms based on deep convolutional neural networks that evaluate only stroma may prove useful to classify breast biopsies and aid in understanding and evaluating the biology of breast lesions.

20.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 968-978, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915430

RESUMO

The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. We used data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to establish genetic models to predict gene expression in breast tissue and evaluated model performance using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Of the 8,597 genes evaluated, significant associations were identified for 48 at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 5.82 × 10-6, including 14 genes at loci not yet reported for breast cancer. We silenced 13 genes and showed an effect for 11 on cell proliferation and/or colony-forming efficiency. Our study provides new insights into breast cancer genetics and biology.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA