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1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124823, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726520

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated that gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) can be important hosts of arsenic in contaminated hydrogeological systems. However, the extent to which microbial reducing processes contribute to the dissolution and transformation of carbonate and sulfate minerals and, thereby, to arsenic mobilization is poorly understood. These processes are likely to have a strong impact on arsenic mobility in iron-poor environments and in reducing aquifers where iron oxyhydroxides become unstable. Anoxic batch bioassays with arsenate (As(V)) coprecipitated with calcite, gypsum, or ferrihydrite (Fe(OH)3) were conducted in the presence of sulfate or molybdate to examine the impact of bioprocesses (i.e. As(V), sulfate, and Fe(III)-reduction) on arsenic dissolution, speciation, and eventual remineralization. Microbial reduction of As(V)-bearing calcite caused an important dissolution of arsenite, As(III), which remained in solution up to the end of the experiment (30 days). The reduction of As(V) from gypsum-As(V) also led to the release of As(III), which was subsequently remineralized, possibly as arsenic sulfides. The presence of sulfate triggered arsenic dissolution in the bioassays with ferrihydrite-As(V). This study showed that although gypsum and calcite have a lower capacity to bind arsenic, compared to iron oxides, they can play a critical role in the biogeochemical cycle of arsenic in natural calcareous and gypsiferous systems depleted of iron since they can be a source of electron acceptors for reducing bioprocesses.


Assuntos
Arsênico/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Arseniatos/química , Arsenicais/química , Arsenitos/química , Carbonatos/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Ferro/química , Molibdênio/química , Oxirredução , Solubilidade , Sulfatos/química , Sulfetos/química
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 339: 114-121, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633082

RESUMO

High arsenic concentrations have been detected in alluvial aquifers of arid and semi-arid zones in Mexico. This work describes the potential of microbial arsenate reduction of the indigenous community present in sediments from an arsenic contaminated aquifer. Microcosms assays were conducted to evaluate arsenate and sulfate-reducing activities of the native microbiota. Two different sediments were used as inoculum in the assays amended with lactate (10mM) as electron donor and with sulfate and arsenate (10mM each) as electron acceptors. Sediments were distinguished by their concentration of total arsenic 238.3±4.1mg/kg or 2263.1±167.7mg/kg, which may be considered as highly contaminated sediments with arsenic. Microbial communities present in both sediments were able to carry out arsenate reduction, accomplished within 4days, with the corresponding formation of arsenite; sulfate reduction took place as well. Both reducing activities occurred without previous acclimation period or enrichment, even at potential inhibitory concentrations of arsenate as high as 750mg/L (10mM). The formation of a yellowish colloidal precipitate was evident when both reducing processes occurred in the microcosm, which contributed to remove between 52 and 90.9% of As(III) from the liquid phase by bioprecipitation of arsenic as arsenic sulfide.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Lactatos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Sulfetos/metabolismo
3.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 52(4): 274-281, 2017 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28085564

RESUMO

The most efficient system of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW) for removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the presence of chlorothalonil pesticide (CLT) present in synthetic domestic wastewater was determined using the macrophyte Phragmites australis. Two concentrations of CLT (85 and 385 µg L-1) and one concentration of glucose (20 mg L-1) were evaluated in four pilot scale horizontal surface flow constructed wetlands coupled with two sizes of silica gravel, igneous gravel, fine chalky gravel (3.18-6.35 mm), coarse gravel (12.70-25.40 mm) and two water surface heights (20 and 40 cm). For a month, wetlands were acclimated with domestic wastewater. Some groups of bacteria were also identified in the biofilm attached to the gravel. In each treatment periodic samplings were conducted in the influent and effluent. Chlorothalonil was quantified by gas chromatography (GC-ECD m), DOC by an organic carbon analyzer and bacterial groups using conventional microbiology in accordance with Standard Methods. The largest removals of DOC (85.82%-85.31%) were found when using fine gravel (3.18-6.35 mm) and the lower layer of water (20 cm). The bacterial groups quantified in the biofilm were total heterotrophic, revivable heterotrophic, Pseudomonas and total coliforms. The results of this study indicate that fine grain gravel (3.18-6.35 mm) and both water levels (20 to 40 cm) can be used in the removal of organic matter and for the treatment of agricultural effluents contaminated with organo-chloride pesticides like CLT in HSSFCW.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nitrilos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Amônia/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Carbono/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Consórcios Microbianos , Nitrilos/análise , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Poaceae , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
4.
Environ Pollut ; 176: 114-22, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23416746

RESUMO

An As-contaminated perched aquifer under an urban area affected by mining was studied over a year to determine the contamination source species and the mechanism of As mobilization. Results show that the dissolution of calcium arsenates in residues disposed on an inactive smelter has caused high levels of As pollution in the adjoining downgradient 6-km perched aquifer, reaching up to 158 mg/L of dissolved As, and releasing a total of ca. 7.5 tons of As in a year. Furthermore, free calcium ion availability was found to control As mobility in the aquifer through the diagenetic precipitation of calcium arsenates (Ca5H2(AsO4)4·cH2O) preventing further mobilization of As. Results shown here represent a model for understanding a highly underreported mechanism of retention of arsenate species likely to dominate in calcium-rich environments, such as those in calcareous sediments and soils, where the commonly reported mechanism of adsorption to iron(III) oxyhydroxides is not the dominant process.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/análise , Arsênico/análise , Compostos de Cálcio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adsorção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , México , Mineração , Modelos Químicos , Solo/química
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 172(1): 400-7, 2009 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19695775

RESUMO

This study investigated the inhibition effect of iron, cadmium and sulfide on the substrate utilization rate of sulfate reducing granular sludge. A series of batch experiments in a UASB reactor were conducted with different concentrations of iron (Fe2+, 4.0-8.5 mM), cadmium (Cd2+, 0.53-3.0 mM) and sulfide (4.2-10.6 mM), the reactor was fed with ethanol at 1g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L and sulfate to yield a COD/SO4(2-) (g/g) ratio of 0.5. The addition of iron, up to a concentration of 8.1mM, had a positive effect on the substrate utilization rate which increased 40% compared to the rate obtained without metal addition (0.25 g COD/gVSS-d). Nonetheless, iron concentration of 8.5 mM inhibited the specific substrate utilization rate by 57% compared to the substrate utilization rate obtained in the batch amended with 4.0 mM Fe2+ (0.44 g COD/gVSS-d). Cadmium had a negative effect on the specific substrate utilization rate at the concentrations tested; at 3.0 mM Cd2+ the substrate utilization rate was inhibited by 44% compared with the substrate utilization rate without metal addition. Cadmium precipitation with sulfide did not decrease the inhibition of cadmium on sulfate reduction. These results could have important practical implications mainly when considering the application of the sulfate reducing process to treat effluents with high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals such as iron and cadmium.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Ferro/química , Esgotos , Sulfatos/química , Sulfetos/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Desenho de Equipamento , Metais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
FEBS J ; 273(24): 5703-13, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17212785

RESUMO

High-molecular-mass PC complexes (PC-HMWCs) constituted by phytochelatins (PCs), cadmium and sulfide are synthesized by several organisms after exposure to cadmium. In this study, PC-HMWCs were isolated from photoheterotrophic Euglena gracilis and purified to homogeneity, resulting in compounds of molecular mass 50-380 kDa depending on the CdCl2 and sulfate concentrations in the culture medium. In contrast with plants and some yeasts, PC-HMWCs from E. gracilis mainly comprise (57-75%) monothiol molecules (Cys, gamma-glutamylcysteine, GSH) and, to a lesser extent (25-43%), PCs. A similar acid-soluble thiol compound composition was found in whole cell extracts. The -SH/Cd2+ and S2-/Cd2+ ratios found in purified PC-HMWCs were 1.5 and 1.8, respectively; the (-SH + S2-)/Cd2+ ratio was 3.2. PC-HMWCs of molecular mass 60 and 100 kDa were also localized inside Percoll-purified chloroplasts, in which cadmium and PCs were mainly compartmentalized. Cadmium and sulfur-rich clusters with similar sulfur/cadmium stoichiometries to those of the purified PC-HMWCs were detected in the chloroplast and throughout the cell by energy dispersive microanalysis and atomic resolution electron microscopy. The presence of PC-HMWCs in primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes such as the protist, E. gracilis, suggests that their function as the final cadmium-storage-inactivation process is widespread. Their particular intracellular localization suggests that chloroplasts may play a major role in the cadmium-resistance mechanism in organisms lacking a plant-like vacuole.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , Cloroplastos/química , Euglena gracilis/química , Glutationa/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Sulfetos/química , Animais , Compostos de Cádmio/análise , Euglena gracilis/ultraestrutura , Glutationa/análise , Substâncias Macromoleculares/isolamento & purificação , Peso Molecular , Fitoquelatinas , Sulfetos/análise
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