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Ars pharm ; 62(1): 89-95, ene.-mar. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1764


INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral disease that affects several human organs and sys¬tems. Preventive or prophylactic treatments are specifically useful in emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19 because they reduce the need for hospitalization and public health spending. Although the SARS-CoV-2 preventive effect of several therapeutic agents (e.g., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, and ritonavir) has been extensively evaluated, none of them have demonstrated significant clinical efficacy. METHOD: We aim to address and discuss the recently published studies on the chemoprophylactic potential of quer¬cetin against SARS-CoV-2. A literature search was carried out on different databases, such as PubMed/MEDLINE, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Studies that report the effect of quercetin against SARS-CoV-2 or other types of coronaviruses were included and critically evaluated. RESULTS: Studies have shown that quercetin, an FDA-approved flavonoid used as an antioxidant and anti-inflamma¬tory agent, inhibits the entry of coronavirus (SARS-CoV) into the host cell. Moreover, an in silico study showed that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), suggesting that this flavonoid is also active against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Because quercetin might prevent and lessen the duration of SARS-CoV-2 infections, it is plausible to assume that the prophylactic use of this flavonoid produces several clinical benefits. However, this preliminary evidence needs to be confirmed by in vitro assays and, posteriorly, in randomized clinical trials

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es una enfermedad viral que afecta a varios órganosy sistemas. Los tratamientos preventivos o profilácticos son especialmente útiles en enfermedades infecciosas emergentes como COVID-19 porque reducen la necesidad de hospitalización y el gasto en salud pública. Aunque el efecto preventivo del SARS-CoV-2 de varios agentes terapéuticos (e.g., hidroxicloroquina/cloroquina, remdesivir,lopinavir y ritonavir) se ha evaluado ampliamente, ninguno de ellos ha demostrado una gran eficacia clínica. MÉTODO: Por lo tanto, aquí nuestro objetivo es abordar y discutir los estudios publicados recientemente sobre el potencial quimioprofilático de la quercetina contra el SARS-CoV-2. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literaturaen bases como PubMed/MEDLINE, Scielo, Scorpus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library y Clinical Se incluyeron y evaluaron críticamente estudios que abordan la quercetina contra el SARS-CoV-2 u otros tipos decoronavirus. RESULTADOS: Algunos estudios han demostrado que la quercetina, un flavonoide aprobado por la FDA que se utiliza como agente antioxidante y antiinflamatorio, inhibe la entrada del coronavirus (SARS-CoV) en la célula huésped.Además, un estudio in silico mostró que la quercetina es un potente inhibidor de la proteasa principal del SARSCoV-2 (Mpro), lo que sugiere que este flavonoide también es activo contra COVID-19. CONCLUSIONES: Debido a que la quercetina podría prevenir y disminuir la duración de las infecciones por SARSCoV-2, es plausible suponer que el uso profiláctico de este flavonoide produce varios beneficios clínicos. Pero, estas pruebas preliminares deben ser confirmadas mediante ensayos in vitro y, posteriormente, en un ensayo clínico aleatorizado

Arch Virol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410995


Mayaro fever is an infection caused by Mayaro virus (MAYV) that stands out among the neglected diseases transmitted by arthropods. Brazil is the country with the highest number of confirmed cases of MAYV infection. However, epidemiological surveillance studies conducted in Brazil are decentralized and focus on small outbreaks and unconfirmed cases. Thus, the aim of this review was to determine the general epidemiological profile of MAYV infections in Brazil. Several medical databases (i.e., PUBMED/MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, LILACS, SciELO, and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) were searched for studies reporting cases of MAYV infections in Brazilian patients. Then, the rate of exposure to MAYV in Brazil was analyzed using RStudio® Software. We identified 37 studies published from 1957 to 2019, containing data of 12,374 patients from 1955 to 2018. The general rate of exposure to MAYV in Brazil was 10% (95% CI; 0.04-0.22), with 1,304 reported cases. The highest incidence of MAYV infection was found in the northern region (13%; 95% CI; 0.05-0.29), with 1,142 cases (88% of all cases). Furthermore, autochthonous MAYV cases have also been reported in the Central West (8%; 95% CI; 0.03-0.18) and Southeast (0.4%; 95% CI; 0.00-0.28). The states with the highest number of cases are Amazonas (490 cases), Pará (276 cases), and Goiás (87 cases). In conclusion, the general rate of exposure to MAYV in Brazil between 1955 and 2018 was considerable, especially in the Legal Amazon, in which 93% of cases were reported.

Meat Sci ; 173: 108394, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316706


We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the rate of contamination in bovine meat and meat products with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Brazil over the last fifteen years. Data were obtained from online databases in February 2020, and 25 papers were selected from 1036 articles identified in the literature search and 13 articles from gray literature, totaling 4286 samples analyzed. The overall rate of STEC was estimated to be 1% in Brazil. The highest rate (9%) was observed in Mato Grosso, followed by Rio Grande do Sul (1%), Goiás (1%), and São Paulo (1%). Regarding the sample type analyzed, hot carcasses had the highest rate (8%) of positive samples for STEC, followed by cold carcasses (2%) and beef samples (1%). As the available data were concentrated in the São Paulo state, the findings of this meta-analysis reveal the need for further studies in Brazil to allow better risk assessment and prevention of human STEC infections.

Eur J Pharm Sci ; 156: 105592, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049305


Skin infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) require the development of new and effective topical antibiotics. In this context, melittin, the main component of apitoxin, has a potent antibacterial effect. However, little is known regarding the anti-inflammatory potential this peptide in infection models, or its ability to induce clinically important resistance. Here, we aimed to conduct an in-depth characterization of the antibacterial potential of melittin in vitro and evaluate the pharmaceutical potential of an ointment containing melittin for the treatment of non-surgical infections induced by MRSA. The minimum inhibitory concentration of melittin varied from 0.12 to 4 µM. The antibacterial effect was mainly bactericidal and fast (approximately 0.5 h after incubation) and was maintained even in stationary cells and mature MRSA biofilms. Melittin interacts synergistically with beta-lactams and aminoglycosides, and its ability to form pores in the membrane reverses the resistance of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) to amoxicillin, and vancomycin. Its ability to induce resistance in vitro was absent, and melittin was stable in several conditions often associated with infected wounds. In vivo, aointment containing melittin reduced bacterial load and the content of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1 beta. Collectively, these data point to melittin as a potential candidate for topical formulations aimed at the treatment of non-surgical infections caused by MRSA.

Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1729-1737, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514689


The novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, has quickly become a threat to the public health and economy worldwide. Despite the severity of some cases, there are no current pathogen-specific antivirals available to treat the disease. Therefore, many studies have focused on the evaluation of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of clinically available drugs. Here, we conducted a systematic review to describe the drug repositioning strategy against SARS-CoV-2 and to discuss the clinical impact of this approach in the current pandemic context. The systematic review was performed on March 23, 2020, using PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS). The data were summarized in tables and critically analyzed. After the database search, 12 relevant studies were identified as eligible for the review. Among the drugs reported in these studies, 57 showed some evidence of antiviral activity. Antivirals, especially antiretrovirals, are the main class of therapeutic agents evaluated against COVID-19. Moreover, studies have reported the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of antitumor (16%; 9/57), antimalarial (7%, 4/57), and antibacterial (5%; 3/57) agents. Additionally, seven pharmacological agents (chloroquine, tetrandrine, umifenovir (arbidol), carrimycin, damageprevir, lopinavir/ritonavir) are in phase IV of clinical trials. Due to the evidence of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of various clinically available agents, drug repositioning stands out as a promising strategy for a short-term response in the fight against the novel coronavirus.

Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(8): 1427-1438, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533271


We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the rate of polymyxin resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates causing infection in hospitalized patients around the world during the period of 2010-2019. The systematic review was performed on September 1, 2019, using PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science; studies published after January 1, 2010, were selected. The data were summarized in tables, critically analyzed, and treated statistically using the RStudio® Software with Meta package and Metaprop Command. After applying exclusion factors, 41 relevant studies were selected from 969 articles identified on literature search. The overall rate of polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii (PRAB) related to hospitalized patients was estimated to be 13% (95% CI, 0.06-0.27), where a higher rate was observed in America (29%; 95% CI, 0.12-0.55), followed by Europe (13%; 95% CI, 0.02-0.52), and Asia (10%; 95% CI, 0.02-0.32). The extensive use of polymyxins on veterinary to control bacterial infection and growth promotion, as well as the resurgence in prescription and use of polymyxins in the clinics against carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, may have contributed to the increased incidence of PRAB. The findings of this meta-analysis revealed that the rate of PRAB recovered from hospitalized patients is distinctively high. Thus, action needs to be taken to develop strategies to combat the clinical incidence of PRAB-induced hospital infections.

Chemosphere ; 202: 410-419, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579676


The physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Ricciocarpus natans to ciprofloxacin (Cipro) exposure under different growth temperatures were investigated. Cipro appears to act as an inhibitor of mitochondrial Complex III by blocking the oxidation of quinol, resulting in the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 accumulation upon Cipro exposure is responsible for decreased photosynthesis in plants. The amount of H2O2 in plants is kept under control by antioxidant enzymes, whose activities are central to the responses of plants to Cipro yet are influenced by temperature. Increased temperature favored Cipro uptake by plants as well as its deleterious effects on mitochondrial activity; however, it also favored the activity of antioxidant enzymes, thereby preventing the exacerbation of the deleterious effects of Cipro. The uptake of Cipro by plants appears to be largely a passive process, although some uptake must be driven by an energy-consuming process. Ricciocarpus natans should be considered for programs aimed at the reclamation of Cipro since this plant exhibits high Cipro-tolerance, the capacity for accumulation and increased uptake rates of the antibiotic with increasing temperatures (from 20 to 30 °C).

Ciprofloxacino/farmacocinética , Hepatófitas/metabolismo , Temperatura , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidade , Mudança Climática , Hepatófitas/enzimologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/metabolismo
Environ Pollut ; 232: 293-299, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958725


We investigated the ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to take up ciprofloxacin (Cipro), as well as the effects of that antibiotic on the N-fixing process in plants grown in medium deprived (-N) or provided (+N) with nitrogen (N). Azolla was seen to accumulate Cipro at concentrations greater than 160 µg g-1 dry weight when cultivated in 3.05 mg Cipro l-1, indicating it as a candidate for Cipro recovery from water. Although Cipro was not seen to interfere with the heterocyst/vegetative cell ratios, the antibiotic promoted changes with carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. Decreased photosynthesis and nitrogenase activity, and altered plant's amino acid profile, with decreases in cell N concentrations, were observed. The removal of N from the growth medium accentuated the deleterious effects of Cipro, resulting in lower photosynthesis, N-fixation, and assimilation rates, and increased hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Our results shown that Cipro may constrain the use of Azolla as a biofertilizer species due to its interference with nitrogen fixation processes.

Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidade , Gleiquênias/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Gleiquênias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade , Água/metabolismo
J Hazard Mater ; 328: 140-149, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110148


We investigate the physiological responses and antibiotic-uptake capacity of Lemna minor exposed to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) induced toxic effects and hormesis in plants by significantly modifying photosynthesis and respiration pathways. A toxic effect was induced by a concentration ≥1.05mg ciprofloxacin l-1 while hormesis occurs at the lowest concentration studied (0.75mg ciprofloxacin l-1). By impairing normal electron flow in the respiratory electron transport chain, ciprofloxacin induces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. The ability of plants to cope with H2O2 accumulation using antioxidant systems resulted in stimulation/deleterious effects to photosynthesis by Cipro. Cipro-induced oxidative stress was also associated with the ability of L. minor plants to uptake the antibiotic and, therefore, with plant-uptake capacity. Our results indicate that instead of being a photosystem II binding molecule, Cipro induces oxidative stress by targeting the mitochondrial ETC, which would explain the observed effects of the antibiotic on non-target eukaryotic organisms. The selection of plants species with a high capacity to tolerate oxidative stress may constitute a strategy to be used in Cipro-remediation programs.

Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidade , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Araceae/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/efeitos dos fármacos