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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Helicobacter pylori infection is the primary known risk factor for gastric cancer. Despite the global decline in H. pylori prevalence, this infection remains a major public health concern in developing areas, including Latin America. Our study aimed to determine H. pylori seroprevalence and identified its determinants among Hispanics/Latinos living in the United States (U.S.). METHODS: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) is a population-based sample of self-identified Hispanics/Latinos (n = 16,144) in four U.S. communities, aged 18 to 74 years, recruited from randomly selected households using a stratified two-stage area probability sample design based on sampling households within sampled census block groups weighted for differential response rates. Anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using plasma samples. We calculated adjusted seroprevalence (i.e., predicted margins) from multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: The overall weighted H. pylori seroprevalence was 57% among HCHS/SOL participants, with 38% and 62% seropositivity among U.S.-born and non-U.S.-born individuals, respectively. Age-adjusted prevalence varied by self-reported Hispanic/Latino background, ranging from 47% in Puerto Rican to 72% in Central American backgrounds. Adjusted H. pylori seroprevalence was higher in the following groups: older age, male sex, lower education, non-U.S. born status, smoking, greater number of missing teeth, fewer doctor visits, lower ferritin level, and hepatitis A seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori seroprevalence in Hispanics/Latinos remains high and differed significantly by Hispanic/Latino background. H. pylori seropositivity is strongly associated with poor socioeconomic conditions. These findings highlight the ongoing importance of this bacterial infection in the U.S.

2.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 4, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505863

RESUMO

Background: When acquired during pregnancy, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can cause substantial fetal morbidity, however, little is known about the long-term neurodevelopmental abnormalities of infants with congenital ZIKV exposure without microcephaly at birth. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study to characterize infants born with microcephaly, and a retrospective cohort study of infants who appeared well at birth, but had possible congenital ZIKV exposure. We analyzed data from the Dominican Ministry of Health's (MoH) National System of Epidemiological Surveillance. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities were assessed by pediatric neurologists over an 18-month period using Denver Developmental Screening Test II. Results: Of 800 known live births from 1,364 women with suspected or confirmed ZIKV infection during pregnancy, 87 (11%) infants had confirmed microcephaly. Mean head circumference (HC) at birth was 28.1 cm (SD ± 2.1 cm) and 41% had a HC on the zero percentile for gestational age. Of 42 infants with possible congenital ZIKV exposure followed longitudinally, 52% had neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including two cases of postnatal onset microcephaly, during follow-up. Most abnormalities resolved, though two infants (4%) had neurodevelopmental abnormalities that were likely associated with ZIKV infection and persisted through 15-18 months. Conclusions: In the DR epidemic, 11% of infants born to women reported to the MoH with suspected or confirmed ZIKV during pregnancy had microcephaly. Some 4% of ZKV-exposed infants developed postnatal neurocognitive abnormalities. Monitoring of the cohort through late childhood and adolescence is needed.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Microcefalia/virologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus , Adolescente , Criança , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
3.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(4): 432-439, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097939

RESUMO

ID/HIV physicians and other healthcare professionals advocate within the healthcare system to ensure adults and children receive effective treatment. These advocacy skills can be used to inform domestic and global infectious disease policies to improve healthcare systems and public health. ID/HIV physicians have a unique frontline perspective to share with federal policymakers regarding how programs and policies benefit patients and public health. Providing this input is critical to the enactment of legislation that will maximize the response to infectious diseases. This article discusses the advocacy of ID/HIV physicians and other healthcare professionals in federal health policy. Key issues include funding for ID/HIV programs; the protection of public health and access to health care; improving research opportunities; and advancing the field of ID/HIV, including supporting the next generation of ID/HIV clinicians. The article also describes best practices for advocacy and provides case studies illustrating the impact of ID/HIV physician advocacy.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035316

RESUMO

ID/HIV physicians and other healthcare professionals advocate within the healthcare system to ensure adults and children receive effective treatment. These advocacy skills can be used to inform domestic and global infectious diseases policies to improve healthcare systems and public health. ID/HIV physicians have a unique frontline perspective to share with federal policymakers regarding how programs and policies benefit patients and public health. Providing this input is critical to the enactment of legislation that will maximize the response to infectious diseases. This article discusses the advocacy of ID/HIV physicians and other healthcare professionals in federal health policy. Key issues include funding for ID/HIV programs; the protection of public health and access to health care; improving research opportunities; and advancing the field of ID/HIV, including supporting the next generation of ID/HIV clinicians. The article also describes best practices for advocacy and provides case studies illustrating the impact of ID/HIV physician advocacy.

5.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 69, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676298

RESUMO

Several characteristics of refugee and migrant populations make them susceptible to acquire COVID-19. To fully understand the impact of COVID-19 on refugees and migrants in the Americas, it is important to consider the broader geopolitical context and appreciate the differences among migratory groups. There are three migrant groups in the Americas that are particularly susceptible to COVID-19: Central American migrants at the northern Mexico border, Venezuelans within South America, and Haitians in the Dominican Republic. Refugees and displaced migrants are the world's collective responsibility, and thus, it would be imprudent to displace their care to resource constrained developing nations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Refugiados , Migrantes , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , América Central/etnologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Haiti/etnologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Venezuela/etnologia , Populações Vulneráveis
7.
Glob Public Health ; 15(5): 654-665, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874065

RESUMO

Overall, adult men are less likely to seek and receive health care than women, but male circumcision for HIV prevention has been successful in engaging men in health services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between masculine norms and health care-seeking among men participating in a voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) programme in the Dominican Republic (DR). We employed a mixed methods approach integrating survey data collected 6-12 months post-circumcision (n = 293) and in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of these men (n = 30). In our qualitative analysis, we found that health care-seeking is connected to masculine norms among men in the DR, including the perceptions of medical facilities as feminine spaces. Participants' narratives demonstrate that male circumcision programmes may facilitate men overcoming masculinity-related barriers to health care engagement. In quantitative analysis, we found that being concerned about being perceived as masculine was associated with health care-seeking behaviour in the past five years, though this association was not retained in multivariable analyses. Findings indicate that male circumcision programmes can familiarise men with the healthcare system and masculinise health care-seeking and utilisation, easing associated discomfort.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina , Masculinidade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , República Dominicana , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Men Masc ; 22(2): 197-215, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190723

RESUMO

We use data collected from in-depth interviews with men (n=30) in the Dominican Republic to explore how men's concern about being perceived as masculine influences their interactions with their social networks and how those interactions drive men's sexual behaviors and use of violence. Men's sexual and violent behaviors were shaped by the need to compete with other men for social status. This sense of competition also generated fear of humiliation for failing to provide for their families, satisfy sexual partners, or being openly disrespected. In an effort to avoid humiliation within a specific social group, men adapted their behaviors to emphasize their masculinity. Additionally, men who were humiliated recouped their masculinity by perpetrating physical or emotional violence or finding new sexual partners. These findings emphasize the need for understanding these social dynamics to better understand men's violent and sexual behaviors.

9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(2): 247-255, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666928

RESUMO

Zika virus infection during pregnancy may result in birth defects and pregnancy complications. We describe the Zika virus outbreak in pregnant women in the Dominican Republic during 2016-2017. We conducted multinomial logistic regression to identify factors associated with fetal losses and preterm birth. The Ministry of Health identified 1,282 pregnant women with suspected Zika virus infection, a substantial proportion during their first trimester. Fetal loss was reported for ≈10% of the reported pregnancies, and 3 cases of fetal microcephaly were reported. Women infected during the first trimester were more likely to have early fetal loss (adjusted odds ratio 5.9, 95% CI 3.5-10.0). Experiencing fever during infection was associated with increased odds of premature birth (adjusted odds ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.03-2.65). There was widespread morbidity during the epidemic. Our findings strengthen the evidence for a broad range of adverse pregnancy outcomes resulting from Zika virus infection.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/história , Resultado da Gravidez , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/história
10.
Arch Sex Behav ; 47(2): 507-515, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27844313

RESUMO

Quantitative analyses exploring the relationship between masculinities and men's sexual risk behaviors have most commonly used one dimension of masculinities: men's gender ideology. Examining other dimensions may enhance our understanding of and ability to intervene upon this relationship. In this article, we examined the association between gender role conflict/stress (GRC/S)-men's concern about demonstrating masculine characteristics-and three different sexual risk behaviors (having two or more sex partners in the last 30 days; never/inconsistent condom use with non-steady partners; and drinking alcohol at last sex) among a sample of heterosexual men in the Dominican Republic who were participating in an HIV prevention intervention (n = 293). The GRC/S Scale we used was adapted for this specific cultural context and has 17 items (α = 0.75). We used logistic regression to assess the relationship between GRC/S and each sexual behavior, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. In adjusted models, a higher GRC/S score was significantly associated with increased odds of having two or more sex partners in the past 30 days (AOR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.01-1.74), never/inconsistent condom use with non-steady partners (AOR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.04-2.01), and drinking alcohol at last sex (AOR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.13-2.17). These results highlight the importance of expanding beyond gender ideology to understanding the influence of GRC/S on men's sexual risk behaviors. Interventions should address men's concern about demonstrating masculine characteristics to reduce the social and internalized pressure men feel to engage in sexual risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , República Dominicana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis ; 11: 37-46, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720390

RESUMO

Background : Optimal screening and management of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (TB) in solid organ transplant (SOT) candidates and recipients is necessary to prevent morbidity and mortality. Methods : We conducted a cross-sectional survey of TB and transplant experts across the United States reviewing the clinical practice preferences on key management issues related to LTBI and TB in SOT candidates and recipients. Results : Thirty TB and 13 SOT experts were surveyed (response rate = 53.8%). Both groups agreed that tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest x-ray screening in SOT candidates was useful (78.6% and 84.6%, respectively). TST after SOT was not useful for most transplant experts and TB experts (0% vs. 32.1%, respectively), but both groups were split on usefulness of interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) in SOT recipients (42.9% TB experts vs. 46.2% SOT experts). Most experts recommend LTBI treatment prior to SOT if close monitoring is assured (82.1% TB experts vs. 76.9% transplant experts). LTBI treatment with isoniazid was preferred for patients on calcineurin inhibitors. Evaluation for suspected TB in SOT recipients varied, but most TB experts favored sputum testing (88.9%) whereas most transplant experts favored bronchoscopic testing (69.2%). Preferred TB treatment regimens in SOT recipients were similar to regimens recommended for immunocompetent patients. Conclusions : Most TB and transplant experts recommend evaluation and treatment for LTBI in SOT candidates. Liver transplant candidates, however, should only be treated if close monitoring can be assured and after consulting with a hepatologist. Practice preferences varied regarding the initial diagnostic approach for suspected TB in SOT recipients; however, most experts agreed that SOT recipients should receive similar treatments as immunocompetent patients.

12.
J Sex Med ; 14(4): 526-534, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is effective in decreasing the risk of HIV acquisition. As men resume sexual activity after circumcision, it will be important to study their satisfaction with the procedure, sexual pleasure and function, coital trauma, and risk compensation (RC), which can hamper or facilitate the long-term success of VMMC programs. AIM: To assess men's satisfaction with VMMC, sexual pleasure and function, coital trauma, and RC after VMMC. METHODS: This is a cohort study of circumcised men who presented for follow-up 6 to 24 months after VMMC. Logarithmic binomial regression was performed to explore factors associated with any increase in the number of sex partners after VMMC as a measurement of RC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) Men's satisfaction with their VMMC; (ii) sexual pleasure and function after VMMC; (iii) coital trauma; and (iv) RC. RESULTS: Of 454 circumcised men, 362 (80%) returned for a follow-up visit 6 to 24 months after VMMC. Almost all (98%) were satisfied with the outcome of their VMMC; most (95%) reported that their female partners were satisfied with their circumcision. Two thirds (67%) reported enjoying sex more after VMMC and most were very satisfied or somewhat satisfied (94%) with sexual intercourse after VMMC. Sexual function improved and reported sex-induced coital injuries decreased significantly in most men after VMMC. There was an increase in the proportion of men who reported at least two sexual partners after VMMC compared with baseline. In multivariate analysis, having sex with a woman they met the same day (adjusted relative risk = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.4) and having at least two sexual partners at baseline (adjusted relative risk = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8) were associated with the outcome of any increase in the number of partners after VMMC. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: VMMC can be offered to Dominican men for HIV prevention without adversely affecting sexual pleasure or function. The procedure substantially reduces coital trauma. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: This is the first report of long-term overall satisfaction, sexual pleasure/function and sex behaviors in the context of VMMC outside of Africa. Limitations of the study included the reliance on self-reported sex behaviors, the lack of physiologic measurement of penile sensitivity and the lack of follow up data beyond 24 months, which precludes the assessment of longer term RC. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed men's long-term satisfaction with the outcome of their VMMC. VMMC improved sexual pleasure and function for most men and significantly decreased coital injuries. There was mixed evidence of RC. Brito MO, Khosla S, Pananookooln S, et al. Sexual Pleasure and Function, Coital Trauma, and Sex Behaviors After Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Among Men in the Dominican Republic. J Sex Med 2017;14:526-534.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Coito/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , República Dominicana , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Prazer , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
13.
J Sex Res ; 54(1): 42-54, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26942550

RESUMO

Ethnographic studies from numerous societies have documented the central role of male circumcision in conferring masculinity and preparing boys for adult male sexuality. Despite this link between masculinity, sexuality, and circumcision, there has been little research on these dynamics among men who have been circumcised for HIV prevention. We employed a mixed methods approach with data collected from recently circumcised men in the Dominican Republic (DR) to explore this link. We analyzed survey data collected six to 12 months post-circumcision (N = 293) as well as in-depth interviews conducted with a subsample of those men (n = 30). We found that 42% of men felt more masculine post-circumcision. In multivariate analysis, feeling more masculine was associated with greater concern about being perceived as masculine (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.25-2.32), feeling more potent erections post-circumcision (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.26-4.03), and reporting increased ability to satisfy their partners post-circumcision (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.11-4.77). In qualitative interviews, these factors were all related to masculine norms of sexually satisfying one's partner, and men's experiences of circumcision were shaped by social norms of masculinity. This study highlights that circumcision is not simply a biomedical intervention and that circumcision programs need to incorporate considerations of masculine norms and male sexuality into their programming.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Masculinidade , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0137376, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of HIV infection. Studies conducted in the Dominican Republic (DR) suggest that acceptability of VMMC among men may be as high as 67%. The goal of this clinical trial was to assess the acceptability, uptake and safety for VMMC services in two areas of high HIV prevalence in the country. METHODS: This was a single-arm, non-randomized, pragmatic clinical trial. Study personnel received background information about the risks and benefits of VMMC and practical training on the surgical technique. A native speaking research assistant administered a questionnaire of demographics, sexual practices and knowledge about VMMC. One week after the surgery, participants returned for wound inspection and to answer questions about their post-surgical experience. RESULTS: 539 men consented for the study. Fifty seven were excluded from participation for medical or anatomical reasons and 28 decided not to have the procedure after providing consent. A total of 454 men were circumcised using the Forceps Guided Method Under Local Anesthesia. The rate of adverse events (AE) was 4.4% (20% moderate, 80% mild). There were no serious AEs and all complications resolved promptly with treatment. Eighty eight percent of clients reported being "very satisfied" and 12% were "somewhat satisfied" with the outcome at the one-week postoperative visit. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment and uptake were satisfactory. Client satisfaction with VMMC was high and the rate of AEs was low. Roll out of VMMC in targeted areas of the DR is feasible and should be considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02337179.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Circuncisão Masculina/efeitos adversos , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/cirurgia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Programas Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Open ; 5(4): e007747, 2015 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25926151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to estimate the point prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and to investigate the sexual practices and behaviours associated with STIs in a group of gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women (GMT) in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of GMT persons. SETTING: The study was conducted in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic, in June-July 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Out of 117 GMT persons screened, a total of 100 completed the study. Participants had to be at least 18 years of age, reside in La Romana and have had sex with another man in the preceding 12 months. All participants were interviewed and tested for STI. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome of interest was the detection of any STI (HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, hepatitis B or C) by serology. RESULTS: Among 100 participants, the median age was 22 years (range 18-65). One-third had consumed illicit drugs the preceding year and only 43% consistently used condoms. Prevalence was 38% for HSV-2, 5% for HIV and 13% for syphilis. There were no cases of hepatitis B or C. Factors associated with the odds of a STI were age >22 years (OR=11.1, 95% CI 3.6 to 34.5), receptive anal intercourse (OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.6) and having ≥2 male sexual partners during the preceding month (OR=4, 95% CI 1.3 to 12.5). CONCLUSIONS: In this group of GMT persons, seroprevalence of STI was high, and a number of risk behaviours were associated with STI. These preliminary data will help inform policy and programmes to prevent HIV/STI in GMT persons in the region.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina , Assunção de Riscos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 26(2): 203-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24491947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents are at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, little is known about differences in knowledge and risk behaviors across nationalities. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge and perceptions of STDs and the sexual risk behaviors in Latino adolescents in the United States (US) and the Dominican Republic (DR). METHODS: A survey was administered to 364 high school students after obtaining parental consent. The questionnaire asked about demographics, sources of STD information, risk behaviors, and knowledge of syphilis, gonorrhea, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mean percentage scores were calculated to compare correct responses by nationality, gender, and sexual activity. Predictors of self-reported high risk sexual behavior were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In all, 242 (66%) US and 122 (34%) DR students were interviewed. Of these, 52% were males. Median age was 15 years (range, 13-18). Sexual activity was reported by 40% of the participants and did not differ by gender (p=0.43) or national origin (p=0.53), although it was greater for adolescents older than 15 years of age (60% vs. 35%, p<0.001). US students identified abstinence as an effective STD prevention method more often than their counterparts (p=<0.001). Knowledge of specific STDs was higher in girls (p=0.002) and Dominicans (p=0.003). Predictors of high risk behavior were male gender (OR

Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 90(1): 169-72, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24218410

RESUMO

Millions are infected with dengue yearly. We evaluated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric patients infected with dengue in the Dominican Republic. The applicability of World Health Organization (WHO) warning signs for predicting severe dengue and mortality was also studied. This study was a cross-sectional retrospective review of patients with a clinical diagnosis of dengue. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate characteristics associated with severity and mortality. The study included 796 subjects: 288 subjects were classified as dengue, 290 subjects had alarm signs, and 207 subjects were classified as severe dengue. Common findings included thrombocytopenia (96%), abdominal pain (71%), and vomiting (59%). The most important factors associated with severe dengue were rash (P < 0.01), severe thrombocytopenia (P < 0.01), and anemia (P < 0.01). These signs and symptoms were also associated with mortality. This study validates the current WHO warning signs of severity. Rash and severe thrombocytopenia may be early warning signs and need additional study.


Assuntos
Dengue/mortalidade , Dengue/patologia , Adolescente , Anemia/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Glob Infect Dis ; 4(1): 4-5, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22529619
19.
AIDS Care ; 22(12): 1530-5, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20824554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC) is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition in men. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of introducing MC in the Altagracia Province and to qualitatively assess the knowledge and acceptability of MC among men, women, and health providers. METHODS: Two surveys were administered to providers. The first, assessed their experience and knowledge of MC and the second, a "Health Facility Profile," included an inventory of available surgical materials in the clinics. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted to evaluate the acceptability of MC. RESULTS: Forty-three providers were interviewed at 37 clinics. Median age was 33 years (range 23-55 years). Most were physicians (91%) employed by the government. Only 23% had experience with MC. Almost universally (95%), providers knew that MC has health benefits. All agreed that MC improves hygiene and 67% knew that MC decreases the risk of HIV infection. Only six clinics provided HIV counseling and testing and most lacked adequate surgical facilities and equipment. Findings of the qualitative study showed that about half the men and the majority of women were accepting of MC. CONCLUSIONS: Men, women, and providers in the Dominican Republic may be accepting of MC. Education about the benefits of the procedure is needed in the community.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , República Dominicana , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 4(11): e7687, 2009 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19888322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC) is an effective strategy to prevent HIV infection in heterosexual men. To our knowledge, there are no studies of the acceptability of this procedure in the Dominican Republic (DR). The main objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of MC to prevent HIV transmission among men ages 18 to 50 years in the Altagracia Province in the Dominican Republic. Because differences in culture and beliefs between Haitians and Dominicans could potentially influence their acceptability of MC, we conducted a comparative analysis based on national origin. METHODS: A survey was administered to a convenience sample of 368 men. The questionnaire was divided in 3 sections: 1) Background demographics (including national origin), 2) Male circumcision and 3) Sexual health. Stratified and logistic multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the acceptability of MC. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 238 (65%) Dominicans and 130 (35%) Haitian immigrants. Almost all participants were uncircumcised (95%) and about half (52%) were single. The overall acceptability of MC was 29%. The number of men willing to be circumcised increased to 67% after an information session explaining the benefits of the procedure. 74% of men reported that they would be willing to circumcise their sons after hearing that information. In multivariate analysis, Haitian nationality (OR=1.86, 95% CI 1.01-3.41), knowing that circumcision improves hygiene (OR=2.78, 95% CI 1.29-6.0) and not believing that circumcision decreases sexual pleasure (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.20-3.94) were associated with a higher acceptability of the procedure. Although age was not significantly associated with the willingness to be circumcised in the multivariate analysis, stratified analysis based on national origin suggested that younger Dominicans (<30 years of age) are more likely to accept the procedure when compared to their older counterparts (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.14-4.12). CONCLUSIONS: An important number of sexually active men in the DR may be willing to be circumcised if educational resources detailing the benefits of the procedure are made available. These educational activities would constitute a great opportunity to teach about sexual health and reinforce safe sex practices.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , República Dominicana , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
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