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1.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349549

RESUMO

To evaluate the effects of a patented Bacillus subtilis probiotic, weaned Holstein steers, not shedding Salmonella (n = 40; ∼90 kg), were supplemented (CLO) or not (CON) with CLOSTAT® (13 g/hd per day; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) in a starter ration for 35 d. The calves were assigned to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with CLO and CON calves that were orally administered Salmonella (STM) or not (NoSTM). Calves were challenged with 1.6 × 106 colony-forming unit (CFU) Salmonella Typhimurium (resistant to 50 µg/mL nalidixic acid) in 1 L of milk replacer on day 0. Blood samples were collected through jugular catheters every 6 h for 96 h, and body temperature was measured every 5 min through indwelling rectal temperature recording devices. Five calves from each treatment were harvested 48 h postchallenge, and the remaining calves were harvested 96 h postchallenge. During necropsy, tissues were collected for the isolation and quantification of the inoculated STM from various tissues. The CLOSTM group had reduced STM concentrations in the jejunum, ileum, and transverse colon 48 h after the challenge (p ≤ 0.03), but were not different 96 h postchallenge (p > 0.05). Decreased (p < 0.01) pyrexia was observed after the challenge in CLOSTM calves when compared with CONSTM calves. White blood cells and lymphocyte counts were increased (p ≤ 0.05) in CLOSTM calves after the challenge in comparison with other treatments. In calves given STM, the CLO group had greater feed intake before and after the challenge (p < 0.01) compared with the CON group. Increased serum IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were observed in the CONSTM group compared with other treatments. Overall, CLO reduced Salmonella presence and concentrations in gastrointestinal tissues while simultaneously reducing the severity of the challenge as indicated by blood parameters and the reduced febrile response.

2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 575-592, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590903

RESUMO

Vaccination is a critical component of cattle health management. Effective cattle vaccine programs should consider the timing of vaccination in relation to expected disease challenge, risk for wild-type exposure of various bovine pathogens, and host factors during vaccination. Nearly all consulting veterinarians recommend vaccination of stressed, high-risk calves on feedlot arrival. However, this recommendation fails to consider several factors associated with vaccine efficiency. Further research evaluating vaccine interactions in stressed cattle and potential additive effects of endotoxin from multiple bacterin administration may reveal new evidence-based vaccination guidelines for cattle in the various segments of beef and dairy production systems.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Carne Vermelha , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
3.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396526

RESUMO

Stressors experienced by pigs at weaning may negatively impact health and productivity. Thus, supplements that enhance pig immunity during the early post-weaned period are of great interest to the swine industry. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance and hematological responses of weaned pigs supplemented with yeast cell wall (YCW) when challenged orally with Salmonella Typhimurium. Weaned pigs were assigned to one of three treatments for 22d (n = 13/treatment): Control diet, which was a non-medicated starter diet (Control); Control diet supplemented with YCW at 250 mg/kg BW (YCW250; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA); and Control diet supplemented with YCW at 500 mg/kg BW (YCW500). On d19 blood samples were collected from -6 to 72 h relative to oral Salmonella Typhimurium (1 × 106 cfu/pig) challenge. Gain:feed was greater (P = 0.01) in YCW250 treatment compared to both Control and YCW500 pigs. Baseline intraperitoneal temperature was greater (P < 0.001) in YCW250 pigs than Control or YCW500 pigs. There was a treatment x time interaction for the change in intraperitoneal temperature (P < 0.01), post-challenge cortisol, white blood cell counts (WBC), neutrophils, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (P ≤ 0.03). Control pigs had greater (P < 0.05) cortisol concentrations than both YCW-supplemented groups at 0 h, but Control pigs had reduced (P < 0.05) cortisol compared to YCW500 pigs at 24 and 30 h post-challenge. Control pigs had greater (P < 0.05) WBC counts than both YCW-supplemented groups 6 and 12 h post-challenge, and YCW250 pigs had reduced (P < 0.01) WBC counts than Control and YCW500 pigs 18 h post-challenge. Neutrophil counts were greater (P < 0.05) in Control pigs than both YCW-supplemented groups at 6 and 12 h post-challenge and were greater (P = 0.02) than YCW250 pigs at 18 h post-challenge. Lymphocytes were greater (P < 0.001) in Control and YCW500 pigs pre- and post-challenge compared to YCW250 pigs. Control pigs had the greatest (P < 0.001) monocyte counts compared to YCW treatments. There was no effect of yeast supplementation on fecal shedding or Salmonella counts in the rectum, colon or cecum (P ≥ 0.05). While some differences were observed in intraperitoneal temperature and some hematological variables, data suggests there were minimal effects of yeast supplementation on the acute immune response to Salmonella challenge.

4.
Transl Anim Sci ; 3(1): 102-112, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627705

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative anaerobic foodborne pathogen capable of surviving harsh environments. Recent work has indicated that anaerobic conditions increase the resistance capability of certain strains to environmental stressors. The goal of the study was to conduct a preliminary study to determine whether exposure to anaerobic conditions prior to infection increases the ability to survive in vivo. Gerbils were inoculated with one of five doses of the L. monocytogenes strain F2365 by oral gavage: phosphate-buffered saline (control), 5 × 106 colony forming units aerobic culture (low aerobic), 5 × 108 aerobic culture (high aerobic), 5 × 106 anaerobic culture (low anaerobic), or 5 × 108 anaerobic culture (high anaerobic) dose of F2365. Gerbils inoculated with a high aerobic or anaerobic dose exhibited significant weight loss. Gerbils administered either the low or high anaerobic dose had at least 3 log10 of L. monocytogenes present in fecal samples, which contrasted with gerbils that received the low aerobic dose. Animals that received the high anaerobic dose had a significant increase in bacterial loads within the liver. Histologic examination of the L. monocytogenes positive livers exhibited locally extensive areas of hepatocellular necrosis, though the extent of this damage differed between treatment groups. Microbial community analysis of the cecum from gerbils infected with L. monocytogenes indicated that the abundance of Bacteroidales and Clostridiales increased and there was a decrease in the abundance of Spirochaetales. This study suggests that anaerobic conditions alter the localization pattern of L. monocytogenes within the gastrointestinal tract. These findings could relate to how different populations are more susceptible to listeriosis, as oxygen availability may differ within the gastrointestinal tract.

5.
Transl Anim Sci ; 1(1): 69-76, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372597

RESUMO

Sexually dimorphic innate immune responses have been observed in several species, but have not been studied in response to a live pathogen challenge in pigs. This study aimed to elucidate sexually dimorphic innate immune responses along with Salmonella translocation patterns in newly weaned pigs orally inoculated with Salmonella. Newly weaned pigs (n = 8 gilts and 12 barrows; 6.2 ± 0.2 kg BW) were obtained from a commercial swine facility and were maintained in an environmentally-controlled facility in individual pens equipped with feeders and nipple waterers. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to a commercial non-medicated starter ration and water throughout the study. On d 12 post-weaning, pigs were anesthetized to allow placement of a temperature measuring device in the abdominal cavity for measurement of intraperitoneal temperature (TEMP). On d 17, pigs were anesthetized and fitted with indwelling jugular vein catheters. On the following day (d 18), pigs were orally inoculated with 4.7×109 Salmonella typhimurium. Blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h, and at 8-h intervals from 8 to 72 h post-challenge. Whole blood was analyzed for complete blood cell counts. Serum was isolated for measurement of cortisol. Following collection of the 72 h sample, pigs were humanely euthanized and tissues were collected for Salmonella isolation. There was a sex × time interaction (P < 0.001) for TEMP such that gilts had a greater TEMP response to the Salmonella challenge compared to barrows. There was also a sex × time interaction (P = 0.03) for serum cortisol with gilts having decreased cortisol at 16 h yet greater cortisol at 32 h than barrows. Barrows had greater total white blood cells (17.8 vs. 16.2 ± 0.4 103 cells/µL; P < 0.01; respectively) and neutrophils (7.8 vs. 6.1 ± 0.4 103 cells/µL; P < 0.01; respectively) than gilts. However, gilts had greater lymphocytes (9.6 vs. 9.0 ± 0.2 103 cells/µL; P = 0.05; respectively) than barrows. While immune parameters were influenced by sex, there was no effect of sex (P > 0.05) on Salmonella concentrations from fecal shedding 3 d post-inoculation in the cecum, mesenteric and subiliac lymph nodes, liver, spleen, gallbladder, or kidney tissues. These data demonstrate that weaned gilts appear to produce a stronger acute phase response to a Salmonella challenge compared to barrows, without affecting the tissue translocation or shedding of Salmonella.

6.
J Proteomics Bioinform ; 9(4): 107-119, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27274623

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe that is the causative agent of the disease listeriosis. The infectious ability of this bacterium is dependent upon resistance to stressors encountered within the gastrointestinal tract, including bile. Previous studies have indicated bile salt hydrolase activity increases under anaerobic conditions, suggesting anaerobic conditions influence stress responses. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if reduced oxygen availability increased bile resistance of L. monocytogenes. Four strains representing three serovars were evaluated for changes in viability and proteome expression following exposure to bile in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Viability for F2365 (serovar 4b), EGD-e (serovar 1/2a), and 10403S (serovar 1/2a) increased following exposure to 10% porcine bile under anaerobic conditions (P < 0.05). However, HCC23 (serovar 4a) exhibited no difference (P > 0.05) in bile resistance between aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating that oxygen availability does not influence resistance in this strain. The proteomic analysis indicated F2365 and EGD-e had an increased expression of proteins associated with cell envelope and membrane bioenergetics under anaerobic conditions, including thioredoxin-disulfide reductase and cell division proteins. Interestingly, HCC23 had an increase in several dehydrogenases following exposure to bile under aerobic conditions, suggesting that the NADH:NAD+ is altered and may impact bile resistance. Variations were observed in the expression of the cell shape proteins between strains, which corresponded to morphological differences observed by scanning electron microscopy. These data indicate that oxygen availability influences bile resistance. Further research is needed to decipher how these changes in metabolism impact pathogenicity in vivo and also the impact that this has on susceptibility of a host to listeriosis.

7.
Microorganisms ; 3(3): 417-27, 2015 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27682097

RESUMO

More livestock producers are seeking natural alternatives to antibiotics and antimicrobials, and searching for supplements to enhance growth performance, and general animal health and well-being. Some of the compounds currently being utilized and studied are live yeast and yeast-based products derived from the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These products have been reported to have positive effects both directly and indirectly on the immune system and its subsequent biomarkers, thereby mitigating negative effects associated with stress and disease. These yeast-based products have also been reported to simultaneously enhance growth and performance by enhancing dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) perhaps through the establishment of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. These products may be especially useful in times of potential stress such as during birth, weaning, early lactation, and during the receiving period at the feedlot. Overall, yeast supplements appear to possess the ability to improve animal health and metabolism while decreasing morbidity, thereby enhancing profitability of these animals.

8.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 33(12): 2850-8, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25244153

RESUMO

Exogenous growth promoters have been used in US beef cattle production for over 50 yr. The environmental fate and transport of steroid growth promoters suggest potential for endocrine-disrupting effects among ecological receptors; however, the initial excretion of steroid metabolites from cattle administered growth promoters has not been well characterized. To better characterize excretion of trenbolone acetate and estrogen metabolites, steers were assigned to 1 of the following treatment groups: control, given no implant, or treatment, administered a combination implant (200 mg trenbolone acetate, 40 mg estradiol). Blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected over the course of 112 d following implantation. Samples were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for trenbolone acetate and estrogen metabolites. In both urine and feces, 17α-trenbolone and 17α-estradiol were the predominant metabolites following implantation. Mean concentrations of 17α-trenbolone and 17α-estradiol in feces of implanted steers were 5.9 ± 0.37 ng/g and 2.7 ± 0.22 ng/g, respectively. A best-fit model is presented to predict 17α-trenbolone and 17α-estradiol excretion from steers receiving implants. The present study provides the first characterization of both trenbolone and estrogen metabolites in excreta from implanted cattle and will help provide estimates of steroid production from feedyards in the United States.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Acetato de Trembolona/metabolismo , Anabolizantes/sangue , Anabolizantes/urina , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estradiol/sangue , Estradiol/urina , Estrogênios/sangue , Estrogênios/urina , Fezes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo , Acetato de Trembolona/sangue , Acetato de Trembolona/urina
9.
Int J Microbiol ; 2013: 398320, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23401690

RESUMO

Citrus byproducts (CBPs) are utilized as a low cost nutritional supplement to the diets of cattle and have been suggested to inhibit the growth of both Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. The objective of this study was to examine the effects in vitro that varying concentrations of CBP in the powdered or pelleted variety have on the survival of Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes O26:H11, O103:H8, O111:H8, O145:H28, and O157:H7 in bovine ruminal microorganism media. The O26:H11, O111:H8, O145:H28, and O157:H7 serotypes did not exhibit a change in populations in media supplemented with CBP with either variety. The O103:H8 serotype displayed a general trend for an approximate 1log(10) reduction in 5% powdered CBP and 20% pelleted CBP over 6 h. There was a trend for reductions in populations of a variant form of O157:H7 mutated in the stx1 and stx2 genes in higher concentrations of CBP. These results suggest that variations exist in the survival of these serotypes of STEC within mixed ruminal microorganism fluid media when supplemented with CBP. Further research is needed to determine why CBPs affect STEC serotypes differently.

10.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 10(1): 1-5, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23320419

RESUMO

The use of luminescent plasmids in bacteria may serve as a viable model for the real-time validation of various pre-harvest interventions on the colonization or shedding patterns of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within cattle. The objective of this study was to determine if the growth characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 in mixed ruminal and fecal microbial fluid cultures would be altered when transformed with one of the two luminescent plasmids: pAK1-lux (PAK) or pXEN-13 (XEN). Transformants harboring the luminescent plasmids were compared to the non-transformed parental strain (wild type [WT]) after incubating in mixed ruminal or fecal microbial fluid media for 6 h in triplicate (n=3). The transformants and WT exhibited similar growth rates. Within mixed ruminal microbial fluid fermentations and mixed fecal microbial fluid, all transformants grew similarly (p=0.28) through the 6-h study. The reflective light unit (RLU; photons/pixel per second) photonic emissions of each plasmid within ruminal fluid differed at 0 h (p=0.002) and 2 h (p=0.02) and within fecal fluid at 0 h (p=0.009) and 2 h (p=0.04). The RLU remained the same within rumen fluid at 4 h (p=0.22) and 6 h (p=0.80) and within fecal fluid at 4 h (p=0.06) and 6 h (p=0.29). Growth of E. coli O157:H7 transformed with the bioluminescent plasmids was not altered in comparison to the WT, suggesting that both plasmids may serve as useful models for in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Rúmen/microbiologia , Animais , Derrame de Bactérias , Líquidos Corporais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Escherichia coli O157/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Fermentação , Marcadores Genéticos , Luminescência , Masculino , Transformação Genética
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