Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24
Filtrar
1.
J Nucl Med ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771903

RESUMO

We report the impact of 177Lu DOTATATE treatment on abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flushing, symptoms that patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) often find burdensome. Methods: All patients enrolled in the international randomized phase 3 Neuroendocrine Tumors Therapy (NETTER-1) trial (177Lu-DOTATATE plus standard-dose octreotide long-acting repeatable [LAR], n = 117; high-dose octreotide LAR, n = 114) were asked to record the occurrence of predefined symptoms in a daily diary. Change from baseline in symptom scores (mean number of days with a symptom) was analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measures. Results: Patients (intent-to-treat) who received 177Lu-DOTATATE experienced a significantly greater decline from baseline in symptom scores than patients who received high-dose octreotide LAR. For 177Lu-DOTATATE, the mean decline in days with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flushing was 4.10, 4.55, and 4.52 days per 4 weeks, respectively, compared with 0.99, 1.44, and 2.54 days for high-dose octreotide LAR. The mean differences were 3.11 days (95% confidence interval, 1.35-4.88; P = 0.0007) for abdominal pain, 3.11 days (1.18-5.04; P = 0.0017) for diarrhea, and 1.98 days (0.08-3.88; P = 0.0413) for flushing, favoring 177Lu-DOTATATE. A positive repeated measures correlation was found between diary-recorded symptom scores and questionnaire-recorded pain, diarrhea, and flushing. Conclusion: In addition to efficacy and quality of life benefits, symptom diaries from NETTER-1 demonstrated that treatment with 177Lu DOTATATE was associated with statistically significant reductions in abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flushing, constituting the core symptoms of patients with progressive midgut NETs, compared with high-dose octreotide LAR, supporting a beneficial effect of 177Lu DOTATATE on HRQoL.

2.
Acta Oncol ; 59(9): 1103-1109, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As tumors maintain an inflammatory microenvironment, anti-inflammatory medication can be useful in cancer therapy. We have previously shown an association with improved survival in melanoma for use of the H1-antihistamines desloratadine and loratadine, and here we examine use of H1-antihistamines and breast cancer mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated use of the six major H1-antihistamines (cetirizine, clemastine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine and loratadine) and breast cancer-specific and overall mortality in a nation-wide register-based study of all 61,627 Swedish women diagnosed with breast cancer 2006-2013. Both peri- and post-diagnostic antihistamine use was analyzed using Cox regression models. Analyses were stratified for age and subgroup analyses based on estrogen receptor status and menopausal status were performed. RESULTS: We found a consistently improved survival of desloratadine users (HR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.55-0.81, p < .001), as well as of loratadine users (HR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.67-0.95, p = .012), relative to nonusers, regardless of patient age, menopause, estrogen receptor status or stage of the tumor, or whether breast cancer-specific or overall survival was analyzed. The survival of users of other antihistamines varied relative to non-users. CONCLUSION: Based on their safety and current use within the patient population, together with our observations, we suggest the initiation of trials of desloratadine and loratadine as treatment of breast cancer as well as studies of the mechanism behind their possible effect. Further studies on any effects of other H1-antihistamines may also be merited, as well as of H1-antihistamine use and survival in other malignancies.

3.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 100(1): adv00010, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663602

RESUMO

Prospective observational studies have shown previously that study participants have lower morbidity and mortality than non-participants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether participants in a prospective cohort study on melanoma have a different incidence and mortality of melanoma compared with non-participants and the background population. Information was collected from Swedish National Registers on participants (n = 30,501) and non-participants (n = 10,499) in the "Melanoma In Southern Sweden" (MISS) study and the background population (n = 243,032). Hazard ratios were calculated for overall incidence of cancer and melanoma, and all-cause and melanoma-specific mortality, using Cox regression. Participants had a lower overall incidence of cancer and all-cause mortality than non-participants and the background population. There was no difference in incidence of melanoma or melanoma-specific characteristics between participants and the background population. In conclusion, participants in the MISS study have a slightly better general health, but are a representative sample of the population with regard to studies of melanoma risk factors.


Assuntos
Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(6): 2018-2025, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, with high mortality rate and substantial disability among survivors. Its causes are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate risk factors for SAH using a novel nationwide cohort consortium. METHODS: We obtained individual participant data of 949 683 persons (330 334 women) between 25 and 90 years old, with no history of SAH at baseline, from 21 population-based cohorts. Outcomes were obtained from the Swedish Patient and Causes of Death Registries. RESULTS: During 13 704 959 person-years of follow-up, 2659 cases of first-ever fatal or non-fatal SAH occurred, with an age-standardized incidence rate of 9.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) (7.4-10.6)/100 000 person-years] in men and 13.8 [(11.4-16.2)/100 000 person-years] in women. The incidence rate increased exponentially with higher age. In multivariable-adjusted Poisson models, marked sex interactions for current smoking and body mass index (BMI) were observed. Current smoking conferred a rate ratio (RR) of 2.24 (95% CI 1.95-2.57) in women and 1.62 (1.47-1.79) in men. One standard deviation higher BMI was associated with an RR of 0.86 (0.81-0.92) in women and 1.02 (0.96-1.08) in men. Higher blood pressure and lower education level were also associated with higher risk of SAH. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SAH is 45% higher in women than in men, with substantial sex differences in risk factor strengths. In particular, a markedly stronger adverse effect of smoking in women may motivate targeted public health initiatives.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/mortalidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5154, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914758

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma is one of the most common deadly cancers, and robust biomarkers are still needed, e.g. to predict survival and treatment efficiency. Here, protein expression analysis of one hundred eleven melanoma lymph node metastases using high resolution mass spectrometry is coupled with in-depth histopathology analysis, clinical data and genomics profiles. This broad view of protein expression allowed to identify novel candidate protein markers that improved prediction of survival in melanoma patients. Some of the prognostic proteins have not been reported in the context of melanoma before, and few of them exhibit unexpected relationship to survival, which likely reflects the limitations of current knowledge on melanoma and shows the potential of proteomics in clinical cancer research.


Assuntos
Genômica , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Proteômica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
6.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 28(4): e13037, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) leads to improved survival in women following the diagnosis of breast cancer, but it is less clear whether PA has equally positive effects regardless of age at diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the association between post-diagnosis PA and survival in women aged below or over 55 years at diagnosis. METHODS: From a prospective population-based cohort of Swedish women, we included 847 women, aged 34-84 years, who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 1992 to 2012. A PA score was calculated based on three different questions regarding self-reported PA. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the association between PA and mortality. RESULTS: A significant association between PA score and all-cause mortality was observed, in a dose-response manner (ptrend  = 0.01). The mortality was clearly lower in the most active compared to the least active group (hazard ratio 0.29, 95% confidence intervals 0.09-0.90). A subgroup analysis showed that the improved survival was only seen in women over 55 years of age at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Physical activity, which is a modifiable lifestyle factor, should be encouraged after breast cancer diagnosis, especially in women with post-menopausal breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sobrevida , Suécia
7.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
8.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 54, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A sizeable body of evidence suggests that statins can cease breast cancer progression and prevent breast cancer recurrence. The latest studies have, however, not been supportive of such clinically beneficial effects. These discrepancies may be explained by insufficient power. This considerably sized study investigates the association between both pre- and post-diagnostic statin use and breast cancer outcome. METHODS: A Swedish nation-wide retrospective cohort study of 20,559 Swedish women diagnosed with breast cancer (July 1st, 2005 through 2008). Dispensed statin medication was identified through the Swedish Prescription Registry. Breast cancer related death information was obtained from the national cause-of-death registry until December 31st, 2012. Cox regression models yielded hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) regarding associations between statin use and breast cancer-specific and overall mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 61.6 months, a total of 4678 patients died, of which 2669 were considered breast cancer related deaths. Compared to non- or irregular use, regular pre-diagnostic statin use was associated with lower risk of breast cancer related deaths (HR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.63-0.95, P = 0.014). Similarly, post-diagnostic statin use compared to non-use was associated with lower risk of breast cancer related deaths (HR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.75-0.93, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study supports the notion that statin use is protective regarding breast cancer related mortality in agreement with previous Scandinavian studies, although less so with studies in other populations. These disparities should be further investigated to pave the way for future randomized clinical trials investigating the role of statins in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
9.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 968-978, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915430

RESUMO

The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. We used data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to establish genetic models to predict gene expression in breast tissue and evaluated model performance using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Of the 8,597 genes evaluated, significant associations were identified for 48 at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 5.82 × 10-6, including 14 genes at loci not yet reported for breast cancer. We silenced 13 genes and showed an effect for 11 on cell proliferation and/or colony-forming efficiency. Our study provides new insights into breast cancer genetics and biology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Transcriptoma
10.
Biometrics ; 73(3): 895-904, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099993

RESUMO

We consider conditional estimation in two-stage sample size adjustable designs and the consequent bias. More specifically, we consider a design which permits raising the sample size when interim results look rather promising, and which retains the originally planned sample size when results look very promising. The estimation procedures reported comprise the unconditional maximum likelihood, the conditionally unbiased Rao-Blackwell estimator, the conditional median unbiased estimator, and the conditional maximum likelihood with and without bias correction. We compare these estimators based on analytical results and a simulation study. We show how they can be applied in a real clinical trial setting.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Modelos Estatísticos , Probabilidade , Tamanho da Amostra
11.
Acta Oncol ; 56(1): 75-80, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27919198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have indicated that physical activity reduces the risk of developing breast cancer. More recently, sedentary behavior has been suggested as a risk factor independent of physical activity level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate occupational sedentariness and breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study (n = 29 524), working history was assessed by a questionnaire between 1990 and 1992. Participants were classified as having: (1) sedentary occupations only; (2) mixed occupations or (3) non-sedentary occupations only. The association between occupational sedentariness and breast cancer incidence was analyzed by Cox regression, adjusted for known risk factors and participation in competitive sports. RESULTS: Women with a working history of occupational sedentariness had a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05, 1.37) compared with those with mixed or non-sedentary occupations. The association was stronger among women younger than 55 years (adjusted HR 1.54; 95% CI 1.20, 1.96), whereas no association was seen in women 55 years or older. Adjustment for participation in competitive sports did not change the association. CONCLUSIONS: We found that occupational sedentariness was associated with increased breast cancer risk, especially in women younger than 55 years. This may be a modifiable risk factor by planning breaks during the working day. Whether this reduces the risk of breast cancer needs to be further studied.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Exercício Físico , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Metabolism ; 64(8): 872-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25982699

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children with type 1 diabetes have been identified as a risk group for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim was to compare total hepatic fat fraction and fat distribution across Couinaud segments in children with type 1 diabetes and controls and the relation of hepatic fat to plasma and anthropometric parameters. METHODS: Hepatic fat fraction and fat distribution across Couinaud segments were measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 22 children with type 1 diabetes and 32 controls. Blood tests and anthropometric data were collected. RESULTS: No children had NAFLD. Children with type 1 diabetes had a slightly lower hepatic fat fraction (median 1.3%) than controls (median 1.8%), and their fat had a different segmental distribution. The fat fraction of segment V was the most representative of the liver as a whole. An incidental finding was that diabetes patients treated with multiple daily injections of insulin (MDI) had a fat distribution more similar to controls than patients with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). CONCLUSIONS: In children with type 1 diabetes, NAFLD may be less common than recent studies have suggested. Children with type 1 diabetes may have a lower fat fraction and a different fat distribution in the liver than controls. Diabetes treatment with MDI or CSII may affect liver fat, but this needs to be confirmed in a larger sample of patients. The heterogeneity of hepatic fat infiltration may affect results when liver biopsy is used for diagnosing fatty liver.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico
13.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 54(1): 39-50, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25251729

RESUMO

Three studies have reported that BRCA1/2 mutations of paternal origin confer an earlier age at breast cancer diagnosis compared with maternal origin. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the impact of parental origin of BRCA1/2 mutations on age at breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis. This study included 577 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. All BRCA1/2 mutation carriers belonged to families registered between 1993 and 2011 at the Oncogenetic Clinic at Skånes University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Cox proportional hazard ratios were used to analyze time to breast or ovarian cancer diagnosis. A novel finding was that carriers of BRCA1 mutations of paternal origin were 4 years older at age of ovarian cancer (P = 0.009) compared with those carrying a BRCA1 mutation of maternal origin. BRCA1 carriers with mutations of paternal origin were 4 years younger at breast cancer diagnosis (P = 0.017) compared with those carrying a BRCA1 mutation of maternal origin, which is in agreement with three previous studies. Both findings were adjusted for of year of inclusion, birth date, and oral contraceptive pill use. No associations between parental origin of BRCA2 mutations and time to breast or ovarian cancer diagnosis were found. An attempt to handle a potential selection bias regarding use of oral contraceptives was made using multiple imputations by chained equations. The observed age difference may allow a greater understanding of mechanisms associated with the differences in cancer penetrance in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, some of which may depend on paternal origin.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Impressão Genômica , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia
14.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 13: 94, 2013 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23870495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One major concern with adaptive designs, such as the sample size adjustable designs, has been the fear of inflating the type I error rate. In (Stat Med 23:1023-1038, 2004) it is however proven that when observations follow a normal distribution and the interim result show promise, meaning that the conditional power exceeds 50%, type I error rate is protected. This bound and the distributional assumptions may seem to impose undesirable restrictions on the use of these designs. In (Stat Med 30:3267-3284, 2011) the possibility of going below 50% is explored and a region that permits an increased sample size without inflation is defined in terms of the conditional power at the interim. METHODS: A criterion which is implicit in (Stat Med 30:3267-3284, 2011) is derived by elementary methods and expressed in terms of the test statistic at the interim to simplify practical use. Mathematical and computational details concerning this criterion are exhibited. RESULTS: Under very general conditions the type I error rate is preserved under sample size adjustable schemes that permit a raise. The main result states that for normally distributed observations raising the sample size when the result looks promising, where the definition of promising depends on the amount of knowledge gathered so far, guarantees the protection of the type I error rate. Also, in the many situations where the test statistic approximately follows a normal law, the deviation from the main result remains negligible. This article provides details regarding the Weibull and binomial distributions and indicates how one may approach these distributions within the current setting. CONCLUSIONS: There is thus reason to consider such designs more often, since they offer a means of adjusting an important design feature at little or no cost in terms of error rate.


Assuntos
Viés , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Modelos Estatísticos , Tamanho da Amostra , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
J Crohns Colitis ; 6(4): 476-82, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22398060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Left-sided colitis is the most prevalent subtype of ulcerative colitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. The standard of care for mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis is mesalazine. The PODIUM study compared a once daily to a twice daily dosing regimen of a slow-release mesalazine (Pentasa®); here we assess the efficacy, in terms of maintenance of remission and mucosal healing, of both regimens in patients with left-sided disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients were randomised to once daily (1×2 g) or twice daily (2×1 g) oral treatment with mesalazine, for 12 months. Disease activity was assessed clinically and endoscopically at baseline and at 12 months using the Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index, without endoscopic assessment at months 4 and 8. RESULTS: The study met the primary endpoint of non-inferiority in terms of remission, for once daily versus twice daily dosing, in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis; an 8% difference was reported in the 12-month clinical and endoscopic remission rates (69% [95% CI: 59.5-76.5] and 61% [95% CI: 51.4-69.6] with once daily and twice daily dosing, respectively; p=0.310). Mucosal healing scores after 12 months were 0 or 1 for 84.4% of the once daily and 78.8% of the twice daily population. Slow-release mesalazine was well tolerated in both dosing regimens, with no difference in reported adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Once daily slow-release mesalazine is similarly effective to the standard twice daily schedule in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis for the maintenance of remission in mild-to-moderate disease.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/patologia , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Mesalamina/administração & dosagem , Mesalamina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 20(5): 572-81, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20236862

RESUMO

This retrospective study aimed to identify novel pre-stimulation parameters associated with live birth in IVF and to develop a model for prediction of the chances of live birth at an early phase of the treatment cycle. Data were collected from a randomized trial in couples with unexplained infertility, tubal factor, mild male factor or other reason for infertility. All women (n=731) had undergone an IVF cycle (no intracytoplasmic sperm injection) after stimulation with human menopausal gonadotrophin or follicle-stimulating hormone following the long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol. The univariate tests identified several novel parameters that were significantly (P<0.05) associated with live birth (duration of agonist use, endometrial thickness, pre-stimulation progesterone, androstenedione and total testosterone concentrations, pre-stimulation free androgen index and primary infertility diagnosis), in addition to the well-known predictors female age and duration of infertility. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the best predictive model (area under the curve=0.65) was obtained using the parameters age, duration of infertility, infertility diagnosis, endometrial thickness and pre-stimulation total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The results indicate that younger age and marked suppression of ovarian steroids prior to starting stimulation may increase the likelihood of live birth in the long protocol.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Indução da Ovulação , Gravidez
17.
Clin Respir J ; 2(1): 17-25, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20298300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammation is an important constituent of the pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), leading to alveolar destruction and airway remodelling. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the difference in plasma biomarkers of inflammation between asymptomatic smokers and patients with COPD. METHODS: We used commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits to measure the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) on two occasions with a 2-week interval in patients with COPD (n = 20), asymptomatic smokers (n = 10) and healthy lifelong non-smokers (n = 10). The participants were characterised clinically, physiologically and by quantitative computed tomography by measuring the relative area of emphysema below -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910). RESULTS: The results of the biomarker measurements on the two occasions were highly reproducible. Patients with COPD had significantly higher plasma levels of IL-8 (P = 0.004) and significantly lower levels of TIMP-1 (P = 0.02) than smokers and non-smokers. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups in the level of TNF-alpha, MMP-9, MCP-1 and TIMP-2. The IL-8/TIMP-1 ratio correlated significantly with the degree of airway obstruction measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) % predicted (r = -0.47, P < 0.01); with the diffusion capacity (r = -0.41, P < 0.01); and with the grade of emphysema measured as RA-910 (r = 0.39, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the measurement of plasma biomarkers, such as IL-8/TIMP-1, may aid to discriminate patients with COPD from smokers at lower risk of developing COPD.


Assuntos
Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-8/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Clin Chem ; 53(4): 636-44, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17303691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We modeled the expression of proteins in baseline bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from asymptomatic 60-year-old lifelong current smokers or healthy never-smokers, who were reevaluated after 6 to 7 years to record clinical outcome. METHODS: Applying a technology toolbox consisting of replicate 2-dimensional gel separations, image annotation, and mass spectrometry identification, we catalogued a global set of proteins that were differentially expressed in individuals by presence, absence, and intensity scores. RESULTS: By use of multivariate analysis, we selected a subset of proteins that accurately separated smokers from never-smokers based on composite scoring. Follow-up after 6 to 7 years identified a group of individuals who had progressed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage 2. The baseline BAL samples of these eventual COPD patients shared a distinct protein expression profile that could be identified using partial least-squares discriminant analysis. This pattern was not observed in BAL samples of asymptomatic smokers free of COPD at 6- to 7-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our model suggests that certain patterns of protein expression occurring in the airways of long-term smokers may be detected in smokers susceptible to a progression of COPD disease, before disease is clinically evident.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Proteoma/biossíntese , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Proteoma/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia
19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 175(6): 577-86, 2007 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17158281

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The molecular mechanisms involved in airway oxidative stress responses reported in healthy smokers and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To assess the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses in the bronchial epithelium of smokers with or without COPD and in relation to disease severity. METHODS: Global gene expression was assessed in bronchial brushings in 38 subjects with COPD, 14 healthy nonsmokers, and 18 healthy smokers. RESULTS: Gene expression analysis using Affymetrix arrays revealed mRNAs representing 341 out of 642 oxidative stress genes from two predefined gene sets to be differentially expressed in healthy nonsmokers when compared with healthy smokers, and 200 differentially expressed oxidative genes in subjects with COPD when compared with healthy smokers. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that pathways involved in oxidant/antioxidant responses were among the most differentially expressed gene pathways in smoking individuals, with further differences seen in COPD. Distinct, nonlinear gene expression patterns were identified across the severity spectrum of COPD, which correlated with the presence of certain transcription factor binding sites in their promoters. Significant changes in oxidant response genes observed in vivo were reproduced in vitro using primary bronchial epithelial cells from the same donors cultured at an air-liquid interface and exposed to cigarette smoke extract. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoke induces significant changes in oxidant defense responses; some of these are further amplified, but not in a linear fashion, in individuals who develop COPD.


Assuntos
Epitélio/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Sítios de Ligação , Biópsia , Brônquios/metabolismo , Brônquios/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fumar/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
20.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 6: 199, 2005 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16086831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the analysis of microarray data one generally produces a vector of p-values that for each gene give the likelihood of obtaining equally strong evidence of change by pure chance. The distribution of these p-values is a mixture of two components corresponding to the changed genes and the unchanged ones. The focus of this article is how to estimate the proportion unchanged and the false discovery rate (FDR) and how to make inferences based on these concepts. Six published methods for estimating the proportion unchanged genes are reviewed, two alternatives are presented, and all are tested on both simulated and real data. All estimates but one make do without any parametric assumptions concerning the distributions of the p-values. Furthermore, the estimation and use of the FDR and the closely related q-value is illustrated with examples. Five published estimates of the FDR and one new are presented and tested. Implementations in R code are available. RESULTS: A simulation model based on the distribution of real microarray data plus two real data sets were used to assess the methods. The proposed alternative methods for estimating the proportion unchanged fared very well, and gave evidence of low bias and very low variance. Different methods perform well depending upon whether there are few or many regulated genes. Furthermore, the methods for estimating FDR showed a varying performance, and were sometimes misleading. The new method had a very low error. CONCLUSION: The concept of the q-value or false discovery rate is useful in practical research, despite some theoretical and practical shortcomings. However, it seems possible to challenge the performance of the published methods, and there is likely scope for further developing the estimates of the FDR. The new methods provide the scientist with more options to choose a suitable method for any particular experiment. The article advocates the use of the conjoint information regarding false positive and negative rates as well as the proportion unchanged when identifying changed genes.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ordem dos Genes , Transcrição Genética/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Sequência de Bases/genética , DNA/genética , Reações Falso-Positivas , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Moleculares , Moldes Genéticos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...