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1.
Tumori ; : 3008916211047888, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved as first-line therapy for advanced EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Some osimertinib-related interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) were shown to be transient, called transient asymptomatic pulmonary opacities (TAPO)-clinically benign pulmonary opacities that resolve despite continued osimertinib treatment-and are not associated with the clinical manifestations of typical TKI-associated ILDs. METHODS: In this multicentric study, we retrospectively analyzed 92 patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with osimertinib. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were reviewed by two radiologists and TAPO were classified according to radiologic pattern. We also analyzed associations between TAPO and patients' clinical variables and compared clinical outcomes (time to treatment failure and overall survival) for TAPO-positive and TAPO-negative groups. RESULTS: TAPO were found in 18/92 patients (19.6%), with a median follow-up of 114 weeks. Median onset time was 16 weeks (range 6-80) and median duration time 14 weeks (range 8-37). The most common radiologic pattern was focal ground-glass opacity (54.5%). We did not find any individual clinical variable significantly associated with the onset of TAPO or significant difference in clinical outcomes between TAPO-positive and TAPO-negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: TAPO are benign pulmonary findings observed in patients treated with osimertinib. TAPO variability in terms of CT features can hinder the differential diagnosis with either osimertinib-related mild ILD or tumor progression. However, because TAPO are asymptomatic, it could be reasonable to continue therapy and verify the resolution of the CT findings at follow-up in selected cases.

2.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407053

RESUMO

The administration of approved systemic treatments for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited to patients with preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A/B7) and performance status. Conversely, metronomic chemotherapy can be safely administered to patients with poor clinical conditions and severe liver impairment. The metronomic schedule demonstrated to exert different anticancer mechanisms compared to that of the same agent administered at its standard schedule, including immune stimulation and the inhibition of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Nevertheless, metronomic chemotherapy is a nearly neglected option for the treatment of advanced HCC patients, even among those who cannot afford standard treatments. Herein, we report the case of a 40-year-old patient affected by HBV-HDV-related cirrhosis who was diagnosed with advanced HCC. The severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh B9) did not allow to administer first-line treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors so that the patient received metronomic capecitabine as upfront therapy. Due to the suspect of progressive disease at the first radiologic assessment, metronomic cyclophosphamide was added to capecitabine aiming to enhance its efficacy. After 4 months of treatment, complete tumor response, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) normalization and the recovery of a Child-Pugh A were achieved. The patient was then able to undergo liver transplantation, and, after 18 months from the diagnosis, he is still free of disease recurrence. This experience emphasizes the reliability of metronomic capecitabine as a well-tolerated and effective treatment when patient's conditions prevent the administration of standard first-line treatments. In fact, metronomic capecitabine demonstrated its effectiveness in advanced HCC in retrospective and prospective analyses, leading to median progression-free survival and overall survival of, respectively, 6.03 and 14.47 months in phase II single-arm trial. Moreover, in consideration of the raising interest in immune-checkpoint inhibition in HCC, we believe that the immunomodulating effects of metronomic chemotherapy, either capecitabine or cyclophosphamide, warrant future trials exploring its combination with immunotherapy.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298702

RESUMO

Treatment response is usually assessed by the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST). These criteria may not be adequate to evaluate the response to immunotherapy, considering the peculiar patterns of response reported with this therapy. With the advent of immunotherapy these criteria have been modified to include the evaluation of the peculiar responses seen with this type of therapy (iRECIST criteria), including pseudoprogressions and hyperprogressions. Tumor growth rate (TGR) is a dynamic evaluation that takes into account the kinetics of response to treatment and may help catch the real efficacy of an immunotherapy approach. We performed a retrospective monocentric study to explore the impact of TGR change after nivolumab administration as the second or later line of treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We evaluated 27 patients, divided into three categories: Disease control (DC) if there was no PD; lower velocity PD (LvPD) if disease progressed but the TGR at second assessment (TGR2) was lower than the TGR at first assessment (TGR1); higher velocity PD (HvPD) if TGR2 was higher than TGR1. The median OS for the DC group was 11.0 months (95% CI 5.0-17.0) (reference) vs. (not reached) NR (95% CI NR-NR) for LvPD (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.06-1.30; p 0.102) vs. NR (95% CI NR-NR) for HvPD (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06-0.88; p 0.032). There was no difference between LvPD and DC (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.20-7.28; p 0.838). In patients with metastatic RCC, the second or later line of nivolumab treatment may lead to a deceleration in TGR resulting in an improved survival outcome similar to that observed in patients experiencing tumor regression. In this subgroup, especially in the presence of a clinical benefit, continuing the treatment beyond progression can be recommended.

5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 8474-8478, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977731

RESUMO

Orbital metastases are an extremely rare finding in patients with hepatocarcinoma (HCC), especially as its first presentation. Therefore, the risk of misdiagnosis is high, as well as that of drastic delays of the therapeutic algorithm. Here we report a 71-year-old man presenting with orbital metastases as the initial sign of HCC, whose initial misdiagnosis led to the impossibility to start life-saving cancer treatment. The patient's history has begun on March 2018 with a growing tumefaction of the right orbit initially treted with antibiotics and corticosteroids without benefit. Subsequently, a facial CT scan showed a voluminous right intra-orbital mass, eroding the orbital roof. Tissue biopsy documented well differentiated malignant epithelial tumor cells. Under the suspect of primitive lachrymal gland tumor, the patient was admitted to the head and neck Unit with surgical intent. However, a subsequent 18F-FDG-PET documented the presence of liver lesions and multiple sites of metastasis. A new biopsy, this time on liver nodules, was carried out and the diagnosis of HCC was finally made. Samples from the first biopsy were then reviewed and judged consistent with HCC metastasis. Unfortunately, the initial misdiagnosis resulted in a six-month delay of the start of a therapeutic approach. During that time, patient's general conditions got extremely worse, making him unable to afford an antiblastic treatment. The patient died three months after the definitive diagnosis. This case suggests that the presence of intraorbital lesion requires a multimodal approach starting from the initial presentation. Performing a complete staging since tumor's clinical onset is mandatory, preferably before carrying out a tissue biopsy. Even though HCC represents a rare cause of intraocular metastasis, it needs to be ruled out when an orbital mass is documented, as the short median survival and the frequently poor conditions of HCC patients make a timely diagnosis crucial.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Orbitárias , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Neoplasias Orbitárias/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916915

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) represents the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide, with a poor prognosis in patients with advanced disease despite many improvements in systemic treatments in the last decade. In fact, GC has shown resistance to several treatment options, and thus, notable efforts have been focused on the research and identification of novel therapeutic targets in this setting. The tumor microenvironment (TME) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in several malignancies including GC, due to its pivotal role in cancer progression and drug resistance. Therefore, several agents and therapeutic strategies targeting the TME are currently under assessment in both preclinical and clinical studies. The present study provides an overview of available evidence of the inflammatory TME in GC, highlighting different types of tumor-associated cells and implications for future therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/imunologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia
7.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(5): 423-431, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising source of biological information in cancer. Data correlating PD-L1 expression in CTCs with patients' response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still lacking. METHODS: This is a prospective single-center cohort study enrolling patients with advanced NSCLC. CTCs were identified and counted with the CellSearch system. PD-L1 expression on CTCs was assessed with phycoerythrin-conjugated anti-human PD-L1 antibody, clone MIH3 (BioLegend, USA). Primary endpoint was the correlation between the CTCs PD-L1 expression and overall survival (OS). Among secondary objectives, we evaluated the correlation between PD-L1 expression on CTCs and matched tumor tissue and the correlation of CTC number and baseline tumor size (BTS). RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents as second- or third-line therapy were enrolled. Patients were divided into 3 groups: no CTC detectable (CTCnull, n = 15), PD-L1 positive CTC (CTCpos, n = 13), and PD-L1 negative CTC (CTCneg, n = 11). Median OS in patients with CTCneg was 2.2 months, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-3.6 (reference) versus 3.7 months, 95% CI, 0.1-7.5 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13-0.83; P = .019) in patients with CTCpos versus 16.0 months, 95% CI, 2.2-29.8 (HR 0.17; 95% CI, 0.06-0.45; P< .001) in patients with CTCnull. No correlation was found between PD-L1 expression on CTCs and on tumor tissue. CTC number was correlated with BTS. CONCLUSION: PD-L1 expression on CTCs is a promising biomarker in patients with NSCLC treated with ICIs. Further validation as predictive biomarker is needed.

8.
Eur J Radiol ; 138: 109617, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer treatments with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are associated with a unique set of drug toxicities called immune-related adverse events (irAES). The aim of the present study was to describe the radiological manifestation of irAES detectable by CT. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of 284 patients treated with ICI for various types of advanced cancer; of them, 129 patients were selected, all having been treated with single-agent ICI, and all with a baseline CT scan and follow-up scans available at our Institute. CT examinations were reviewed by two radiologists involved in the study with a consensus reading. Imaging findings consistent with irAES were reported and correlated with clinical-laboratory data. RESULTS: Immune-related adverse events were found in 25/129 (19.4 %) patients. No statistically significant differences were found in either the prevalence of irAES or in the time of onset of tumour type. Thoracic complications were detected in 14/25 (56.0 %) patients consisting in: 3 radiation recall pneumonia, 3 Transient Asymptomatic Pulmonary Opacities (TAPOs), 3 hypersensitivity pneumonia, 2 diffuse alveolar damage, 2 organizing pneumonia, 1 sarcoid-like reaction. In the remaining 11/25 (44.0 %), there were extra-pulmonary complications: 3 colitis, 4 cholecystitis, 2 pancreatitis and 2 cases of visceral ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: Radiologists should be aware of the wide spectrum of irAES as they could affect the outcome. Pneumonia is the most frequent irAES; however, the international classification for interstitial lung disease does not seem to be capable of describing all possible drug-related pulmonary toxicities. Additional findings included TAPOs, radiation recall pneumonia and sarcoid-like reaction.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Neoplasias , Pneumonia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Acta Radiol ; 62(10): 1283-1289, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap reconstruction is the gold standard reconstructive technique for women undergoing breast cancer surgery. A preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA)-dedicated protocol and 3D reconstructions are mandatory for correct surgical planning. PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new preoperative CTA protocol and a new reconstruction method in the assessment of DIEP technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 263 women (median age 49 years, age range 26-73 years) underwent preoperative CTA examination before DIEP flap breast reconstruction. A CTA-dedicated protocol followed by 3D-reconstructions were performed. Identification, branching pattern, and caliber at origin were assessed for each perforator. Intraoperative findings were the standard of reference. The sensitivity, positive predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of the preoperative CTA protocol were calculated. RESULTS: In 255/263 (97%) patients, the dominant perforators assessed by CTA resulted adequate for surgical reconstruction. In 260/263 (99%) cases, the imaging localization of the dominant perforators corresponded with those seen intraoperatively (mean errors ≤1 cm). The preoperative CTA imaging sensitivity, positive predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy in determining the localization of perforators were 99% (95% CI 98-100), 100% and 99% (95% CI 98-100), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the CTA findings and the surgical findings for the assessment of branching pattern and caliber of the dominant perforators (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The present protocol has demonstrated high accuracy in the CTA imaging assessment of the perforators before DIEP flap reconstruction with high reproducibility between CT and surgical findings.

10.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 25(9): 2268-2279, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge regarding biliary anatomy and its variations, including the cystic duct (CD), is important in the pre-surgical setting and for predicting biliary diseases. However, no large series has focused on CD evaluation using a quantitative analysis. The primary aim of this prospective study was to create a 'taxonomic' classification of CD anatomy in a large cohort of subjects who underwent magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The secondary aim was to evaluate the correlations between extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) variants and biliary diseases. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent MRCP for different clinical indications from January 2017 to May 2019. Demographical, anatomical and clinical data were evaluated using statistical analyses, as appropriate. The anatomical assessment of EHBD was performed using the standard classification for CD in low, medium, and high insertions, and the lengths of CD to the duodenal papilla (DP), and EHBD was determined to conduct a new quantitative analysis. RESULTS: The final study population comprised 1004 subjects. A new classification for EHBD as per the percentile distribution of the ratio CDDP/EHBD was designed, and the following categories were obtained: type 1 (below the 25th percentile) for CDDP/EHBD ratio ≤ 50%; type 2 (25th to 75th percentile) for CDDP/EHBD ratio 51-75% and type 3 (above the 75th percentiles) for CDDP/EHBD ratio > 75%. Type 1 of the new classification of CD implantation was significantly superior in terms of the detection of low, medial and intra-pancreatic CD that was significantly correlated with a high risk of choledochal lithiasis in comparison with the standard classification (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The new classification of CD implantation enables identification of the vast majority of intra-pancreatic CDs that are correlated with a high risk of choledochal lithiasis in a single category (type 1) that is easy to identify using imaging.

12.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(4): 377-388, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196344

RESUMO

Introduction: Sarcopenia is defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic liver disease.Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide a detailed report on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients, the several imaging methods available for the assessment of sarcopenia and the clinical studies evaluating the prognostic role of sarcopenia presence in cirrhotic patients.Expert opinion: Sarcopenia pathogenesis is complex and multifaceted, as chronic catabolic conditions, increased energy expenditure, reduced appetite, side effects of multiple therapies, alterations in circulating levels of hormones, low protein synthesis, presence of ascites or portosystemic shunts are all factors contributing to muscle atrophy in cirrhotic patients. Computed tomography scan is the most validated method to evaluate muscle mass and quality. Sarcopenia is associated with a higher rate waitlist mortality, hepatic encephalopathy, and lower quality of life in patients with liver cirrhosis. Future studies should make an effort to unify and validate liver disease-specific cutoffs for the definition of sarcopenia.

13.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 75: 9-20, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926993

RESUMO

Liver cirrhosis is a leading cause of death worldwide, with 1-year mortality rates of up to 57% in decompensated patients. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor in cirrhotic livers and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Annually, up to 8% of patients with cirrhosis develop HCC. The diagnosis of HCC rarely requires histological confirmation: in fact, according to the most recent guidelines, the imaging features of HCC are almost always sufficient for a certain diagnosis. Thus, the role of the radiologist is pivotal because the accurate detection and characterization of focal liver lesions in patients with cirrhosis are essential in improving clinical outcomes. Despite recent technical innovations in liver imaging, several issues remain for radiologists regarding the differentiation of HCC from other hepatic lesions, particularly benign lesions and pseudolesions. It is important to avoid misdiagnosis of benign liver lesions as HCC (false-positive cases) because this diagnostic misinterpretation may lead to ineligibility of a patient for potentially curative treatments or inappropriate assignment of high priority scores to patients on waiting lists for liver transplantation. This review presents a pocket guide that could be useful for the radiologist in the diagnosis of benign lesions and pseudolesions in cirrhotic livers, highlighting the imaging features that help in making the correct diagnosis of macroregenerative nodules; siderotic nodules; arterioportal shunts; hemangiomas, including fast-filling hemangiomas, hemangiomas with pseudowashout, and sclerosed hemangiomas; confluent fibrosis; pseudomasses in chronic portal vein thrombosis; and focal fatty changes.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920913801, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782484

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is considered an irreversible process, with crucial contribution of inflammation and immune cells. Impact of cancer immunotherapy on a partly immune-driven disease, such as atherosclerosis, is poorly understood, but preclinical models suggest its worsening on programmed death/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors. In a previously reported cohort of 11 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with nivolumab and pre-existing complicated atheromatous plaques, 3 patients had a dramatic radiologic reduction of aortic plaques while on nivolumab; of these 3, 2 died receiving no further treatment. The remaining patient was an 83-year-old woman with history of arterial hypertension and hypothyroidism who was diagnosed with locally advanced squamous NSCLC. At relapse, complicated aortic atheromatous plaques were demonstrated on scans. The patient was then treated with nivolumab obtaining stable disease at radiological assessment, which also demonstrated almost complete vanishing of aortic plaques. After relapse and interval treatment with chemotherapy, she experienced new development of aortic atheromatous plaques. At further relapse she received atezolizumab, which yielded disease response and new reduction in aortic plaques, until nearly complete resolution. The observation of a repeated improvement of atheromatous plaques on treatment with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors favors the protective role of T cells on atheromatous plaques that is impaired by PD-L1 expression by plaque-associated macrophages. Validation by independent and prospective observation is needed.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485933

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is a common cancer worldwide. Its incidence and mortality vary depending on geographic area, with the highest rates in Asian countries, particularly in China, Japan, and South Korea. Accurate imaging staging has become crucial for the application of various treatment strategies, especially for curative treatments in early stages. Unfortunately, most GCs are still diagnosed at an advanced stage, with the peritoneum (61-80%), distant lymph nodes (44-50%), and liver (26-38%) as the most common metastatic locations. Metastatic disease is limited to the peritoneum in 58% of cases; in nonperitoneal distant metastases, the most involved GC metastasization site is the liver (82%). The eighth edition of the tumor-node-metastasis staging system is the most commonly used system for determining GC prognosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and 18-fluorideoxyglucose positron emission tomography are historically the most accurate imaging techniques for GC staging. However, studies have recently shown renewed interest in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a useful tool in GC staging, especially for distant metastasis assessment. The technical improvement of diffusion-weighted imaging and the increasing use of hepatobiliary contrast agents have been shown to increase the diagnostic performance of MRI, particularly for detecting peritoneal and liver metastasis. However, no principal oncological guidelines have included the use of MRI as a first-line technique for distant metastasis evaluation during the GC staging process, such as the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines. This review analyzed the role of the principal imaging techniques in GC diagnosis and staging, focusing on the potential role of MRI, especially for assessing peritoneal and liver metastases.

16.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(7): 1241-1250, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (PACC) is a rare type of malignant pancreatic cancer that represents approximately 1% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Due to its very low incidence, only a few retrospective studies are available. Although surgery is the first choice for treatment, most patients experience recurrence (mainly in the liver) and there are no clear recommendations for patients with advanced disease. CASE SUMMARY: We report two patients with PACC treated with surgery who experienced tumour recurrence in the liver. Patient 1 carried a germline mutation in the APC gene. Both patients were treated with gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin and gemcitabine plus capecitabine as first- and second-line therapies, respectively. After a favourable response to chemotherapy, the patients underwent radiofrequency ablation of the remaining liver metastases. For patient 1, we documented a relapse in the liver after a disease-free period of 9 mo, and treatment with gemcitabine plus capecitabine was restarted. The patient achieved a complete response, and he remains alive without evidence of disease recurrence after six years. After radiofrequency ablation, patient 2 experienced disease-free survival for 21 mo, when peritoneal relapse was diagnosed and treated with chemotherapy. The patient achieved a stable disease state for nearly two years; nevertheless, further progressive disease was documented, and he died seven years after the first relapse. CONCLUSION: PACC presents different biological behaviours than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Multidisciplinary treatment involving local ablative therapies may be considered for PACC.

17.
Br J Cancer ; 123(1): 26-32, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite sensitivity to first-line chemotherapy, most small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients relapse. In this setting, topotecan demonstrated modest activity with significant toxicity. Paclitaxel was also active. This study was designed to evaluate activity and safety of nab-paclitaxel in relapsed SCLC. METHODS: In this multicentre prospective Phase 2 trial, patients with refractory or sensitive SCLC progressed to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy received nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/smq on days 1, 8, 15 every 4 weeks up to six cycles, progressive disease or intolerable toxicity. Primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective tumour response. Secondary endpoints were toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of the 68 patients treated, partial response was 8% in the refractory cohort and 14% in the sensitive cohort. Most common toxicities of any grade were fatigue (54%), anaemia (38%), neutropenia (29%), leukopenia (26%) and diarrhoea (21%). Median PFS was similar in both refractory (1.8 months) and sensitive cohorts (1.9 months), while median OS was longer in sensitive one (6.6 versus 3.6 months). CONCLUSIONS: Although nab-paclitaxel has shown some modest anti-tumour activity in relapsed SCLC, associated with a favourable toxicity profile, the primary end-point of the study was not met. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial registration number is ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03219762.


Assuntos
Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936319

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 18-fluorideoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) are historically the most accurate imaging techniques for diagnosing liver metastases. Recently, the combination of diffusion-weighted imaging and hepatospecific contrast media, such as gadoxetic acid in MRI, have been demonstrated to have the highest diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for detecting liver metastases. Various recent meta-analyses have confirmed the diagnostic superiority of this combination (diffusion-weighted imaging and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI), especially in terms of per lesion sensitivity, as compared with CT and 18FDG-PET, even for smaller lesions (≤1 cm). However, none of the oncological guidelines have suggested the use of MRI as a first-line technique for liver metastasis detection during the staging process of oncological patients. This review analyzes the history of the principal imaging techniques for the diagnosis of liver metastases, in particular of colorectal liver metastases, focusing on the most accurate method (diffusion-weighted imaging combined with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI), possible reasons for the lack of its diffusion in the guidelines, and possible future scenarios.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14749, 2019 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611584

RESUMO

Many advances have been made in the imaging diagnosis and in the histopathological evaluation of HCC. However, the classic imaging and histopathological features of HCC are still inadequate to define patient's prognosis. We aimed to find the link between new proposed morphovascular patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features to identify pre-operatory markers of biologically aggressive HCC. Thirty-nine liver nodules in 22 patients were consecutively identified. Histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry for CD34 and Nestin were performed to identify the four different HCC morphovascular patterns. MRI was performed using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Three out of four morphovascular HCC patterns showed peculiar MRI features: in particular Pattern D (solid aggressive HCCs with CD34+/Nestin+ new-formed arteries) were isointense on T1-WI in 83% of cases and hyperintense on T2-WI in 50%. Five histologically-diagnosed HCC were diagnosed as non-malignant nodules on MRI due to their early vascularization and low aggressiveness (Pattern A). The comparison between histology and MRI confirms that a subclassification of HCC is possible in a pre-operatory setting. MRI seems to reinforce once more the identity of the different morphovascular HCC patterns and the possibility to pre-operatively identify HCCs with features of biological aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD34/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/irrigação sanguínea , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/classificação , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Hepáticas/classificação , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nestina/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia
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