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1.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.

3.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0160174, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27463681

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer is typically an aggressive and difficult to treat subtype. It is often associated with loss of function of the BRCA1 gene, either through mutation, loss of heterozygosity or methylation. This study aimed to measure methylation of the BRCA1 gene promoter at individual CpG sites in blood, tumour and normal breast tissue, to assess whether levels were correlated between different tissues, and with triple negative receptor status, histopathological scoring for BRCA-like features and BRCA1 protein expression. Blood DNA methylation levels were significantly correlated with tumour methylation at 9 of 11 CpG sites examined (p<0.0007). The levels of tumour DNA methylation were significantly higher in triple negative tumours, and in tumours with high BRCA-like histopathological scores (10 of 11 CpG sites; p<0.01 and p<0.007 respectively). Similar results were observed in blood DNA (6 of 11 CpG sites; p<0.03 and 7 of 11 CpG sites; p<0.02 respectively). This study provides insight into the pattern of CpG methylation across the BRCA1 promoter, and supports previous studies suggesting that tumours with BRCA1 promoter methylation have similar features to those with BRCA1 mutations, and therefore may be suitable for the same targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ilhas de CpG , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/sangue , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
4.
Cancer Res ; 76(7): 1916-25, 2016 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26795348

RESUMO

The findings from genome-wide association studies hold enormous potential for novel insight into disease mechanisms. A major challenge in the field is to map these low-risk association signals to their underlying functional sequence variants (FSV). Simple sequence study designs are insufficient, as the vast numbers of statistically comparable variants and a limited knowledge of noncoding regulatory elements complicate prioritization. Furthermore, large sample sizes are typically required for adequate power to identify the initial association signals. One important question is whether similar sample sizes need to be sequenced to identify the FSVs. Here, we present a proof-of-principle example of an extreme discordant design to map FSVs within the 2q33 low-risk breast cancer locus. Our approach employed DNA sequencing of a small number of discordant haplotypes to efficiently identify candidate FSVs. Our results were consistent with those from a 2,000-fold larger, traditional imputation-based fine-mapping study. To prioritize further, we used expression-quantitative trait locus analysis of RNA sequencing from breast tissues, gene regulation annotations from the ENCODE consortium, and functional assays for differential enhancer activities. Notably, we implicate three regulatory variants at 2q33 that target CASP8 (rs3769823, rs3769821 in CASP8, and rs10197246 in ALS2CR12) as functionally relevant. We conclude that nested discordant haplotype sequencing is a promising approach to aid mapping of low-risk association loci. The ability to include more efficient sequencing designs into mapping efforts presents an opportunity for the field to capitalize on the potential of association loci and accelerate translation of association signals to their underlying FSVs. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1916-25. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
5.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 1(1): 18-32, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27499890

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk factors and clinical outcomes vary by tumour marker expression. However, individual studies often lack the power required to assess these relationships, and large-scale analyses are limited by the need for high throughput, standardized scoring methods. To address these limitations, we assessed whether automated image analysis of immunohistochemically stained tissue microarrays can permit rapid, standardized scoring of tumour markers from multiple studies. Tissue microarray sections prepared in nine studies containing 20 263 cores from 8267 breast cancers stained for two nuclear (oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor), two membranous (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor) and one cytoplasmic (cytokeratin 5/6) marker were scanned as digital images. Automated algorithms were used to score markers in tumour cells using the Ariol system. We compared automated scores against visual reads, and their associations with breast cancer survival. Approximately 65-70% of tissue microarray cores were satisfactory for scoring. Among satisfactory cores, agreement between dichotomous automated and visual scores was highest for oestrogen receptor (Kappa = 0.76), followed by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Kappa = 0.69) and progesterone receptor (Kappa = 0.67). Automated quantitative scores for these markers were associated with hazard ratios for breast cancer mortality in a dose-response manner. Considering visual scores of epidermal growth factor receptor or cytokeratin 5/6 as the reference, automated scoring achieved excellent negative predictive value (96-98%), but yielded many false positives (positive predictive value = 30-32%). For all markers, we observed substantial heterogeneity in automated scoring performance across tissue microarrays. Automated analysis is a potentially useful tool for large-scale, quantitative scoring of immunohistochemically stained tissue microarrays available in consortia. However, continued optimization, rigorous marker-specific quality control measures and standardization of tissue microarray designs, staining and scoring protocols is needed to enhance results.

6.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e68578, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23844225

RESUMO

DNA damage and replication checkpoints mediated by the ATR-CHEK1 pathway are key to the maintenance of genome stability, and both ATR and CHEK1 have been proposed as potential breast cancer susceptibility genes. Many novel variants recently identified by the large resequencing projects have not yet been thoroughly tested in genome-wide association studies for breast cancer susceptibility. We therefore used a tagging SNP (tagSNP) approach based on recent SNP data available from the 1000 genomes projects, to investigate the roles of ATR and CHEK1 in breast cancer risk and survival. ATR and CHEK1 tagSNPs were genotyped in the Sheffield Breast Cancer Study (SBCS; 1011 cases and 1024 controls) using Illumina GoldenGate assays. Untyped SNPs were imputed using IMPUTE2, and associations between genotype and breast cancer risk and survival were evaluated using logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models respectively on a per allele basis. Significant associations were further examined in a meta-analysis of published data or confirmed in the Utah Breast Cancer Study (UBCS). The most significant associations for breast cancer risk in SBCS came from rs6805118 in ATR (p=7.6 x 10(-5)) and rs2155388 in CHEK1 (p=3.1 x 10(-6)), but neither remained significant after meta-analysis with other studies. However, meta-analysis of published data revealed a weak association between the ATR SNP rs1802904 (minor allele frequency is 12%) and breast cancer risk, with a summary odds ratio (confidence interval) of 0.90 (0.83-0.98) [p=0.0185] for the minor allele. Further replication of this SNP in larger studies is warranted since it is located in the target region of 2 microRNAs. No evidence of any survival effects of ATR or CHEK1 SNPs were identified. We conclude that common alleles of ATR and CHEK1 are not implicated in breast cancer risk or survival, but we cannot exclude effects of rare alleles and of common alleles with very small effect sizes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Risco
7.
Springerplus ; 1: 38, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23961365

RESUMO

The B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene family encodes pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins that are critical regulators of programmed cell death. Higher levels of BCL2 expression in breast tumours have been shown to be an independent prognostic factor for improved survival from breast cancer. The promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2279115 has been associated with both BCL2 expression and patient survival. The aim of this study was to attempt to replicate these observations in a cohort of 1015 UK women with breast cancer, and to compare genotype frequencies in cases and controls. In this study, 1015 breast cancer cases and 1034 control subjects were genotyped for the rs2279115 SNP by 5' nuclease PCR. Paraffin embedded tumour tissue for 342 case subjects was assembled into tissue microarrays, and the level of expression of BCL2 was established by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan Meier survival curves and Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to examine the effect of genotype on patient survival. The effect of SNP genotype on tumour BCL2 protein levels and breast cancer susceptibility was assessed by logistic regression. In this study higher BCL2 expression was significantly associated with improved survival from breast cancer (p = 0.015), in keeping with previous reports. The SNP rs2279115 was not found to be associated with tumour expression of BCL2, (p = 0.77), and neither was it associated with case/control status (p = 0.25). There was no significant association between the SNP and overall survival (p = 0.75). In conclusion, we found that higher tumour BCL2 expression is associated with improved survival from breast cancer, in keeping with previous studies. However, in contrast to a previous report, the promoter SNP rs2279115 was not associated with BCL2 expression or overall survival from breast cancer.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 20(10): 2222-31, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21795498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: Data were combined from 37 studies, including 40,972 invasive cases, 1,398 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 46,334 controls, all of white European ancestry, as well as 3,007 invasive cases and 2,337 controls of Asian ancestry. Associations overall and by tumor invasiveness and histopathology were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: For white Europeans, the per-allele OR associated with 5p12-rs10941679 was 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08-1.14, P = 7 × 10(-18)) for invasive breast cancer and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.21, P = 0.03) for DCIS. For Asian women, the estimated OR for invasive disease was similar (OR = 1.07, 95%CI = 0.99-1.15, P = 0.09). Further analyses suggested that the association in white Europeans was largely limited to progesterone receptor (PR)-positive disease (per-allele OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.12-1.20, P = 1 × 10(-18) vs. OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.99-1.07, P = 0.2 for PR-negative disease; P(heterogeneity) = 2 × 10(-7)); heterogeneity by ER status was not observed (P = 0.2) once PR status was accounted for. The association was also stronger for lower grade tumors [per-allele OR (95% CI) = 1.20 (1.14-1.25), 1.13 (1.09-1.16), and 1.04 (0.99-1.08) for grade 1, 2, and 3/4, respectively; P(trend) = 5 × 10(-7)]. CONCLUSION: 5p12 is a breast cancer susceptibility locus for PR-positive, lower grade breast cancer. IMPACT: Multicenter fine-mapping studies of this region are needed as a first step to identifying the causal variant or variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 102(9): 650-62, 2010 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20308648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional prognostic factors for survival and treatment response of patients with breast cancer do not fully account for observed survival variation. We used available genotype data from a previously conducted two-stage, breast cancer susceptibility genome-wide association study (ie, Studies of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity [SEARCH]) to investigate associations between variation in germline DNA and overall survival. METHODS: We evaluated possible associations between overall survival after a breast cancer diagnosis and 10 621 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from up to 3761 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 647 deaths and 26 978 person-years at risk) that were genotyped previously in the SEARCH study with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (ie, hypothesis-generating set). Associations with all-cause mortality were assessed for each SNP by use of Cox regression analysis, generating a per rare allele hazard ratio (HR). To validate putative associations, we used patient genotype information that had been obtained with 5' nuclease assay or mass spectrometry and overall survival information for up to 14 096 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 2303 deaths and 70 019 person-years at risk) from 15 international case-control studies (ie, validation set). Fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to generate an overall effect estimate in the validation dataset and in combined SEARCH and validation datasets. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: In the hypothesis-generating dataset, SNP rs4778137 (C>G) of the OCA2 gene at 15q13.1 was statistically significantly associated with overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors, with the rare G allele being associated with increased overall survival (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41 to 0.75, P = 9.2 x 10(-5)). This association was also observed in the validation dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.99, P = .03) and in the combined dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.92, P = 5 x 10(-4)). CONCLUSION: The rare G allele of the OCA2 polymorphism, rs4778137, may be associated with improved overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Ann Bot ; 93(3): 303-10, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14749254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Native horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase, HRP (EC 1.11.1.7), isoenzyme C is synthesized with N-terminal and C-terminal peptide extensions, believed to be associated with protein targeting. This study aimed to explore the specific functions of these extensions, and to generate transgenic plants with expression patterns suitable for exploring the role of peroxidase in plant development and defence. METHODS: Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plants expressing different versions of a synthetic horseradish peroxidase, HRP, isoenzyme C gene were constructed. The gene was engineered to include additional sequences coding for either the natural N-terminal or the C-terminal extension or both. These constructs were placed under the control of a constitutive promoter (CaMV-35S) or the tobacco RUBISCO-SSU light inducible promoter (SSU) and introduced into tobacco using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. To study the effects of the N- and C-terminal extensions, the localization of recombinant peroxidase was determined using biochemical and molecular techniques. KEY RESULTS: Transgenic tobacco plants can exhibit a ten-fold increase in peroxidase activity compared with wild-type tobacco levels, and the majority of this activity is located in the symplast. The N-terminal extension is essential for the production of high levels of recombinant protein, while the C-terminal extension has little effect. Differences in levels of enzyme activity and recombinant protein are reflected in transcript levels. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence to support either preferential secretion or vacuolar targeting of recombinant peroxidase in this heterologous expression system. This leads us to question the postulated targeting roles of these peptide extensions. The N-terminal extension is essential for high level expression and appears to influence transcript stability or translational efficiency. Plants have been generated with greatly elevated cytosolic peroxidase activity, and smaller increases in apoplastic activity. These will be valuable for exploring the role of these enzymes in stress amelioration and plant development.


Assuntos
Armoracia/enzimologia , Peroxidase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Armoracia/genética , Northern Blotting , Western Blotting , Fracionamento Celular/métodos , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares , Tabaco/enzimologia
11.
Hum Pathol ; 34(6): 580-8, 2003 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12827612

RESUMO

It is unclear whether and how cyclin D1 and/or p21(WAF1/CIP1) dysregulation contribute to ulcerative colitis (UC)-related inflammation and colorectal carcinogenesis. Cases of quiescent UC (QUC; n = 15), active UC (AUC; n = 23), UC-related dysplasia (n = 35) and UC-related colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRCs; n = 11) were studied with cyclin D1 and p21(WAF1/CIP1) immunohistochemistry. The CRCs were also studied with beta-catenin, bcl2, and p53 immunohistochemistry, p53 and k-ras mutation analyses, and cyclin D1 gene fluorescence in situ hybridization. QUC showed cyclin D1 (negative/weak staining) and p21(WAF1/CIP1) (surface epithelial and upper-third crypt staining) expression similar to that of normal colorectum. Moderate or strong cyclin D1 immunostaining was seen in 9% of AUC cases, 40% of dysplasia cases, and 36% of UC-related CRCs. Although these carcinomas showed neither cyclin D1 gene amplification nor any association between k-ras mutation and cyclin D1 overexpression, the latter was closely related to nuclear beta-catenin expression. Increased lower-third crypt p21(WAF1/CIP1) staining was seen in 57% of AUC cases; decreased upper-third crypt p21(WAF1/CIP1) staining, in 23% of dysplasia cases; and absent or weak p21(WAF1/CIP1) staining, in 55% of UC-related CRCs. The latter change was always associated with p53 mutation but could not be related to p53 or bcl2 expression. In conclusion, AUC shows up-regulated cyclin D1 and p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression. Cyclin D1 up-regulation and p21(WAF1/CIP1) down-regulation occur early in UC-related carcinogenesis. Cyclin D1 up-regulation is less common in UC-related CRCs than in sporadic CRCs, and is related to beta-catenin nuclear signaling. p21(WAF1/CIP1) down-regulation is seen at an equal or higher frequency among UC-related CRCs compared with sporadic CRCs and is attributable to p53 mutation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Ciclinas/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Divisão Celular , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21 , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mutação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
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