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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724948

RESUMO

Advanced systemic mastocytosis (AdvSM) is characterized by presence of the KIT D816V and other somatic mutations (e.g. in SRSF2, ASXL1, RUNX1) in 95% and 60-70% of patients, respectively. The biologic and clinical consequences of AdvSM include multilineage involvement (e.g. associated hematologic neoplasm, AHN) in 60-80% of patients, variable infiltration and damage (C-findings) of predominantly bone marrow (BM) and visceral organs through affected mast cell (MC) and non-MC (AHN) lineages, and elevated levels of serum tryptase. Recently, the treatment landscape has substantially changed with the introduction of the multikinase/KIT inhibitor midostaurin and the specific KIT D816V inhibitor avapritinib. In this review, we discuss the evolution of AdvSM response criteria that have been developed in order to better capture clinical benefit (e.g. improved responses, progression-free and overall survival). We propose refined response criteria from European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM) and American Initiative in Mast Cell Diseases (AIM) investigators which utilizes a tiered approach to segregate the effects of histopathologic (e.g., BM MC burden, tryptase), molecular (e.g. KIT D816V variant allele frequency), clinical (e.g. C-findings), and symptom response on long-term outcomes. These response criteria require evaluation in future prospective clinical trials of selective KIT inhibitors and other novel agents.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724949

RESUMO

Pathology plays a central role in the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis (SM), its delineation from other neoplasms and reactive conditions, and in monitoring of SM under therapy. The morphologic hallmark of SM is the accumulation of spindle-shaped, hypogranulated mast cells (MCs) in bone marrow (BM) and other extracutaneous tissues. Four out of the five WHO-defined diagnostic criteria (i.e., compact MC aggregates (=major criterion); atypical MC morphology; activating KIT point mutations; aberrant expression of CD25 and/or CD2 and/or CD30 in MCs (=minor criteria) can be addressed by the pathologist. The final classification of SM variants as either bone marrow mastocytosis (BMM), indolent SM (ISM), smoldering SM (SSM), aggressive SM (ASM), SM with an associated hematologic neoplasm (SM-AHN), or mast cell leukemia (MCL) has important prognostic significance and requires the integration of certain morphological, clinical, radiological, and biochemical data, referred to as B-, and C-findings. Substantial diagnostic challenges may be posed to the pathologist and clinician especially in the so-called advanced SM variants, i.e., ASM, MCL, and SM-AHN. In this article, updated recommendations of the EU-US Cooperative Group regarding standards of pathology in the diagnosis of SM, presented during the Year 2020 Working Conference held in September in Vienna, are reported.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724950

RESUMO

Indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) has a favorable prognosis and normal life expectancy. However, many patients suffer from mast cell (MC) mediator-related symptoms, which significantly affect quality of life (QoL). Cutaneous, gastrointestinal and neurological complaints, musculoskeletal pain as well as the presence of skin lesions, anaphylaxis and osteoporosis are the main symptoms and signs in ISM and must be assessed in all patients before and during treatment. Validated mastocytosis-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) should be used for this purpose. Serum tryptase and KIT D816V allele burden are recommended as secondary outcome parameters, noting that they do not reflect the severity of signs, symptoms and related QoL impairment, but indirectly express MC burden. Change from baseline of 90%, 60% and 30% indicate complete response (CR) >90%, major response (MR) 60-90%, partial response (PR) 30-60% and no response (NR) <30% to treatment. To conclude, we recommend the use of PROMs as primary outcome parameters to define treatment response in patients with ISM in clinical trials and in everyday clinical practice.

5.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671007

RESUMO

AIMS: Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) to antibiotics are common and a substantial issue in managing patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical features as well as risk factors of DHR to antibiotics in CF. METHOD: A 20-year retrospective study was conducted among 226 CF patients (100 children and 126 adults) attending our centre. The Swedish Registry for Cystic Fibrosis and electronic medical records enabled us to ascertain the number and routes of antibiotic courses. All suspected DHR were evaluated. RESULTS: The patients had a total of 16 910 antibiotic courses, of which 6832 (40%) were intravenously administered. Of 226 enrolled CF patients, 70 (31%) developed overall 131 DHR to antibiotics. The prevalence of DHR increased with advancing age (P < .001). Beta-lactams elicited 71% of all DHR and piperacillin was the most common single culprit (30% of intravenous and 24% of all DHR). Reactions were mild to moderate and mostly limited to skin; no severe cutaneous adverse reactions were observed. Additionally, anaphylaxis was rare, constituting 2.3% (3/131) of all DHR. Patients with DHR were exposed to significantly more courses of antibiotics than those without DHR (median 124 vs. 46, retrospectively, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: DHR to antibiotics, particularly to beta-lactams, are increased in CF patients, and associated with a higher number of cumulative exposures because of recurrent infections. However, severe cutaneous or systemic DHR, such as anaphylaxis, appear to be rare.

7.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-13, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605594

RESUMO

Mast cell activation syndromes (MCASs) are defined by systemic severe and recurrent mast cell activation, usually in form of anaphylaxis, a substantial, event-related increase of the serum tryptase level beyond the individual's baseline and a response of the symptomatology to drugs directed against mast cells, mast cell-derived mediators, or mediator effects. A number of predisposing genetic conditions, underlying allergic and other hypersensitivity states, and related comorbidities can contribute to the clinical manifestation of MCASs. These conditions include hereditary alpha tryptasemia, mastocytosis with an expansion of clonal KIT-mutated mast cells, atopic diathesis, and overt IgE-dependent and IgE-independent allergies. Several of these conditions have overlapping definitions and diagnostic criteria and may also develop concomitantly in the same patient. However, although criteria and clinical features overlap, each of these conditions is characterized by a unique constellation of variables and diagnostic criteria. Since two, three, or more conditions can coexist in the same patient, with obvious clinical implications, it is of crucial importance to diagnose the variant of MCAS precisely and to take all accompanying, underlying and potentially complicating conditions, and comorbidities into account when establishing the management plan. Indeed, most of these patients require multidisciplinary investigations and only a personalized treatment approach can lead to an optimal management plan providing an optimal quality of life and low risk of anaphylaxis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623575

RESUMO

Mast cell activation (MCA) is common and occurs in a number of pathologic conditions, including IgE-dependent and independent allergic reactions, atopic disorders, autoimmune processes, and mastocytosis. In a subset of patients, no underlying disease and no known trigger of MCA are found. When the symptoms are severe, systemic, and recurrent, and accompanied by a diagnostic increase in the serum tryptase level or other mast cell mediators, an MCA syndrome (MCAS) may be diagnosed. In these patients, the symptoms typically respond to drugs suppressing MCA, mediator production in mast cells, or mediator effects. In each case, diagnostic consensus criteria must be fulfilled to diagnose MCAS. In other patients, MCA may be local, less severe, or less acute, or may be suspected but not confirmed, so that the diagnostic criteria of MCAS are not fulfilled. In these patients, it may be difficult to prove MCA, for example, by measuring multiple mast cell mediators or basophil activation, the latter as a surrogate of IgE-dependent hypersensitivity. However, validated diagnostic criteria for implicating suspected MCA behind such conditions are lacking, even if some of these conditions have recently been assigned to an International Classification of Diseases-10-Clinical Modification code (ICD-10-CM). In this article, we discuss diagnostic features and criteria and propose a ICD-10-CM-adjusted classification for disorders associated with MCA, herein referred to as MCA disorders (MCADs), with special emphasis on the delineation between confirmed MCAS, MCAD not fulfilling MCAS criteria, and suspected MCAD that is not present. In addition, we discuss the discrimination between overt MCAD and predisposing conditions, such as atopic states, mastocytosis, and hereditary alpha tryptasemia.

9.
Front Allergy ; 3: 822554, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35386651

RESUMO

Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a cofactor-induced wheat allergy. Gluten proteins, especially ω5-gliadins, are known as major allergens, but partially hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWPs) also play a role. Our study investigated the link between the molecular composition of gluten or HWP and allergenicity. Saline extracts of gluten (G), gluten with reduced content of ω5-gliadins (G-ω5), slightly treated HWPs (sHWPs), and extensively treated HWPs (eHWPs) were prepared as allergen test solutions and their allergenicity assessed using the skin prick test and basophil activation test (BAT) on twelve patients with WDEIA and ten controls. Complementary sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed that non-gluten proteins, mainly α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), were predominant in the allergen test solutions of G, G-ω5, and sHWPs. Only eHWPs contained gliadins and glutenins as major fraction. All allergen test solutions induced significantly higher %CD63+ basophils/anti-FcεRI ratios in patients compared with controls. BAT using sHWPs yielded 100% sensitivity and 83% specificity at optimal cut-off and may be useful as another tool in WDEIA diagnosis. Our findings indicate that non-gluten proteins carrying yet unidentified allergenic epitopes appear to be relevant in WDEIA. Further research is needed to clarify the role of nutritional ATIs in WDEIA and identify specific mechanisms of immune activation.

10.
Allergy ; 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of food allergies is challenging, as combining information from specific IgE (sIgE)-sensitization pattern and skin prick tests (SPTs) with clinical history is necessary for a personalized management of allergic patients. The aim of this study was to compare two molecular tests, the ImmunoCAP ISAC (ISAC) and the Allergy Explorer, version 2 (ALEX2 ) in the context of pollen food syndrome (PFS) diagnosis in a real-life scenario, to assess the benefit of multiplex testing in PFS patients. METHODS: Diagnosis of food allergy was performed in 53 patients. Allergen-sIgE concentrations were measured with ISAC and ALEX2 . Results for sIgE were statistically compared with each other, with SPT results and with clinical presentation of the patients. RESULTS: Using ISAC as reference test for sIgE measurements, the average sensitivity of ALEX2 for PR-10 allergens was 83.2% and the average specificity 88.0%. If only low sIgE concentrations were included, the sensitivity was 60.8% and the specificity 91.1%. Apple and hazelnut sensitizations were confirmed in most patients by concordance of sIgE and SPT results. Significant correlations were shown between clinical symptoms and Mal d 1- and Gly m 4-sIgE levels measured by both tests and for Cor a 1-sIgE levels measured by ALEX2 . In eight patients, profilin related symptoms were supported by Hev b 8-sensitization. CONCLUSION: Multiplex testing is beneficial to understand patient-specific individual sensitization profiles and to providing personalized management recommendations. In the future, custom-designed test kits might enable reducing costs of multiplex testing for specific patient groups without compromising the diagnostic value.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1855-1865, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430191

RESUMO

Mast cell neoplasms are an emerging challenge in the fields of internal medicine, allergy, immunology, dermatology, laboratory medicine, and pathology. In this review, we discuss the current standards for the diagnosis and prognostication of mast cell neoplasms with special reference to clinically relevant germline and somatic gene variants. In patients with cutaneous mastocytosis or with indolent systemic mastocytosis (SM), various KIT-activating mutations act as key molecular drivers of the disease. In adults, KIT p.D816V is by far the most prevalent driver, whereas other KIT mutants are detected in nearly 40% of children. In advanced SM, including aggressive SM, SM with an associated hematological neoplasm, and mast cell leukemia, additional somatic mutations in other genes, such as SRSF2, JAK2, RUNX1, ASXL1, or RAS, may be detected. These drivers are more frequently detected in SM with an associated hematological neoplasm, particularly in male patients. Recently, hereditary alpha-tryptasemia has been identified as a genetic trait more prevalent in SM compared with healthy controls. Moreover, hereditary alpha-tryptasemia is more frequent in patients with SM with Hymenoptera venom allergy and severe mediator-related symptoms than in patients with SM without symptoms. On the basis of this knowledge, we propose a diagnostic algorithm in which genetic markers are applied together with clinical and histopathologic criteria to establish the diagnosis and prognosis in SM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Mastocitose Sistêmica , Adulto , Criança , Análise Citogenética , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Mastócitos/patologia , Mastocitose Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Mastocitose Sistêmica/genética , Mastocitose Sistêmica/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética
12.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 42(2): 391-401, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469625

RESUMO

Radiocontrast media (RCM) are common elicitors of immediate and nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions, manifesting predominantly as urticaria/anaphylaxis or exanthems, respectively. In the minority of patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to RCM allergy is demonstrated by positive skin tests. However, data show that assessment by an allergist/immunologist is beneficial for managing patients with previous immediate and nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions. For future RCM-enhanced examinations in patients with previous reactions, structurally different, skin test-negative preparations should be applied. The efficacy of this strategy is confirmed by drug provocation tests or exposures confirming or excluding RCM hypersensitivity and demonstrating tolerability of alternative RCM.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata , Urticária , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Anafilaxia/prevenção & controle , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/etiologia , Testes Cutâneos
13.
Allergy ; 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266570

RESUMO

The worldwide use of COVID-19 vaccines has shown that immediate allergic reactions to the ingredients are rare but should be clarified by means of an allergological work-up. This review aims to highlight the current state of knowledge and possible pathogenesis based on the literature published to date. In addition to recording a detailed history and performing skin tests, cellular tests (basophil activation or basophil histamine release test) by using the vaccines or modified compounds containing polyethylene glycol (PEG), rather than unmodified PEGs, have proven to be particularly helpful. Negative results with vaccines seem to indicate tolerance. Details of the performance of these cellular tests with different vaccines, PEGs of different molecular weights, other ingredients of the vaccines, as well as other PEGylated drugs, and the results in the context of COVID-19 vaccination of various working groups worldwide are summarized.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283331

RESUMO

Mastocytosis comprises rare heterogeneous diseases characterized by an increased accumulation of abnormal mast cells in various organs/tissues. The pathogenesis of mastocytosis is strongly linked to the presence of KIT-activating mutations. In systemic mastocytosis (SM), the most frequent mutation encountered is KIT p.D816V, whose presence constitutes one of the minor diagnostic criteria. Different techniques are used to search and quantify the KIT p.D816V mutant; however, allele-specific quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR are today the most sensitive. The analysis of the KIT p.D816V allele burden has undeniable interest for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic monitoring. The analysis of non-mast cell hematological compartments in SM is similarly important because KIT p.D816V multilineage involvement is associated with a worse prognosis. In addition, in advanced forms of SM, mutations in genes other than KIT are frequently identified and affect negatively disease outcome and response to therapy. Thus, combined quantitative and sensitive analysis of KIT mutations and next-generation sequencing of other recurrently involved myeloid genes make it possible to better characterize the extent of the affected cellular compartments and additional molecular aberrations, providing a more detailed overview of the complex mutational landscape of SM, in relation with the clinical heterogeneity of the disease. In this article, we report the latest recommendations of the EU-US Cooperative Group presented in September 2020 in Vienna during an international working conference, on the techniques we consider standard to detect and quantify the KIT p.D816V mutant in SM and additional myeloid mutations found in SM subtypes.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35342031

RESUMO

Mastocytosis is a myeloid neoplasm defined by expansion and focal accumulation of clonal mast cells (MCs) in one or more organs. The disease exhibits a complex pathology and may be complicated by MC activation, bone abnormalities, neurological problems, gastrointestinal symptoms, and/or hematologic progression. The World Health Organization divides mastocytosis into cutaneous forms, systemic mastocytosis (SM) and MC sarcoma. In most patients with SM, somatic mutations in KIT are detected. Patients with indolent SM have a normal to near-normal life expectancy, whereas patients with advanced SM, including aggressive SM and MC leukemia, have a poor prognosis. In those with advanced SM, multiple somatic mutations and an associated hematologic neoplasm may be detected. Mediator-related symptoms can occur in any type of mastocytosis. Symptoms may be mild, severe, or even life-threatening. In patients with severe acute symptoms, an MC activation syndrome may be diagnosed. In these patients, relevant comorbidities include IgE-dependent and IgE-independent allergies. Management of patients with SM is an emerging challenge in daily practice and requires in-depth knowledge and a multidisciplinary and personalized approach with selection of appropriate procedures and interventions. In this article, we review the current knowledge on SM and MC activation syndrome, with emphasis on multidisciplinary aspects in diagnosis and patient-specific management. In addition, we provide a user's guide for application of markers, algorithms, prognostic scores, and treatments for use in daily practice.

16.
Allergol Select ; 6: 33-41, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35141465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Europe, North America, and Australia, 5% to 10% of the population are now classified as penicillin (ß-lactam) allergic. Only ~ 10% of these questionable diagnoses, mostly made in childhood, can be confirmed by allergy diagnostics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of this review is to show causes and consequences as well as recommendations for dealing with the often questionable diagnosis of penicillin (ß-lactam) allergy (BLA). RESULTS: An incorrect BLA diagnosis may negatively impact antibiotic treatment needed in the future, by using a less effective antibiotic or using a broad-spectrum antibiotic, for example, further exacerbating the problem of increasing antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, there is growing pressure from antibiotic stewardship programs to critically challenge the BLA diagnosis. Conservatively, a suspected BLA is reviewed by an allergist using medical history, skin testing, laboratory testing, and provocation. This clarification is costly and is not remunerated in the German health care system; that is the reason why this testing is only offered in a few specialized clinics and practically not at all in general practice. In view of thousands of affected patients, additional strategies are needed to treat patients with a low risk of hypersensitivity reaction despite suspected allergy with a ß-lactam antibiotic. In recent years, various methods have been proposed to eliminate suspected allergy as promptly as possible and directly before necessary treatment with a ß-lactam antibiotic, including standardized history (also in the form of an algorithm), skin test with immediate reading after 15 minutes, or administration of a small test dose. Investigations of small case series and also multi-center studies to date have yielded promising results in terms of feasibility and safety. CONCLUSION: Of the large number of patients with (questionable) BLA, most have never been tested and - if antibiotic treatment becomes necessary - simply receive an alternative antibiotic. The diagnosis of BLA therefore requires new approaches besides classical allergy testing to critically question BLA.

17.
Allergy ; 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35112371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis, which is rare, has been reported after COVID-19 vaccination, but its management is not standardized. METHOD: Members of the European Network for Drug Allergy and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology interested in drug allergy participated in an online questionnaire on pre-vaccination screening and management of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines, and literature was analysed. RESULTS: No death due to anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines has been confirmed in scientific literature. Potential allergens, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polysorbate and tromethamine are excipients. The authors propose allergy evaluation of persons with the following histories: 1-anaphylaxis to injectable drug or vaccine containing PEG or derivatives; 2-anaphylaxis to oral/topical PEG containing products; 3-recurrent anaphylaxis of unknown cause; 4-suspected or confirmed allergy to any mRNA vaccine; and 5-confirmed allergy to PEG or derivatives. We recommend a prick-to-prick skin test with the left-over solution in the suspected vaccine vial to avoid waste. Prick test panel should include PEG 4000 or 3500, PEG 2000 and polysorbate 80. The value of in vitro test is arguable. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations will lead to a better knowledge of the management and mechanisms involved in anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines and enable more people with history of allergy to be vaccinated.

19.
Allergy ; 77(2): 357-377, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343358

RESUMO

Anaphylaxis is a clinical emergency which all healthcare professionals need to be able to recognize and manage. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Anaphylaxis multidisciplinary Task Force has updated the 2014 guideline. The guideline was developed using the AGREE II framework and the GRADE approach. The evidence was systematically reviewed and recommendations were created by weighing up benefits and harms. The guideline was peer-reviewed by external experts and reviewed in a public consultation. The use of clinical criteria to identify anaphylaxis is suggested with blood sampling for the later measurement of tryptase. The prompt use of intramuscular adrenaline as first-line management is recommended with the availability of adrenaline autoinjectors to patients in the community. Pharmacokinetic data should be provided for adrenaline autoinjector devices. Structured, comprehensive training for people at risk of anaphylaxis is recommended. Simulation training and visual prompts for healthcare professionals are suggested to improve the management of anaphylaxis. It is suggested that school policies reflect anaphylaxis guidelines. The evidence for the management of anaphylaxis remains mostly at a very low level. There is an urgent need to prioritize clinical trials with the potential to improve the management of patients at risk of anaphylaxis.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Anafilaxia/terapia , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Triptases
20.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 128(3): 314-318, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) are at increased risk of hypersensitivity reactions (HRs). Although Hymenoptera venoms are the predominant triggers, cases of contrast media-induced HR (CMIHR) have also been reported and prophylactic premedication is often performed. However, data from larger series are limited and differences between indolent and advanced SM have not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and severity of CMIHR in all subtypes of SM. METHODS: We analyzed 162 adult patients with SM (indolent systemic mastocytosis [ISM], n = 65; advanced systemic mastocytosis [advSM], n = 97). First, the cumulative incidence of CMIHR was retrospectively assessed in the patient's history. Second, at our institution, patients underwent 332 contrast media (CM)-enhanced imaging including 80 computed tomography (CT) scans with iodine-based contrast agent and 252 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent, and tolerance was assessed. RESULTS: Previous CMIHRs to CT (vomiting, n = 1, erythema, n = 1, cardiovascular shock, n = 1), and MRI (dyspnea, n = 1, cardiovascular shock, n = 1) had been reported by 4 out of 162 (2.5%) patients (ISM, n = 3; advSM, n = 1). In contrast, during or after 332 CM-enhanced CT or MRI examinations at our institution, no CMIHRs were reported. Premedication was solely given to 3 patients before CT scans, including 1 with previous CMIHR, who tolerated the imaging well. CONCLUSION: We conclude that: (1) there is a substantial discrepancy between the perception and prevalence of HRs to CM in SM; (2) reactions are scarce in ISM and even rarer in advSM; and (3) in SM patients without previous history of CM hypersensitivity, prophylactic premedication before CM-enhanced CT or MRI is dispensable.


Assuntos
Venenos de Artrópodes , Mastocitose Sistêmica , Mastocitose , Adulto , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
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