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1.
Scand J Pain ; 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150362

RESUMO

Background and aims Although literature concerning chronic pain patients indicates that cognitive behavioural variables, specifically acceptance and fear of movement/(re)injury, are related to life impact, the relative roles of these factors in relation to pain characteristics (e.g. intensity and spreading) and emotional distress are unclear. Moreover, how these variables affect rehabilitation outcomes in different subgroups is insufficiently understood. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate how pain, cognitive behavioural, and emotional distress variables intercorrelate and whether these variables can regress aspects of life impact and (2) to analyse whether these variables can be used to identify clinically meaningful subgroups at baseline and which subgroups benefit most from multimodal rehabilitation programs (MMRP) immediately after and at 12-month follow-up. Methods Pain aspects, background variables, psychological distress, cognitive behavioural variables, and two life impact variables were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP) for chronic pain patients. These data were analysed mainly using advanced multivariate methods. Results The study includes 22,406 chronic pain patients. Many variables, including acceptance variables, showed important contributions to the variation in clinical presentations and in life impacts. Based on the statistically important variables considering the clinical presentation, three clusters/subgroups of patients were identified at baseline; from the worst clinical situation to the relatively good situation. These clusters showed significant differences in outcomes after participating in MMRP; the subgroup with the worst situation at baseline showed the most significant improvements. Conclusions Pain intensity/severity, emotional distress, acceptance, and life impacts were important for the clinical presentation and were used to identify three clusters with marked differences at baseline (i.e. before MMRP). Life impacts showed complex relationships with acceptance, pain intensity/severity, and emotional distress. The most significant improvements after MMRP were seen in the subgroup with the lowest level of functioning before treatment, indicating that patients with complex problems should be offered MMRP. Implications This study emphasizes the need to adopt a biopsychosocial perspective when assessing patients with chronic pain. Patients with chronic pain referred to specialist clinics are not homogenous in their clinical presentation. Instead we identified three distinct subgroups of patients. The outcomes of MMRP appears to be related to the clinical presentation. Thus, patients with the most severe clinical presentation show the most prominent improvements. However, even though this group of patients improve they still after MMRP show a complex situation and there is thus a need for optimizing the content of MMRP for these patients. The subgroup of patients with a relatively good situation with respect to pain, psychological distress, coping and life impact only showed minor improvements after MMRP. Hence, there is a need to develop other complex interventions for them.

2.
J Pain Res ; 12: 891-908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881099

RESUMO

Background: Chronic pain patients frequently suffer from psychological symptoms. There is no consensus concerning the prevalence of severe anxiety and depressive symptoms and the strength of the associations between pain intensity and psychological distress. Although an important aspect of the clinical picture is understanding how the pain condition impacts life, little is known about the relative importance of pain and psychological symptoms for individual's life impact. The aims of this study were to identify subgroups of pain patients; to analyze if pain, psychological distress, and life impact variables influence subgrouping; and to investigate how patients in the subgroups benefit from treatments. Methods: Background variables, pain aspects (intensity/severity and spreading), psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms), and two life impact variables (pain interference and perceived life control) were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation for chronic pain patients and analyzed mainly using advanced multivariate methods. Results: Based on >35,000 patients, 35%-40% had severe anxiety or depressive symptoms. Severe psychological distress was associated with being born outside Europe (21%-24% vs 6%-8% in the category without psychological distress) and low education level (20.7%-20.8% vs 26%-27% in the category without psychological distress). Dose relationships existed between the two psychological distress variables and pain aspects, but the explained variances were generally low. Pain intensity/severity and the two psychological distress variables were significantly associated (R 2=0.40-0.48; P>0.001) with the two life impact variables (pain interference and life control). Two subgroups of patients were identified at baseline (subgroup 1: n=15,901-16,119; subgroup 2: n=20,690-20,981) and the subgroup with the worst situation regarding all variables participated less in an MMRP (51% vs 58%, P<0.001) but showed the largest improvements in outcomes. Conclusion: The results emphasize the need to assess both pain and psychological distress and not take for granted that pain involves high psychological stress in the individual case. Not all patients benefit from MMRP. A better matching between common clinical pictures and the content of MMRPs may help improve results. We only partly found support for treatment resistance in patients with psychological distress burden.

4.
J Rehabil Med ; 49(4): 354-361, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28352937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multimodal rehabilitation programmes (MMRP) for chronic pain could be improved by determining which patients do not benefit fully. General distress and pain-related fear may explain variations in the treatment effects of MMRP. DESIGN: Cohort study with a cross-sectional, prospective part. PATIENTS: Chronic musculoskeletal pain patients referred to 2 hospital-based pain rehabilitation clinics. METHODS: The cross-sectional part of this study cluster analyses patients (n = 1,218) with regard to distress and pain-related fear at first consultation in clinical pain rehabilitation and describes differences in external variables between clusters. The prospective part follows the subsample of patients (n = 260) participating in MMRP and describes outcome post-treatment. RESULTS: Four distinct subgroups were found: (i) those with low levels of distress and pain-related fear; (ii) those with high levels of pain-related fear; (iii) those with high levels of distress; and (iv) those with high levels of distress and pain-related fear. These subgroups showed differences in demogra-phics, pain characteristics, quality of life, and acceptance, as well as the degree of MMRP participation and MMRP outcome. CONCLUSION: Among patients with chronic pain referred to MMRP there are subgroups with different profiles of distress and pain-related fear, which are relevant to understanding the adaptation to pain and MMRP outcome. This knowledge may help us to select patients and tailor treatment for better results.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Dor Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manejo da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Clin J Pain ; 23(7): 598-604, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17710010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To correlate changes in vestibular pain thresholds to general pain thresholds in a subgroup of women with provoked vestibulodynia taking part in a treatment study. METHODS: Thirty-five women with provoked vestibulodynia were randomized to 4 months' treatment with either electromyographic biofeedback (n=17) or topical lidocaine (n=18). Vestibular and general pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were measured and the health survey Short Form-36 (SF-36) was filled out before treatment and at a 6-month follow-up. Subjective treatment outcome and bodily pain were analyzed. Thirty healthy women of the same age served as controls for general PPTs and SF-36. RESULTS: No differences in outcome measures were observed between the 2 treatments. Vestibular pain thresholds increased from median 30 g before to 70 g after treatment in the anterior vestibule (P<0.001) and from median 20 to 30 g in the posterior vestibule (P<0.001). PPTs on the leg and arm were lower in the patients as compared with controls both before and at the 6-month follow-up. Patients reporting total cure were 3/35; 25/35 were improved. The number of patients who frequently reported of other bodily pain was reduced after the treatment. The patients had lower scores for SF-36 (General Health, Vitality) before treatment, which was restored at the 6-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: Treating provoked vestibulodynia by either topical lidocaine or electromyographic biofeedback increased vestibular pain thresholds, reduced dyspareunia, and improved bodily pain. The patients showed a general hypersensitivity to pressure pain compared with controls and in this study the hypersensitivity did not seem to be affected by treating the superficial dyspareunia.


Assuntos
Hiperalgesia/diagnóstico , Hiperalgesia/terapia , Manejo da Dor , Limiar da Dor , Dor/diagnóstico , Vulvite/diagnóstico , Vulvite/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Pain ; 130(1-2): 31-9, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17169489

RESUMO

Provoked vestibulodynia is a common cause of superficial dyspareunia in young women. Recent evidence has pointed out the importance of studying endogenous pain modulation in these women. An impairment of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) has been suggested in chronic pain conditions with a female predominance such as fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorder. Our aim was to examine whether patients with provoked vestibulodynia and healthy women with or without combined oral contraceptives (COC) display a DNIC response to cold noxious stimulation. Twenty patients with provoked vestibulodynia not using COC, 20 healthy women on COC and 20 healthy women without COC were included and tested days 7-11 of their menstrual cycle. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and pain ratings using VAS were measured on the arm and leg before and during a cold pressor test. A socio-medical questionnaire, the Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale and the Short Form-36 were completed. The majority of the subjects in all three study groups significantly increased their PPTs during cold noxious stimulation indicating a DNIC response. The patients displayed lower PPTs compared to the healthy women. Depression, anxiety and bodily pain were more often reported by the patients. No differences related to the intake of COC were observed between the healthy women. In conclusion, women with provoked vestibulodynia as well as healthy women irrespective of COC status display a DNIC response indicating an endogenous pain inhibition. However, the results imply a systemic hypersensitivity in women with vestibulodynia with low general pain thresholds as compared to healthy women.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Doenças da Vulva/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Braço , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/administração & dosagem , Dispareunia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Nociceptores/fisiologia , Pressão
7.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 85(11): 1360-7, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17091418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of electromyographic biofeedback and topical lidocaine treatment for women with vulvar vestibulitis. METHODS: A prospective randomized study where 46 women with vulvar vestibulitis were randomized to receive either electromyographic biofeedback or topical lidocaine treatment for four months. Assessments with vulvar pressure pain thresholds and questionnaires regarding quality of life, psychosocial adjustments, and sexual functioning were made before treatment, after treatment, and at six- and 12-month follow-ups. Nonparametric statistical methods were used to analyze differences in outcomes. RESULTS: Nine women (9/46) dropped out during the treatment period. Both treatments showed significantly improved values for vestibular pressure pain thresholds, quality of life measurements, and sexual functioning at the 12-month follow-up. No differences were found between the two treatment groups. No severe side effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Four months' treatment with electromyographic biofeedback and topical lidocaine gave statistically significant improvements on vestibular pain measurements, sexual functioning, and psychosocial adjustments at the 12-month follow-up. No differences in outcome between the two treatments were observed but a larger sample may be needed to obtain significance. The treatments were well tolerated but the compliance to the electromyographic biofeedback training program was low. A combination of both treatments could potentially benefit many women with vulvar vestibulitis.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Eletromiografia , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Vulvite/terapia , Adaptação Psicológica , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Dispareunia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual , Ajustamento Social
8.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 64(6): 360-7, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17123913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is reported to increase in ischemic conditions and may thus be involved in chronic myalgia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric contraction on intramuscular levels of NPY in relation to local pain development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Intramuscular microdialysis was performed in the masseter and trapezius muscles to determine NPY levels before, during, and after isometric contraction in 16 healthy females. Pain intensity was assessed simultaneously with VAS. Repeated measures ANOVA, t-test, and Pearson correlation analysis were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The level of NPY in the trapezius muscle was increased during and after contraction, while there was no change in the masseter muscle. The level of NPY before contraction was higher in the masseter muscle than in the trapezius muscle, and the levels in the two muscles were correlated before and during contraction. Low-level pain in both muscles after probe insertion increased significantly during contraction, but the pain was not correlated to the NPY level. CONCLUSIONS: Pain is developed in the trapezius and masseter muscles during repeated isometric contraction. The NPY level is increased in the trapezius muscle but is not associated with the pain development.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Masseter/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Neuropeptídeo Y/análise , Dor/fisiopatologia , Força de Mordida , Feminino , Humanos , Músculo Masseter/metabolismo , Microdiálise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeo Y/sangue , Dor/metabolismo , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia
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